Skip to main content

Full text of "Pulp and paper magazine of Canada"

See other formats



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 

Pulp and Paper Magazine 


A Semi-Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Science and Practice of the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing 
Industry with an Up-to-date Review of Conditions in the Allied Trades. 

'p'f_:i 7 Published by, The Industrial and Educational Press, Limited 

// 24.'>-4-."). C(infc(lrnitii)n Life liuililin.i:, ((iurcii St. Eiiti-;iiicc), TurDiitu, Out., Telephone Main (ioTT. 

;M1!. Hoard of Trade F.idij.. Montreal, (^ue., Telephone Main 2m2. 

V.Kn-nu. A. (hhmmin McIntvi.'k, H.A.. It.Sc A<-^nr. Kninm, F. Pace Wii.sox 

Published on the 1st and 15th of each month. Changes in advertisements should be in publishers' hands one week before date ot 
issue. The editor cordially invites readers to submit articles of practical interest, which, on publication, will be paid for. 

SUBSCRIPTION to any address in Canada. $2.00.-Elsewhere $2..50 (10 Shillings.) Single copies, 20c. 



No. 1 


We now look on pulp and paper as one of Canada's natural industries, and expect our country soon 
to attract world-wide attention as the wood pulp coun- 
try of the world. It aflforded the editor untold pleasure 
in visiting the Canadian mills during the past two 
months, to note the strong tone of optimism for the 
future, and to find everyone connected with the indus- 
try, in all capacities, planning enlargements, improve- 
ments or new developments. It is this spirit which 
makes the industry so unique to-day. 

It is a real pleasure then, to sketch the advances 
made, during the last twelve months, in this most pro- 
gressive of Canadian manufacturing enterprises. 

The Province of Quebec has, perhaps, on account of 
its oft-heralded natural resen'es of power and raw ma- 
terial, been a leader, this, as in past years, the largest 
single development being the Price mill, described in 
an elaborate illu.strated article, on other pages of this 
issue. Just ten miles from this new mill the Chicoutirai 
Pulp Company have remodeled their No. 2 ground 
wood mill, increasing their total capacity to 300 tons 
daily. The bulk of their output is manufactured under 
long term contracts with Lloyds. In the other direction 
at the head of the Saguenay River, the Scott interests, 
of Roberval, have interested French and American 
capital, and will soon commence construction of a news 
mill at the Grand Discharge. This scheme has been 
mooted for some time, but. until very recently, found 
difficulties in financing. Directly south on the north 
shore of the St. Lawrence, the East Canada Pulp and 
Paper Company has started manufacturing ground 

wood on partial capacity. It ha.s suflt'ered recently in 
the trouble with the Forget interests, and is now in 
liquidation. We are sure this is not the fault of the 
pulp industry, but .simply emphasizes the fact that in- 
vestments, even in such promising fields as Canadian 
pulp and paper, should be carefully investigated. Mr. 
AVm. Whyte, formerly manager, has recently left to 
join the Ogilvie and Hansen interests at Iroquois Falls, 

Coming up the St. Lawrence, we find our newest 
undertaking, the Donnacona Paper Co. — a company of 
American capital, chiefly interests of the Gould and St. 
Regis Paper Companies. Already work has started on 
the buildings and dam, and contracts have been let for 
penstock, to Walsh's Boiler Works, Holyoke, Mass.; 
for five 1,200 horse power water wheels to the S. Morgan 
Smith Co. 

The mill site of sixty acres at Donnacona is on the 
C.N.R. and Jacques Cartier River, fifty miles from 
Quebec, and two and a half miles off the main line of 
the Transcontinental. 

They will install a 160-inch machine, with basement 
drive; four lines of grinders, three each, and 1 genera- 
tor. Wood will be brought in by rail and water from 
the limits on the Jacques Cartier River and Bale St. 
Paul. At present they have under option 200,000 miles 
of woodland which will augment their present 180,000 
square mile holdings, 20.000 of which is freehold. 
Present plans do not include a sulphite mill, which will 
follow at the time a second machine is added, bringing 
production up to 100 tons of print. 


January 1, 1913 

In the St. Maurice Valley a .strong stir has been felt 
all year in pulp and paper matters. At Three Rivers, 
the Wayaganiack Company have come on the market 
with 50 tons of kraft. Mr. Helin. of Norway, as techni- 
cal manager, has gathered around him a staff of his 
experienced coaintrymen, and hopes to make one of the 
best sheets in Canada. Already the company, through 
their energetic secretary, A. P. Cayford, better known 
in textile circles, has formed a ready market for their 
kraft, and hope to displace many grades of such lines 
as sulphite, bag and manilla. 

At Shawinigan Falls, the Belgo-Canadiau Company 
are continuing their policy of elaborate improvements 
under the efficient direction of Mr. Statler. Present 
work is confined to centralizing the beaters, changing 
the drives to one line shaft, adding another Babeock & 
Wilcox boiler, and new asli handling system. The 
ground wood mill is also imder process of reconstruc- 
tion, but sulphite, so often rumored in this connection, 
is at present shelved, till the plan gets on a more scien- 
tific basis. They are continuing to use sulphite from 
Grand Mere and Sweden. 

Farther up the river, at Laurentide, more than even 
the usual activity is noticed. A new additional digester 
is nearing completion, and the extensions to buildings 
are still under way. The new ground wood screen 
room, of Quiller horizontals, is working well, and the 
scheme of having all the stock troughs open on top 
keeps the attendants on watch to prevent ovei-flows 
and plugging. The small power recently purchased 
just above the mill is not to be developed, but is .simply 
a safeguard against legal troubles with the former 
owners. During the year, the company have closed 
their Detroit office, finding Toronto more central for 
their business. Mr. Crooker, formerly of the sales de- 
partment. Grand Mere, is in charge. Their head sales 
office haa also been removed to Montreal, where Mr. J. 
A. H. Acer is in charge, with his large stafl:' of 

Still farther up, the Quebec and St. Maurice Indus- 
trial Company are getting their new kraft mill, 
which, by the way. is the largest sulphate mill in the 
world, on an economical basis. They have only been 
i-unning two years, so are really in the construction 
period. Mr. Brown, the manager, is spending a lot of 
effort in making La Tuque a comfortable town for his 
men, and is succeeding, as is shown by the spirit of 
content and satisfaction, so evident. 

Coming nearer to IMontreal, we find Mr. Morrow at 
Valleyfield adding a third coating mnehine to the Na- 
tional Paper Co., ^vliile within a few mi'es at Beauhar- 
nois, the Howard Smith Paper Co., so favorably known 
as Montreal paper v.holesalers, are using the building 
of the old Dominion Woolen Co. for a new plant, in 
high grade, loft-dried paper.s. Mr. II. C. Courtney, 
formerly of the Toronto Paper Co., as general superin- 
tendent, is busy installing the machinery. 

In the opposite direction, marked activity is going on 
at the RoiUand Paper Co., who are completely rebuilding 
their St. Adele Mill, recently purchased. One new 87- 
inch machine with 20 dryers is being added to bring 
the new production up to 25 tons of the highest quali- 
ties of loft dried, tub sized papers. The building is 
already completed, and installation of machinery has 
commenced. A hydraulic development of 1,500 h.p. 
with S. Morgan Smith water wheels, is now finished, 
and is augmented to 2,000 h.p. by a steam installation. 
Mr. Geo. F. Hardy, New York, is the engineer, Mr. 
Henri Rolland the assistant manager at St. Jerome, and 
Mr. Oliver Rolland the chemist. The new mill will be 
in operation during March, and promises to be kept 
busy in their special lines, which have earned a well- 
deserved popularity. 

In the Ottawa Valley, the Riordon Pulp & Paper Co. 
have made most extensive enlargements to their sul- 
phite mill at Hawkesbury, increasing the production 
from 90 to 135 tons. Unauthorized rumors have it that 
the other plant at Merritton will be completely re- 
modeled as well. Their grade of high quality easy 
bleaching sulphite has been always in good demand, 
but in the continued activity of the market, pi-om- 
ises to give them trouble to meet the needs of their long- 
standing customers. Mr. Stevenson, the general sales 
manager, spends little time looking for new business, 
but is anxiously awaiting their increased production, 
which will come on the market in the course of a 
couple of months. 

In the centre of Ottawa itself, the E. B. Eddy Co. 
has under way the construction of a new ground wood 
mill. The old site is to be used entirely for power de- 
velopment, and will, with their new tail races and 
Allis-Chalmers-Bullock water wheels give a large in- 
crease in available power. Immediately adjoining the 
machine room on the northwest side a new concrete 
and steel ground wood mill has been erected, and work 
is progressing rapidly on the installation of grinders in 
four units of three each, direct connected to four 1,200 
h.p. motors. This will then be one of the finest ground 
wood mills we have. 

In the Booth mills, across the river, the board mill is 
receiving most attention. A third Marx double beater 
has been installed and is proving a thorough success. 
They make an improved grade of board, but low grade 
stock is also made available for new purposes. The 
paper mills have increased the speed of their machines 
during the year to between 550 and 600 feet, per min- 
ute, bringing up production materially. 

In this vicinity, too, the Bronson Co., Ltd., are now 
operating their new three-grinder mill, making ground 
wood from spruce cut on their extensive limitsin the 
upper Ottawa district. 

The Beaver Co.'s new .tCIO.OOO plant at Beaverdale, 
near Hull, is soon to make their o\\Ti board, which has 
formerly been made at Booth's. Mr. E. B. Stewart is 
local manager, and Geo. H. Mullen superintendent. 

Jnnuaiy 1, 1913 


The Bishopric "WMUhdnrd Co. are also opening a 
.$40,000 plant in Ottawa to manufacture their board as 
is made on the American side. 

The James McLaren Co., with their mills in Bucking- 
ham, are extending the present ground wood mill by 
some 1,200 h.p. and will increase i)re.seut production by 
over twenty tons. 

Farther west, in the Province of Ontario, activity is, 
perhaps, a little less widespread, but no less striking. 
In the St. Catharines district the largest individual new 
tonnage will be the Ontario Paper Co., Mr. Warren 
(/urtis, jr., president and manager, with an initial out- 
put of 100 tons, already under contract with the Chi- 
cago Tribune. Two 202-inch Pusey & Jones machines 
are now being installed, with one large mixing tank 
and one broke beater. Steam turbine drive will be used 
with cones and belts, and tighteners instead of clutches. 
Mr. Curtis' own design of grinder is being installed, 
with motor drive, the power being bought on very 
favorable terms, from the abundant local supply. A 
sulphite mill is not in the present programme, but will 
be added immediately, if the present market conditions 
prevail. The wood supply, pi-eviously announced in 
our columns, is being supplied under a two-year con- 
tract with Mr. Menier. the Chocolate King of Anticosti 
Island. He is at present doubling his fleet for supply- 
ing rossed wood to hi.s St. Lawrence and Lake con- 

An indeiieudent concern has recently been organized, 
to erect a sulphite mill in this district, which is proving 
exceptionally attractive, on account of the rate for 

In Thorold. the St. Lawrence Paper Mills Co.. Ltd., 
are trebling the capacity of the old Montrose Mill, by 
the addition of a new machine, which is now being in- 
stalled. To supply this extra power they are just com- 
pleting a handsome new power house adjoining the site 
of the Interlake Tissue Mills, which they also now con- 
trol. This mill has already installed the new Bertrani 
tissue machine and beaters, and will be on the market 
with paper very soon. Other paper mills in that dis- 
trict are sharing the usual prosperity, but the ground 
wood producers have felt the decline in the American 

Jumping to the north we find the plant of the Spanish 
River Paper Mills, Ltd., one of Canada's most spec- 
tacular paper stocks. The ground wood mill of the old 
Espanola plant has been remodeled, and production 
increased. Two print machines are now running full 
capacity, and the buildings are completed for the two 
112-inch remodeled machines purchased from the Kansas 
City Star. A magnificent new hotel graces the town 
and everything feels the stir of getting a big plant in 
operation. Sulphite is brought from the Sturgeon 
Falls plant, which is being completely rebuilt at large 
expense. Already one of the two paper machines is 
running on news and manilla, as well as half the sul- 
phite mill. As yet ground wood is being brought from 
Kspanoln. but contracts are now let for new equipment 

for the ground wood plant. The wood handling system 
is demanding attention just now. Mr. Slater, of 
whom we carry a sketch in this issue, is making his 
personality felt in paper circles. Mr. T. H. Watson, 
also so favorably known through his numerous paper 
connections, gives his main time, for the present, to 
these interests. 

At the "Soo," Canada's handsomest paper mill has 
chalked up a record year in expansion. The old mill, 
now completely rebuilt, presents the finest example of 
comi)act des'ign and is a most creditable piece of engi- 
neering. We announce with pleasure that through the 
courtesy of Mr. J. H. Jj. Jones, The Pulp and Paper 
Magazine will shortly carry an illustrated descriptive 
article of the new plant. At present two machines are 
turning out print, and shortly two new 184-inch ma- 
chines will augment the tonnage. 

The main points of interest in the plant ai'e their 
wood handling, wood room, and new vacuum ash hand- 
ling sy.stem. The Lake Superior Paper Company have 
become one of the majoi- units of the Lake Superior 
Corporation, so widely known in steel and railroad 

In the western end of the Province, the Minnesota 
and Ontario Power Co. at International Falls, Fort 
Frances, are adding two paper machines in addition 
to the 15-grinder ground wood mill to obviate the diffi- 
culties with the Canadian and Ontario Governments 
over pumping the .slush pulp across to the American 

The Dryden Timber & Power Co. are delayed in open- 
ing their new 40-ton sulphate and kraft mill, owing to 
a recent fire in connection with the new power develop- 
ment, which caused a loss of $100,000. 

Throughout the Middle West the year has recorded 
the initiation of the first paper enterprises. At Prince 
Albert, the new pulp and paper mill recently organized 
by H. G. Struehen, of Minneapolis, will commence con- 
struction at once. This vicinity offers exceptional op- 
portunities heretofore unrealized. Power costs $20 and 
.$25 per h.p. developed in the new $1,000,000 installation 
at La Colle Falls on the Saskatchewan River, and 
there is abundance of excellent timber. A straw board 
mill is also scheduled for Medicine Hat, Alta. 

In the Pacific Province, these matters have taken on 
a new interest and are rapidly becoming extremely 
active. With the present plants handicapped as they 
have been by varied considerations, capital being chief, 
the stir has been delayed. A new sulphite mill for the 
Island of Vancouver and plans for the rebuilding of a 
number of the present mills give the industry re- 
newed vigor. The eminent and instantaneous success 
of the Powell River Paper Company has contributed to 
this, more than anything. After many initial misfor- 
tunes this plant scored a win at once. The decision of 
the United States to alloAv paper made from their limits 
to enter free, has opened to them the remunerative 
Western market. So successful has this been that 
though only running a few months they have already 


Jamiarv 1. 1t)13 

placed ordors for two addilional 204-inc-h iiiacliiiies. to 
augment the ])i-esenl four, and may order two more 
very soon. Their phenomenal .success has been much 
commented on, and is attracting pulp and paper in- 
terests to investigate the pos.sibilities of British Col- 
umbia. It is well known that the Sitka spruce makes 
superior fibre, but otfers difficulties for ground wood 
iriauufacture which have been insui niouiitable in many 

In the Atlantic Provinces, development in this, as in 
other lines, has reflected the conserval ivc chai'acfer of 
indu.strial life there. Opportunities are in al>undance 
and exploitation is gradually recognizing the latent 
possibilities. In the Canadian winter port. St. .lohn, 
the Edward Partington Pulp & Paper Co. have in- 
creased the production of bleached sulphite from fi)rt>- 
to sixty tons, under the superintendence of ;\li'. -lones. 
who recently joined them. They are planning exten- 
sive enlargements, in the line of pulp and paper, but as 
yet have not finally decided the specific Utics the de- 
velopment W'ill follow. The Jlispec ;\Iill. itlentilied with 
Stetson-Cutler interests, but owned by the City of SI. 
•Iiihn, i-: undergoing modifications in owiiershi]) and 
will soon throw olf the dormant state and i-eiiew active 
production again. 

In the extreme north, the oidy large pi'oject is being 
<lesdgned for Sir Wni. Van TTorue, by Hardy S. Fergu- 
son, of New York. Sir William has siii-eeeded in 
amalgamating the ri\-al iutert^sts in .ind about, the 
Grand Falls power, and will launch a huge news mill 

there. Details of this are awaited with interest by the 
trade, who h)ok for a second Laurentide on the St. 
John JJiver. A hundred miles east of here the Bathurst 
Lumber Co.. an American concern, with extensive lum- 
bering operations on the Nepisiguit River, are project- 
ing a mill for Big Falls, about thirty miles from, immediately adjoining the new development 
of the Canada Iron Corporation. To this end they have 
increased their holdings by a lai-ge purchase recently 
in the Gaspe Peninsula. Their situation is most favor- 
able with Bathurst Harbor, recently modernized by the 
Dominion Government, to ship from, and with a large 
organization ali'eady operating. A sulphite mill has 
also been planm'd for the Ga.spe coast by other in- 

At Chatham the Dominion mills have slightly in- 
creased their output of sulphite, but are little changed 
as to operating eondiliims. 

In the I'eninsidar l'io\-inci' of Nova Scotia, the only 
alteri'ii comlitions during the yeai- have been the re-' 
building nf the Camjibell ]\Iill at Weymouth, which was 
burned. They :\vt' now oinTating as before, with only 
minoi' changes. 

In Labi'ador, extensive timber biddings liave been 
(Maiised and in\-estigaied. ami in Newfoundland, ~Sh\ 
Hardy is now working on a third large news jiiill. 

On the whole, the year's advances have been strik- 
ing, bi'inging our counti'y into world-wide prominence 
as a ]>rogressive. industi'ial luition. coveting the prizes 
in the markets of the world. 


Cauada to-day possesses the lai'gi'st I'esources in the 
way of growing timbei- suitable for the manufacture of 
jmlp of any country in the woi-ld. The eonlinued 
oi)ening ui> of great mileages nf new railioad brings 
Ibis evei- more ])rominently befoi-e the eyes of the woi'ld. 
The result undoubtedly now is thai this country holds 
the key to the future in the great pul]) and (laper in- 
dustry. The neighlmring republic reeoginzes this, as 
is indicated by its growing deiiendence on Canadian 
wood, by the fact that .-o nniny of its c.ipitalisls have 
become interested in i)ulp wood areas, and. indeed, in 
actual mill enterprises in this counlry. and by the 
strenuous efi'orts of its Government to gain easier access 
to our great undeveloped areas. 

Notwith-standing these facts, however, lie would Yw a 
bold man Avho would attempt to calculate in actual 
number of cirds. oi- even in acreage, the extent of these 
resources. In fact, the more conservative of our public 
men, as well as men qualified to sjieak- from the fores- 
try standpoint. fro;vn upon the jiretence to give actual 
estimates. Too many estinmtes which have been made 
have been largely ll,e result of gupsswcu-k. One diffi- 
culty consists in the fact thai tlun-e is no sharp line of 

distinction between wood that can be used foi- pulp and 
wood that can be used for knuber, poles, ties and other 
l>ur])oses. liut a still greater obstacle lies in the fact 
that thei'c are enormous areas, particularlj^ in the north- 
ern parts of the Dominion, which are either quite un- 
explored, or only partiaMy explored to this day. 

Perhaps some of the closest work along this line was 
in connection with the Ontario Government's survey 
and exploration work in Northern Ontario some years 
ago, when an attempt was made to find out as approxi- 
mately as possible the pulp wood contents of each sec- 
tion covered by the survey parties. 

Sp,eaking of the territory north of the Height of 
Land, the repoi-t says: 

"There is little pine timber, the trees being scattered 
and inferior in quality. SonH> small areas of red pine 
and some jack pine were nu't with, nearly all of, these 
varieties found l)eing south of Lake Abitibi. The best 
areas foi- pulp wood are on Low Bush and Circle Rivers. 
with their tributaries, where it is estimated that an 
area of 180 square miles will yield an average of seven 
cords to the acre or about 800,000 cords. Along Little 
Abitibi Kiver. between Hariis Lake and the boundarv. 

.T.iiiu.iry 1. ini3 PULP AND P A P E R M A G A Z I N E. 5 

the pulp wood is estimated at 750.000 cords. A belt are confined to the quantities of these .species still 

reaching from Lower Abitibi Lake along the Abitibi standing. It must not be forgotten, however, that there 

River to Long Sault, eighty miles in length, will aver- are other woods which can be used for pulp making 

age seven cords to the acre. There are also consider- purposes, as has been demonstrated by the work of the 

able pulp wood areas to the west and north of Lower laboratory at Wausau, Wis. Jack pine, for instance, 

Abitibi Lake. District No. 2 embraces fifty miles on while presenting considerable difficulties in working 

each side of a base line run west from the 198th mile up, has proven its usefulness for this purpose when 

post on the boundary line between Nipissing and Al- proper precautions are taken. Many sections of Can- 

goma Districts to the Missinahie River, about 100 miles, ada contain vast quantities of this tree which some day 

and also the tract lying southerly along the Jlissinabie in the future will no doubt be utilized. 

River up to near Jlis.sinabie Lake. Of the territory New Brunswick contains large areas rich in pulp 

explored, 60 per cent, will yield on an average 5 cords wood trees, but so far as we have seen, no one has been 

of spruce wood to the acre, in addition to other timber, daring enough to estimati' the probable (luantity of 

The prevailing timber is spruce and poplar, there being cords, section by section. 

no pine or hard wood. The spruce, especially along the In Alberta and Saskatchewan, the Crown lands are 
river banks, attains a size which renders it valuable for retained under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Gov- 
square timber, and the poplar is large and abundant, ernment. While not, strictly speaking, rich in timber 
particularly on the ilattagami River. Special acres or pulp wood resources, the aggregate quantity avail- 
examined would yield 20 cords of spruce, other acres able in the future will doubtless reach a respectable 
would cut 15 cords of .spruce and ten of poplar. Some figure. Manitoba, Crown lands in which have been 
of these, if all the timber gi-owing on them were made under similar conditions, did not pos.sess any notable 
into cord wood, would show 60 to 70 cords to the acre." pulp wood areas until its recent enlargement of area,' 

Survey work along the proposed route of the Hudson but now that its boundaiies have been stretched to 

Bay River indicates that there are large tracts of Hudson Bay. it does contain a certain proportion of 

country containing a good percentage of wood adapted forest land, 

for pulp. , J. R. Dickson, of the Dominion Forestry Ser\'ice, who 

In Northern Quebec, it is safe to say that conditions inspected the proposed route of the Hudson Bay Rail- 
are largely similar to those prevailing in the analagous way from The Pas to the Split Lake, a distance of about 
parts of Ontario, with the comparison in favor of 235 miles, reported that there were fine species of tim- 
Quebec, as regards to area. Indeed, of all the Pro- ber cf commercial value, namely spruce, poplar, tamar- 
vinces, Quebec must take rank as the premier in regard ack, birch and jack-pine. The trees are short, but would 
not only to pulp wood production. 1)ut also to pulp 'je suitable for pulpwood. iluch of the wood was too 
wood still standing unutilized. >"oung for present cutting, though in the absence of fires 

British Columbia, it is recognized, has millions of for t^venty years the stands of 4 to 8-inch timber could 

acres from which large quantities of wood can be cut, then be cut profitably for this purpose. Mr. Dickson 

but it is also recognized that the number of cords is a^^s signifieantly, "it is probable that withm the next 

„i i • 1 1 1 1 mi 1 ■ J T7I 4- Quarter of a century part of the enormous energy now 

almost incalculable. The newlv organized Forestry 4"rt^'ci "^ a ^e lu j j^ „ , . , j ,, 

r, ^ . 4. • 4.U 4. r> ■ 1 1 • 1 * running free in the falls and rapids of Nelson and (xrass 

Department in that Province is busv making plans tor '^'"^'^s >= , , . , , •„ 

-, , ^ ■ , -, . ,, Rivers will be harnessed to drive pulp and paper miUs. 

eomprerensive survev and chart work, and from the ,..,,, ^i 

. VI v.- T tu V ,■ t +1 • Roughlv summarizing all the data furnished by the 

great energv with which they are istarting out on their nuugui.v l^u t, , , » , . 

■.v,^., * 4- ' 1 4 *i • " 1 i J m Dominion Forestrv Department and the forest authori- 

important work, gi-eat things mav be expected. The ^'^ni^^^-^^ ^ ^ . ^ 

t„„ 1 i-oi 1.- ■ ii " £ , ■ T« 1 ties of the various Provinces, and under a due con- 
tremendous difficulties m the wav of having qualmed "^^^ " >ai wlo , 

11 4.- ^■ t ^ J ^ ■ ' . ■ sideration of the difficulties in the way ot an approxi- 

men collecting reliable data m a countrv possessing S'lueiduuu ui luc ui v. „ , i • ,. 

„„ ■ „ 4- 4. 1 1 4 1 .. / t ■ ■» mate calculation of the stand of pulp wood timber 

such great natural obstacles as a sea of mountams v^aivuiai t- t- 

,^A t„„ „ 1 I ■ , ^ 1 11 throuffhout the Dominion, we would say that its pulp 

and traversed bv raging torrents are scarcely realized unuugnuui. l, ^ , ,, r i^ 

„* n, • 4. "i 1 .1 T 11- ' A J ii, wood resources would approximate two billion cords 

at their true value hv the ordinarv public. And the """"-^ leauuiLcs »uuii fi 

„„ „ 4-1 • T 4" "i ■ 4.1 4.1 on about 265 000,000 acres of land, made up as follows: 

.same thing applies to survey work m the northern u" ^ijuul _uo,v uu.uv n a 

wilderness of Quebec and Ontario. ^^^'^^- , L 

Nova Scotia is not generallv credited with l)eing one ^'ova Scotia 5,000,000 24.000,000 

of the great lumber and pulp wood Pro^ances, yet they >^'ew Brunswick 20,000.000 100,000,000 

form no mean asset. Dr. Fernow, who not fong ago Quebec ■...:.. 60,000.000 600.000,000 

made a forest .survev of that region, gives as his esti- Ontario . 40,000,000 400.000,000 

mate an area of 5,500,000 acres under timber, with British Columbia 40,000.000 450.000,000 

24.000,000 cords as the probable output, divided up as Dominion lands 100.000.000 4a0,000,00() 

follows: I\Iainland, 5,000.000 acres with 10.000.000 

cords, and Cape Breton. 500.000 acres witli 14.000.000 265.000.000 2.024,000,000 
cords. Experience may show that this estimate may be ex- 
It should ])(< remembered that the species of wood ceeded or it may be beyond the mark, but it is looked 
used ' prinei])ally for the manufacture of pulp are upon as conservative by those who have had the best 
spruce, balsam, liemloek and poplar, and most estimates opportunities for judging. In any case, it is far away 


January 1, 1913 

and beyond the possessions ol' any other country in the to-day, it will surely mean the bringing forward of the 
world, and when the economic end of the pulp and Dominion of Canada to the position of premier pulp 
paper industry is even better understood than it is and paper manufacturer in the world. 


European visitors to American pulp and paper mills 
sometimes put their criticism into some such sentence 
as this: "Your mills seem to be equipped for large 
output and quick delivery rather than for quality 
Now, while exception might be taken to this criticism 
in several cases, it is, on the whole, well founded. There 
is reason for this in the large demand for magazine and 
cheap book papers. Does this condition preclude at- 
tention to technical detail? It is claimed that it does, 
on the gi-ound of increased overhead charges. 

There are two classes of mill to be considered. The 
entirely new mill with up-to-date machinery and con- 
struction, and the old mill with new parts connected to 
old and nearly ol)solete units — new patches in old 

Mill owners of the first class are prone to place too 
much confidence in machinery, while the second-class 
believe that they cannot compete in quality with the 
large new mills because they have not the facilities. 

The great difficulty is that from the executive down, 
there is an idea that theory and ])ractice are incom- 
patible — both from the viewpoint of i)ractieability and 
money value. 

This state of affairs clearly shows that there is some- 
thing wrong, there is the need for technical education 
in the executive staff. This need has been largely met 
in Europe in nearly all branches of industry. It is 
being met in America in the case of some industries. 
With its immense capital outlay, its armj' of workers 
and its consumj)tion of vital natural resources, then- 
has been no effort made to put the training of American 
pulp and paper makers on a proper educational basis. 
The first steps are being taken now in the United Stat( s 
to naeet this state of affairs. So far nothing has been 
done in Canada, though Mr. T. Linsey, a well-known 
pulp and paper chemist, of Montreal, brought this mat- 
ter to the attention of the Royal Commission on Techni- 
cal Education, and they will, no doubt, deal with it in 
their report. 

As he says, in a commuuication to The Pulp and 
Paper :\ras;a/.iiH\ many qt^tions come to the mind of 
the technically trained man that do not appeal to one 
lacking such training. A trained man in the supply 
room w<iuld be able to save his employers much in the 
way of belts, oils, and machinery. In the purchasing 
department, a man with an intimate knowdedge of 
paper technology would "be able to buy with intelli- 
gence—not lookiMg for lowest price, but best value. 

A properly trained superintendent would not put a 
large stuff pump, literally the heart of his mill, down in 
a dark corner whereinto at the risk of his life an oiler 
climbs, down a shaky ladder as seldom as he may. 
Nobody knows anything of it until such times as the 
belt breaks or the casual bolt which may have fallen 
"from the blue" puts it and half the mill out of busi- 
ness for a couple of hours or more. 

A properly trained manager would not support the 
moisture test on his pulp, l>y writing to a customer, who 
was extravagant enough to have a chemist, that his test- 
ing oven was never heated over 135 deg. F. for fear of 
overheating the pulp. 

A properly trained managing director would not hold 
three boilers having a 125-lb. permit down to 90 lbs. to 
keep connection M-ith an old boiler not permitted to 
carry more. 

Measurement of solutions such as bleach are often 
taken as so many "inches" irrespective of their 

Pulp bleached by a man with some technical training 
would not take 15 per cent, to 20 per cent, instead of 
9 per cent, to 12 per cent, of its weight of bleach. 

Such instances may be multiplied indefinitely. Surely 
the pulp and paper makers of Canada cannot overlook 
the significance of such results. 

When the writer has approached paper mill capital- 
ists on this subject, he has been told that it was a ques- 
tion for the Government to provide for. 

If the establishment of the Forest Products Labora- 
tory, so ably advocated by H. R. MaeMillan, recently, 
before the Canadian Forestry Association, and in these 
pages, were to be provided for, it would not be a great 
additional expense to equip such a laboratory for spe- 
cial work in paper technology. 

Could not the pulp and paper interests of Canada 
appoint a committee to confer with the Canadian 
Forestry Association and see if some arrangement 
ought not be made to put this suggestion into some con- 
crete form. An industry that turns out as a finished 
product only about forty per cent, of its material, has 
surely some opening for investigation of its waste pro- 
ducts. Sweden has a paying industrial alcohol business 
built on wood waste, but little is heard of such work 
being looked on as part of the outlay for any new mill 
in Canada. 

The large quantity of flax straw wasted annually, 
constitutes a reproach to the paper industry wWeh 

Jiinnan" '• l-'l-^ 


thereiu loses an opening to independence of the vari- 
able rag market. The increa.sing use and higher price 
of linseed oil give this question increased importance. 

In investigating the use of Talc rained in Canada as a 
paper filler, a great deal of prejudice that was found 
against it appeared to be ba.sed on improper approach 
to the technologj- of paper filling and the special hand- 
ling of talc for such purposes. 

These are only special instances. We may, of course, 
benefit from the work done in other countries, such as 
that of the Forest Products Laboratory at Madison, 
Wis., but there are points which the Canadian industry 
must work out for itself, which would surely be profit- 
able both to labor and capital. 

Let us urge the starting, of some curves, at least, in 
your plant, in the hope that soon the development will 
so commend itself as to necessitate the establishing of a 
special department for such work, and be not discour- 
aged if results do not come within a year. The best 
in anything conies only with time. 


The value of graphic curves is so little realized 
among Canadian paper mills that we can say their use 
is almost; unknown. Among the engineering profession 
they are freely used and generally appreciated to an 
extent usually depending on the stress iaid on them 
during the engineer's college days. Many of. ovir man- 
agers find it hard to realize the value of information in 
the form of curves, because it is at least a year before 
they become of any real value, and the longer in use 
the more useful they become. Information thus ob- 
tained is expensive, measured in dollars and cents, for- 
getting the results, but it is a better investment than 
the mill property itself measured in returns. The ex- 
pense of gathering the information daily from the mill 
from readings of thermometers, pressure gauges, 
meters, production reports, time slips, and automatic 
recording instruments of every description does cost 
money. Then this must be averaged and daily plotted 
in the curve sheet. The writer knows of one 400-ton 
mill in the United States which keeps over three thou- 
sand curves, requiring six men to only do the plotting 
of the averaged results, and a lot more just averaging 
these readings, as turned in. on adding machines. The 
tilings found out about the operation of the mill, the 
opportunities for economy which present themselves 
are bej'ond belief of one unacquainted with their value. 
True, this cannot be appreciated by a man in any 
narrowing sphere of any one department, but must 
be read by one with the grasp of the working of the 
entire plant. The correlations which develop, the 
wastes staring one in the face, the gross discrepancies 
all must show up in a wonderful manner. Information 
in this form is not only condensed, but can be grasped 
by the eye much more quickly than any system of 
tabulated results, and can be filed in the most con- 
venient manner. 

Our readers are all familiar with water curves, but 
few have worked by even such general ones as produc- 
tion, efficiency, or power consumption, besides the in- 
numerable possiliilities in the more detailed operations. 


During the past year, owing to the state of the 
American board market, it has been possible for our 
users of boxboard to buy on the other side and land 
the American product at their warehouses for a much 
better figure than our own mills quoted. The recent 
improvement of our competitor's markets has, how- 
ever, changed this situation somewhat. This is only 
little appreciated by the trade in general and arises 
from a number of combinations of circumstances. 
Board, as is well known, is one of the best lines of 
paper manufacture, due to the fact that it utilizes much 
low-grade stock from the other departments of the 
paper mill; and also owing to the good demand for 
the production. The peculiar situation above referred 
to, has arisen chiefly, however, on account of the 
absence in this country of any board mills using waste 
papers and broke, for raw material. On the other side, 
though, we find in the large centres, such plants using 
the local waste papers, and it is mills of this class 
mainly which have been able to set down in our mar- 
kets such grades as colors and chip board at such at- 
tractive prices that our box manufacturers have easily 
induced their ctistomers to make the chq^ige. A 
peculiar case, for example, has arisen in colors which 
can be made from such waste. A box man charges, say, 
roughly, ten per cent, more for colored lined board, 
than wood board or folding. But he has been able 
to buy this colored on the other side closer than our 
own mills offered the white' or gray, while they asked 
an advanced price for their colored boards. 

The upshot of the whole thing is that there is in Can- 
ada at either of the centres of Montreal or Toronto, a 
need for a board mill using waste papers, to use this 
class of raw material, much of which at present goes 
over to our competitors. 

We are a young country and have realized our vast 
pulp resources to the neglect of the utilization of the 
wastes we accumulate. The market for these grades is 
expanding rapidly enough to warrant such a scheme 
without trespassing on the fields of our present mills. 

Patent coated, or white lined, and tag, have also been 
suffering recently in a similar manner in spite of the 
twenty-five per cent. duty. The delay in delivery, 
owing to the rush of our Canadian mills, has helped to 
cause this, as well as the general low markets in the 
United States. We are pleased, however, to see im- 
provement in deliveries, and hope to see the mills on 
this side getting all the orders. 


January 1, 1013 


Special attention is drawn to the article in this issu.- 
by Mr. H. S. Ross, K.C., of Montreal, upon the Work- 
men's Compensation Act, Quebec. This is a subject 
upon which so many able minds are engaged tlirongli- 
out the world and which is of such outstanding iiitei'i'st 
to the industrial world, in both the employing and tlie 
employed sections, that I\Ir. Ross' contribution will be 
studied with more than usual eagerness by al'l. Hi.s 
references to what has been held in important cases 
in French and English jm-isdiction, as well as to cer- 
tain proceedings now going on in the Canadian courts, 
bring his remarks very much up-to-date. The time has 
evidently arrived for a carefully thought-out legisla- 
tive policy in regard to this important matler fcr the 

Mr. John Norris' contribution to the discussion of the 
librarians' problem of how to preserve newspapers 
and other historical records for the information of fut- 
ure generations dwells upon several points of interest 
to the paper manufacturer. Included among these are 
his suggestions as to storage so as to avoid deteriora- 
tion, not only in the store rooms of the newspaper pub- 
lisher, but in the mill warehouse. Of course, one method 
of obtaining longer life to printed records would be to 
use better paper, but this costs money which the pub- 
lisher usually does not want to give. Several other 
points are discussed in a very interesting fashion by Mr. 
Norris, but we will refer the reader to his article itself 
on another page. 

The hearing in the ease of the United States Govern- 
ment versus importers on the question whether 
pulp coming from countries having favored nation 
treaties with the United States shall enter that country 
on the same basis as that from Canada is fixed to take 
place on Januai-y 14tli. The case will attract a great 
deal of interest, not so much from its pecuniary aspect 
to the importers, who have covered all contingencies in 
their contracts, as for the effect of a decison on the 
status of Canadian shipments. 

Canadian competition in newsprint is cutting a con- 
stantly increasing figure in the United States market, 
and prices for that commodity have declined $2 or more. 
The foi'ce of this competition, it is said, has been felt 
particularly strongly in Chicago where one or two large 
contracts have been obtained by Canadian mills. There 
is no shadow of doubt that the recent great additions 
to Canadian mill capacity, is going to have a very mark- 
ed effect on the United States newsprint market, especi- 
ally as time goes on. Their up-to-date construction, ef- 
ficient management largely it must be admitted along 
American lines and above all their accessibility to cheap 
pulpwood supplies, are all factors bound to have a very 
important result. As noted in this issue, a well-known 
paper man in convei-sation with a Montreal representa- 
tive of the Pulp and Paper Magazine, deprecates the 

building of new mills in Canada on the ground that 
the industry will be overdone and that as soon as the 
Americans see the effect on their own industry, they 
will induce their government to put up the duty. We 
agree that great care and conservativeness should be 
exercised in the matter of building of new mills, and 
that the tendency to stock- jobbing and over-capitali- 
zation should be avoided. On the other ground, we 
would point out that the United States paper industry 
has been protesting to its Government as to its rights 
for proper protection for many months now and failed 
even while that Government was Republican. Now that 
the Democrats will be in control, it is hard to see how 
they can expect better fortune. And even if the United 
States duty on paper were increased, we cannot see 
that it would jeopardize the safety or progress of enter- 
prises in this eouuti-y, wherever properly managed. 

New York State paper, pulj^wood and lumber inter- 
ests are up in arms against the recently suggested plan 
of the Canadian railroads to advance freight rates on 
wood. In the attempt to cheek th(' proposed increase 
they suggest the establishment of a common docking 
ground near Ogdensburg, N.Y.. for the storage of Cana- 
dian pulpwood, to which point it would be brought on 
barges by the river and shipped by short haul from 
there by American railroads. The freight rate from 
the forests where much of the wood is cut to Ogdens- 
burg is $3.50 to $4.00 per cord, which the railroads pro- 
pose to advarce, while water rates from the same point 
are only $1.50 to $2.00 per cord. Many of the largest 
paper manufacturers of Northern New York are said 
to be interesting themselves strongly in the scheme. 

Few realize the great scope of the work which is lieing 
done on behalf of the wood-using interests of the coun- 
try, and largely for the benefit of future generations, by 
the Forestry Branch of the Dominion Department. Mr. 
R. H. Campbell, the able director of this branch of the 
public service, gives some idea of this \york and of the 
difficulties of carrying it, in an article in this ssue, and 
the Pulp and Paper Magazne hopes to keep its readers 
in touch, in future, with what is being <lone in forestry, 
a science and art so closely allied with the pulp and paper 
industry. In the past, practical lumbering men were 
given to despise forestry, as a system of theories which 
were a stumbling block to the profitable carrying on of 
their business. Gradually, however, under the leader- 
ship of the more far-seeing and of the truly practical in 
the real meaning of that word, they have come to see 
that theory and practice stand together, and that even 
fi'om a dollars and cents point of view, conservative' 
methods are profitable. A branch of the work of the 
forestry department to which more attention is now being 
given is the utilization of the waste and by-products 
from different kinds of wood-using factories, a subject 
V. hich is bound to grow in commercial importance as timfe 
goes on. 

■Tnrniarv. Ifll.T 

P T' T, P AND PAPER :\r A A 7 I X E. 



This Company's Splendid 
New Plant Now Operating 

Tlie Province of Quebec has earned an enviable repu- 
tation on l>oth sides of the watcM* for the rapid develop- 
ment of her [)aper industry. Honnteous nature has scat- 
tered opportunity with a lavish liand, inviting the ex- 
ploitation of a country rapidly realizing its enormous 
possibilities for gigantic enterprises. 

It is pleasing to note tlie poiiit.s of interest in one of 
the newest and largest Canadian mills, which may be 
looked upon a.s an expansion of the smaller Jonquiere 
Pulp Co. — this firm's first paper mill. The two plants 
are only a mile apart on the line of the Quebec & Lake 
St. John Haihvav. and on the Au Sable River, ten miles 

the latter the sound financing, organization and con- 
servative judgment of the directorate. 

Mr. Wm. Price, the president, is widely known 
throughout Canada in both lumbering and political cir- 
cles, being one of our most popular business men, on ac- 
count of his well-known integrity and interest in Cana- 
dian development. He is an ex-M.P. for Quebec City, 
and has recently been appointed to the honorable and 
onerous position of chairman of the Quebec Harbor 

I\Ir. Oswald A. Porritt, the general manager, associ- 
ated liimself with 'Mr. Price about twelve years ago in 

Two of the Walmsley Paper Machines 

from Cliicoutinii — the head of Saguenay River naviga- 

Price Bi'os. have been in existence as a lumber firm 
for over a century, although as pulp and paper manu- 
facturers for only a few years. The Kenogami Paper 
.Mills, whieli will earn their reputation in the broader 
Meld of- the i)a{)er industry, command the attention of 
Ijotli tlie engineeer and financier. The foi-mer admires 
the natural advantage and the eflficieney of the plant, 

the Price-Porritt Pulp Co.. of Kimnuski, later becoming 
vice-president and managing director of the Jonquiere 
Pulp Co. He is known throughout the industry as a 
thorough paper man and an exceedingly energetic and 
enthusiastic business man. An Englishman by birth, 
but now a heart and soul Canadian, he brings much 
zi'st to the development of our natural resources amid 
the many difficulties of the northern sections, with 
which he is now thoroughly familiar. 



January, 1913 


iMnuiii-v. 19in 



Raw Material. 

The logging division of Price Bros., with 4iead office 
in Chicontimi, is in charge of J. McD. Grosart, a grand- 
son of David JMcDowall, who in 1834 started the first 
steam saw mill in Ireland, and son of Rev. A. B. Grosart. 
D.D., LL.D.. of Blackburn. England. He came to Can- 
ada in 1898 as junior clei-k with Price Bros, at St. 
Etienne du Saguenay. Since that his rise with the 
firm has been rapid, due to business acumen and marked 
ability in the management of men. The figures for 
wood delivered at the mill under his management have 
l>pen very low, a point which means much for the suc- 
cess of the new enterprise. 

The total limits consist of 4,829,000 acres of leasehold 
and InO.flflO acres of freehold land containing over 
••i.iKiO.ddd.dOO feet (B.jr.) of merchantable timber and 
•_>().U( 1(1.(1(1(1 cords of pidp wood. On these limits, besides 

the two mills above mentioned, tlie company operate 
nine saw mills, three shingle mills, one rossing mill, and 
one ground wood mill. 

Immediately tributary to the mills at Jonquiere and 
Kenogami are 2,500 square miles of black spruce, with 
a very small per cent, of fir on Lake Kenogami, and 
River Ecorces, Morin, L'Abbe, Tuppaway, Pikauba, 
Belle, and Metabetchouan, timber from tlae last two 
being landed in cars by overhauls and shipped 30 miles 
to the mill by rail. In addition to tliis, there is an area 
of 2,000 miles on the Saguenay, from which wood could 
be used for these mills as well. All logs are made 13 
ft. 6 in. for driving through Lake Kenogami, and 8 ft. 
for rail transportation. Operations are conducted in 
accordance with the Provincial regulation, for forest 
preservation, and utilization of waste, cutting every- 
thing above 4 in., thus leaving practically nothing on 
the ground. 



January, 1913 

(.nnc-, ami Drytr Drives 

A West & Peachy, "Alligator,"' or warping tug, 
capable of towing 25,000 logs, and warjiing on land or 
water, has beeu introduced last season, thus greatly 
facilitating the lake operations. 

All logging is done by small " jobbers '' residents in 
the counties of Lake St. John and ('hieoutimi. At 
l)resent over 200 of these are in the bush on contracts 
from 5,000 to 125,000 pieces each, or a gross of 5;i 
million feet for the season. The company do theii- 
own dri\inn'. 

Wmcroiis Stacker ami Wand Pile 

Fifteen sets (2 each) of rullers or measureis. and 
fweuty-five tii-e I'augei's arc kept in the bush by tlir 
(•oni]>;in\-, who have alsn cslahlishi'd telephonic cnm- 
iiinnicat inn ovir ihcii' limils, which are insured at 

Water Power. 

On the Au Sable liivci' they have developed 6.000 h.p. 
Tor til.' .ioiupiiere Pulp ('o., 2,000 h.p. for the lighting 
and au.NJIiary power, and 18.000 h.p. for the Kenogami 

A siipplciiiiMitary powei- of 7,00(1 h.p. is now 
lieing developed on the Shipsaw River, three 
miles from the new mills. .Allis-Chalmers- 


Turbo Slock Puiiii ...;.! ,....,... ,,!.(,,; » .,t. m,,,,, per 

of ;!r(>una wtiod, 3401t. head, 600 h. p., 1000 r.p.r 
John McDouiiall Caledonian Iron Works, 
Co., and Allis-Chalmers-Rullock, Ltd. 

Uullock. Limited, are at present installing 
two water wheels with steel plate casings of ;^.300 h.p. 
each at 300 r.p.m.. with exciter wheels of 155 h.p. each 
under a head of 85 ft. This will be used to run extra 
grinders at the mill and for other purposes as needed. 
They also have 4,000 h.p. undeveloped at Chieoutimi. 

Grinder Room. 

The new solid concrete dam shown in the cut, at the 
liead of Chute a Bezie, is one half mile from the 
Saguenay River. From the forebay of this dam a 12- 
ft. steel penstock runs 3,000 feet to the power house 
and grinder room, situated just at the junction of the 
Au Sable and Saguenay Rivers. Four branches of 
reduced size feed the four-wheel units working under 
264 ft. head. In the power house, two 2,340 k.v.a. 
Westiughouse generators are driven at 600 r.p.m. by 
Allis-Chambers-Bullock turbines of the Francis type, 
with special design to prevent end thrusts and sticking 
of guide vanes. Four oil pressure relay governors are 
used on the generator and pump water wheels. 

The grinder room is equipped with four 4,000 h.p, 
water wheels of the same type, each being connected 
to six Waterons grinders of the International pattern. 

J. IVIc D. Grosart, Manager of Woods Operations 8 

'i'hese wheels are hand-governed, running at 225 r.p,m.. 
but the grinders have Barbour pumps for each wheel 
set. The ground wood, after passing over the sliver 
screen to a large sump is pumped to the wet room, 
4,000 ft. away through a 2-ft. wood stave pipe, supplied 
liy the National Pipe & Foundry Co. These turbo- 
pumps, built by the John McDoiigall Co,, are direct 
cnnnected to two Allis-Chalmers-Bullock turbines of 
(iOO horse i)ower each, running at 1,000 r.p.m. The 
I)umps have a capacity of 4.000 r,S, gallons per minute 
of 35 per cent, of 1 per cent, stock, against a total static 
and friction head of 340 feet. The grinder room and 
power house are each supplied with 15-ton hand 
Northern travelling cranes, as is the machine room and 
rcjiair shop. 

The wood is ju-epared at the i),i[irr mill where the 
waste can be used in the boilers, and is either /;'onveyed 
by a bliH-k trough, in running water, to the grinder 

•hiimfifv, 101.1 

I' I, 

A \ 1) PA l> K R M .\G AZ I N E. 


Generator Turbir 

ing Kelay Governor and l-ly Wheel. Allis-Chalmers-Bullock, Limited 

room or by a Wateruus travelling stacker when it is 
stored l)arke(l. Tlie wood room has 80 Waterous dise 
barkers, two ehippers, a Kyther & Pringle six-saw 
slasher bed and shake screen. All conveyors and return 
conveyors are chain, with individual motor drive. 

The ground wood wet room is uiost conveniently 
arranged. Two rows of six Waterous double cylinder 
wet nuichines on either side with a Jetfrey lap conveyor 
liassing between, to the pulp storage. Fourteen hori- 
zontal Quiller screens, with belt drive, four refiners and 
one Ryther & Pringle shredder complete the equip- 
ment of one of the finest wet rooms in this country. 

Sulphite Mill. 

The equipment here consists of two digesters 1-4 x 47 
ft., with blow pits and an extra large riffler capacity. 
New Success screens, three Waterous single cylinder 
wet machines and one Appletou Jordan. 

Last season ^Ir. J. A. Deeew, of Montreal, was re- 
tained as consulting chemical engineer, and carried on 
elaborate investigations with his assistants in the field 
and laboratory. He selected a pure limestone 30 miles 
from the mill on Lake St. John for the acid system. 
This is a good omeu for the Canadian paper trade to 
see our managers employing technical experts to solve 
their ditBeulties as those of other countries do. The 
view often held that anything will do that makes mo- 
ney is, we are pleased to say, passing, and the trade 
to-day realize that there is no reason why the indus- 
try should not be even more profitable with a little 
time and money spent in investigating more efficient 

Paper Mill. 

The three paper machines l.')6 inches wide, trimming 
145 inches, were built by Charles Walmsley & Co., of 



One of the drives 

The acid system of five towers 175 ft. high has two 
Glens Palls rotary burners with spiral feed, and a lai'go 
pond cooling system. Fresh water for the new town 
and the boilers is supplied from a new water system to 
the 125,000-gallon steel tank on top of the tower. 

Bury, Eng., after the design of two similar machines 
running at Lloyds, Sittingbourne, Eng. They have a 
number of features unicpie in Canadian mill practice, 
such as the patent Lloyd & Hutchinson basement 
drive, of which we show cuts. An enclosed Walmsley 



January, 1913 

Grinder WnUr Wheel Sho>vlni;i Hand Governing for Guide Vanes. Allis-Chalmers-Bullock, Limited 

steam eiiginf in the oeutre drives a main sliive direct 
connected, wliich drives by single cotton ropes to the 
next shive, and this to the next, each carrying a cone 
pulley, belted to a cone on the machine floOr, and with 
their patent quick throw out clutch. The engine it- 
self has a speed variation of 1-5. This, with the cones, 
gives a wide range for the machine which is guaraii- 
.teed for 600 per minute and promises to go 700 feet — 
about the nuiximum speed baektenders can handle the 
winders. The machines have 72 ft. wire, all bearings 
bronze, ring oiled, 36 5-ft. dryers, special wire tight- 
eners and straigiiteners, and special automatic felt 
straighteners. The castings are all extra heavy typi- 
cal of machines, and are well nineiiined. Par- 
rell Foundry Co. are also representecl on the machine 
floor, witii their calenders. 

The beater room is equipped with six K. D. Jones 
1,500-jwuiul beaters and three Jordans, as well as two 
broke beaters in the basement of the machine room. 
Pour Waterous ground wood thickeners and three 

Sherbrooke JMachinery Co.'s sulphite thickeners ar- 
ranged in battery and with throw out clutches to by- 
pass any single machine. This firm also supplied six 
save-alls for that building. The centrifugal pumps for 
the entire mill were supplied by the Lawrence Pump 
& Engine Works, and the stuff and feed pumps by 
Smart Turner Machine Co. 

The boiler room is a tine example of mechanical en- 
gineering in its layout of the following equipment: 
Eight Robb boilers with superheaters, and MuriJiy 
stokers to burn coal and work-room waste; a Kellog 
stack 125 feet high, and Green economizers, with in- 
duced draught. The newest feature is the suction ash 
handling system, similar to the Lake Superior Paper 
Co., which gives good satisfaction when care is taken 
to keep the ashes di'y. 

Mr. Geo. P. Hardy, of New York, designed the en- 
tire plant, and ]Mr. R. S. Kelch, of Montreal, was re- 
tained as consulting engineer in the hydraulic and 
electrical work. 

B.>sc;ii(;nt Wolmsley Paper Machine Drive, showing Enclosed Engine, Shives, Cones andgClutch 

lamiai-v. 1013 





By H. S. Ross, K.C., of the Montreal Bar 

Compensation for workmen injured in the course of 
their daily labor is a subject which has steadily grown 
in interest, until now it has become a legislative prob- 
lem of huge dimensions in every country, and particu- 
larly in those largely engaged in manufacturing. The 
principles hitherto governing the relations of master 
and servant are steadily undergoing changes of a radi- 
cal character, with the probability that ultimately the 
defence "negligence of employee" and "fault of fellow 
servant" will disappear completely from our jurispru- 
dence. The conviction is deepening that the monej' 
value of injuries sulfered by workmen is properly a 
charge against the cost of production, payable by the 
consumer or user of the article produced. 

The problem is engaging some of the best minds — 
labor lenders, millionaires, manufacturers, philan- 
thropists, jurists, and sociologists. There is little dis- 
agreement between them respecting the accuracy of the 

Beater Room. Price Bros. & Co., Limited 

leading principle, that is, that the negligence of the in- 
jured worker should not be an insuperable bar to the 
recovery of compensation to some extent; and the prin- 
ciple has been enacted into law by nearly all of the 
civilized countries of Europe, by Australia, by New 
Zealand, by the Transvaal, b.r the principal provinces 
of Canada, and in a partial form by one or more of the 
South American Republics. 

The Workmen's Compensation Act (Quebec) came 
into force on the 1st of January, 1910, and supersedes 
the provisions of the common law. The Civil Code 
makes everyone responsible for the damage occasioned 
by his own or his servants' fault, neglect or want of 
skill, and injured workmen have always been able to 
recover compensation from their emj)loyers. There 
were, however, many difficulties in the way of the 
claimant even when the employer was cleai-ly at fault. 
The employer could raise a number of defences such 
as "contributory negligence" and "inherent risk." 
The common law of Quebec Province was more humane 
that the common law of England, but under the statute 
law of England workmen were given the relief they had 
been claiming and our recent Act adopts the main 
principles of the English Act, although modeled upon 
the French Workmen's Compensation Act, which came 
into force on July 1, 1899. 

All workmen engaged in industrial enterprises are 
entitled to compensation for accidents happening by 

reason of or in the course of their work, but the Act 
does not give relief in cases of industrial diseases, such 
as lead, arsenic or mercury poisoning, anthrax and 
diseases caused by working in mines, although all of 
these are covered by the English Act. 

Workmen who usually labor alone, even when casu- 
ally working with others and those whose wages ex- 
ceed one thousand dollars a year are not provided for 
bj' the Act, but of course their common law right is 
still in force. 

The Act does not apply to agricultural laborers nor 
to seamen on sailing vessels. 

A foreign workman or his representatives are not en- 
titled to compensation unless at the time of the accident 
he or they reside in Canada, nor after he or they cease 
to reside in Canada while the compensation is being 

An interesting instance of international legal rela- 
tions is afforded by the recent Convention between 
England and France in regard to workmen's compen- 
sation and luider which any British subject who meets 
M'ith an accident arising out of his employment as a 
workman in France is entitled to the benefits of the 
compensation and guarantees secured to French citi- 
zens bj- legislation in force in France in regard to the 
liability of employers for accidents to their workmen, 
and reciprocally, any French subject who meets with 
such an accident in the United Kingdom is entitled to 
the benefits of the English Workmen's Compensation 
Act. Where a lump sum is paj'able to a French citizen 
it maj-. on his return to France, be transmitted by the 
Registrar of the County Court to the "Caisse National 
Francaise des Retraites pour la Vieillesse" — which will 
purchase an annuitN' — and when a French citizen who 
is in receipt of a weekly payment intends to return 
to France the payments are made every three months. 

The workman need not prove negligence and may 
recover even when the accident was unavoidable, or 
due to an unknown cause. 

The employer may raise the defences: 

1. That the accident did not happen "by reason 
of, or in the course of the work." 

Our Courts will no doubt be guided (when con- 
sidering such a defence) by the cases which 
have arisen under the English Act. The cases 
have been many and some of them very curious, but 
on the whole the Courts have refused to take a narrow 
view and as a rule the emplo.yer does not find this de- 
fence of much service. 

2. That the accident was intentional. 

It is, of course, very difficult to sustain such a de- 
fence. This clause was adopted from the French Com- 
pensation Act. The English Aef does not go quite so 
far, the words used being "willful or serious miscon- 

If the workman was inexcusably negligent the em- 
ployer may claim a reduction of the compensation 
and the employer may be compelled to pay an increased 


.TaHiuirv. 1913 

amount if he has caused the accident by his inexcus- 
able fault. When the accident causes death the com- 
pensation shall be a sum equal to four times the yearly 
wages of the deceased at the time of the accident and 
shall in no ease (except if the accident is due to the 
inexcusable fault of the employer) be less than $1,000 
or more than .$2,000. In the ease of Frank McDonald 
vs. Canadian Pacific Railway, now on its way through 
the Quebec Courts, and which will probably be finally 
decided by the Privy Council, the interesting point has 
been raised as to whether the rent, which can be pur- 
chased for $2,000 is the largest amount recoverable un- 
der the Act. Formerly workmen frequently recovered 
four or five thousand dollars. It is contended that 
an apprentice earning $200 per annum who is totally 
and permanently disabled would recover the same 
amount as a workman earning $1,000 per year, and 
therefor it becomes impossible to award a rent in pro- 
portion to the wages earned. Our Courts have already 
given judgments tor a rent much larger than could be 
purchased for a capital of $2,000. Legault vs. Loomis. 
Archer, J., September 28, 1910, allowed a rent of $140 
per annum. Glover vs. Otis-Pensom Elevator Co., De- 
mers, J., April 7, 1911, allowed a rent of $162.76. Mc- 
Donnell vs. Grand Trunk Railway, Tellier, J., Novem- 
ber 21, 1911, allowed a rent of $210. 

The Appeal Court in McDonnell vs. Grand Trunk 
Railway upheld the awai'd of a rent of $210. 

The compensation is payable as follows: 

(a) To the surviving consort not divorced nor se- 
parated from bed and board at the time of death. 

(b) To the legitimate children or illegitimate chil- 
dren acknowledged before the accident to assist them 
until they are sixteen years of age. 

(e) To ascendants of whom the deceased was the 
only support. 

If the yearly wages exceed $600 no more than this 
sum shall be taken into account, and the surplus up to 
$1,000 shall give a right to only one-fourth of the com- 
pensation above referred to. 

There are probably as many actions commenced ;is 
before the Act, but the procedure is much simplified, 
and many eases are settled by the judges acting as ar- 
bitrators. If a settlement cannot be reached the ease is 
tried in the usual way except that all such eases are 
now summary and there is no trial by jury. If the 
Court wishes it the workman may be granted a daily 
allowance during the course of litigation. 


As a rule, the Gernuin manufacturers use only casein, 
])ut during the last few years starch products have been 
marketed which are a good substitute for casein. These 
are of American origin, and are prepared from potatoes. 
Gluten can be used, provided it is perfectly neutral. 
Nearly all commercial gluten (otherwise called vegetable 
size) contains free alkali. If gluten is neutral, it is 
quite as good as casein and cheaper, although more of 
it required. If it is not, it is dear at any price. Prob- 
ably, however, a really quality of joiners' 
glue is better than any of these products. It must, of 
eoui-se, be so pale that the nuautities of it which have 
to be used, which are the .smaller the better and paler 
the glue, have no appreciable effect on the colors of 
the illustratiou. 


The treatment of paper on the superealender is prim- 
arily decisive for the nature of the surface; in the 
closest relation therewith is the thickness and the bulk 
of the paper. Further, the color, look-through, trans- 
parency, and, particularly, the sizing of the paper are 
influenced by the treatment on tlie superealender. 
With papers having distinct wire or felt markings a 
dull uniform finish can never be obtained. Uneven 
glazing is jjarticularly objectionable in envelope paper 
because the feed of the jjaper on the gumming machine 
becomes uneveji, and consequently the breadth of the 
gummed edge varies. Unglazed papers are almost 
twice as thick as highly glazed papers. For example, 
an envelope paper containing wood, four layers of 
which, taken from the machine measured 0.50 mm., 
measured only 0.24 to 0.25 mm. after they had been 
highly glazed. When employing less moistening and 
less superealender pressure the thickness can be kept 
at 4.30 mm. without the glazing being too slight. 

Further, owing to uneven glazing differences of color 
between the various rolls of one and the same lot occur. 
Black glazing frequently occurs with white paper owing 
to too severe moistening and pressure, and in the case 
of highly loaded papers in consequence of too long stor- 
age in the condition. Uneven, cloudy look- 
through of the paper can be j^artially avoided by care- 
ful moistening and glazing. On the other hand, in the 
case of papers having water-marks or ribs, they should 
be treated as gently as possible during the glazing if 
the finish of the paper is not to suffer. When endeavor- 
ing to obtain as a surface as possible, a certain 
increase of transparency must be taken iuto the bar- 
gain. In order to obtain a uniform dull glaze with little 
transparency the glazing .should be done two or three 
times at a slight pressure. 

Very great glass-like transparency, as in pergamyn 
paper, primarily requires special beating, moistening 
with about 18 i)er cent, water and employing narrow 
supercalenders about 1.2 mm. working breadth, well 
heated steel rolls, hard-pressed asbestos paper rolls and 
high pressure in the superealender. 

The influence of glazing on sizing is impoi'taut luit 
frequently overlooked. Particularly, by insufficiently 
heating the steel rolls of the calender a pai)er of insuffi- 
cient sizing may be obtained. This fact was established 
by envelope paper taken from one and the same lot and 
glazed on various supercalenders being too slightly 
sized in one definite superealender. The defect dis- 
appeared as soon as the steel rolls of this superealender 
were heated as highly as in the other calenders. 

The samples sent us by the author show a striking 
difference in the sizing in favor of the papers glazed 
with highly heated rolls. — Papier Fabrikant. 

The Brompton Pulp and Paper Company are build- 
ing about 30 miles of telephone line this fall, AvHich will 
make in all over 60 miles of private line practically sur- 
rounding their limits. They are doing this with the 
idea of placing a telephone at every dam owned by the 
company to facilitate the drive which they have every 
spring. They consider this very essential* for the pro- 
tection of their limits during the dry season. ' 

aniinry. 19]:i I' I" I. 1' A X D P A V K 1? M A A Z 1 X K. 



By JOHN NORRIS, Chairman of the Committee on Paper of the American Newspaper Association 

Hints for Paper Manufacturers from the Desire of Librarians to Furnish Current History to Future Gener- 
ations; Specifications for a Paper That Will Endure Indefinitely; Methods of Storing Print 
Paper Rolls and Bound Files of Newspapers. 

..Much lias been said roeeiitly hy librarians about the 
iufei-iority of the news|)i'iiit paper whieh goes into 
bound files of the libraries fi)r the purposes of refer- 
euce and historical presei'vatioii. An examination of 
the places of storage in the libraries and of the condi- 
tions of storage convinces me that while the ordinary 
newsprint paper may not be in any respeet suitable 
for purposes of preservation, the methods of handling 
those papers when bound are conducive to deteriora- 
tion. This eriti('i>m a]>])lies not only to libraries, hut 
to newspaper ofliees and substantially to all places 
where newspaper files are stored. In many of the 
libraries, the files are subjected to treatment which 
deprives the paper of its required moisture. The 
libraries dry out the new.spapers by keeping them in 
rooms with an average tenipei-ature of 70 degrees, 
which is liiiund in the coui-.-c of time to cause deiteriora- 
tion. The artificial heat renders the paper extremely 
brittle and makes it crumble like isingjass when 
handled. Excessive dampness is also disadvantageous. 

How Improvement May Be Obtained. 

Improvement in the preservation of these liistorical 
records may be obtained : 

1st. By using a printing paper that will endure in- 

2nd. By binding with materials that do not attract 
minute organisms. 

3rd. By storing under conditions (a) that do not de- 
prive the paper of all its moisture; (b) or subject it to 
excessive dampness; (c) or subject it to chemical 
action produced by sunshine or gas or artificial heat 
or similar agencies of deterioration; (d) or propogate 
insects or other growth. 

In gathering information that relates to the preser- 
vation of the {)rinted paper, I have, at the request of 
newspaper publishers, inquired about the storage and 
preservation of newsprint rolls which I will also touch 
upon in this compilation. 

The matter of paper preservation has attracted atten- 
tion for centuries. Pliny says the ancients preserved 
their paper and books from moths by washing them 
with cedar or citron oil. In 1773 the Royal Society of 
Sciences at Gottingeu ofTered a premium for the 
answers to (juestions relating to insects found in re- 
cords and books. The answers accepted at that time 
indicated that five insects were destructive and that 
six appeared to be doubtful. They recommended that 
bookbinders use glue mixed with alum in place of 
paste. The ravages of insects vary according to lati- 
tude. The cigarette beetle has been described as the 
most destructive raider upon books. A publication 
entitled "Bookworms of Fact and Fancy" gives a list 
of insects and includes: 

The bed bug. found in wood papers; 
White ants, found in clay fillers; 

Roaches, after oils and fats in parchments; 

Beetles, in skin bindings; 

Spring tails and Silver Fish, in dry and warm loca- 

Centipedes and scorpions, which prey >ii)on the in- 
sects found in libraries. 

These live promoters of paper deterioration may 
work considerable damage in warm latitudes, but in 
the important libraries which are located in the more 
northerly latitudes I believe their damage is negligible. 

Composition of Newsprint Paper. 

Newsprint paper is made by the mixture of approxi- 
mately 75 per cent, of mechanical wood pulp and 25 
per cent, of sulphite wood pulp with a slight addition 
of clay and rosin. 

The agencies leading to decay, according to my lim- 
ited observation and study are: 

Artificial heat. 
Gas combustion. 

Excess of mineral substances. 
Excessive dampness. 

Carelessness in bleaching and inferior materials in 

Mechanical pulp will deteriorate rapidly when ex- 
posed to air or light. R. W. Sindall. an English au- 
thority, says many of the books printed on wood pulp 
paper" between 1870 and 1880 are in a hopeless condi- 
tion. With lower-grade papers containing mechanical 
pulp the degradation of color and fibre is inevitable. 
Clayton Beadle points out that paper which is brittle, 
when very dry, becomes stronger and more pliant with 
a certain amount of moisture. With more moisture it 
loses its power of "felting." There is a point where 
the maximum strength is obtained. Prof. Herzberg, of 
the German Testing Institute, is credited with the 
statement that paper containing three to five per cent. 
of moisture is at its strongest. Newsprint paper will 
absorb close to 10 per cent, of its weight in moisture. 
Most of this paper when manufactured contains about 
five per cent, of moisture or 100 pounds per ton of 
paper. It is liable to absorb 80 pounds additional of 
water per ton of j^aper in transit from mill to news- 
paper oiSce. The additional weight of the paper when 
delivered has puzzled many newspaper publishers who 
almost invariably found that their rolls weighed more 
than the weight indicaited at mill. A recent litigation 
in England disclosed the fact that jobbers had bought 
a less weight of paper than the customer had de- 
manded, the jobbers relying upon the absorption of 
moisture in transit to make up the deficiency. 

English librarians report that the ordinary novel 
printed on light, spongy paper has a life of about 40 


P T- L P A X I) 1' A P E R :\I A G A Z I N E. 

Jamiarv. ]f)]3 

issues. In other words, it will be unfit for further use 
and not even worth rebinding after eirculation among 
40 readers. 

The American Chemical Society appointed a com- 
mittee in 1908 to find a paper more suitable for the 
records of the society. It sought to ascertain the most 
durable, strongest, lightest, thinnest, most opaque, and 
cleanest i)aper having a surface not injurious to the 
eyesight that it was possible to procure for the money 
available. The specifications adopted by that society 
were : 

Rag, 75 per cent. 

Bleached chemical wood or equivalent thereto, 25 per 
Ash (China clay), 5 per cent. 
Weight (26 x 38, 500)— 42 pounds. 
Strength (Mullen) 15 pounds. 
Folding number (Schopper) if practicable. 10 

Sizing, three-quarter rosin — no starch. 
Finish, uniform macliine, same both sides. 
Color, uniform, natural, paper must be well washed 

to remove soluble salts and bleaching materials. 
The paper cost approximatel.y 6I/2 cents per pound. 

Complaints of Librarians. 

At a conference of librarians in 1909 at Bretton 
Woods, N.H., Frank P. Hill, Librarian of the Brooklyn 
Public Library, read a paper on "The Deterioration of 
Newspaper Paper" wherein he narrated the results of 
an examination of the bound copies of Manhattan and 
Brooklyn newspapers filed in Brooklyn Library. He 
said: "In many instances papers pul)lished within the 
last forty years had begun to discolor and crumble to 
such an extent that it would hardly pay to bind those 
which had been folded for any length of time. Further 
investigation showed that practically all of these news- 
papers were printed on cheap wood pulp paper, which 
carries with it the seeds of early decay, and that the 
life of a periodical printed on this inferior stock is not 
likely to be more than fifty years." The librarian sent 
out circulars to publishers asking whether a better 
grade of paper was being used for running ot¥ extra 
copies for their own files and what, if any, means had 
been taken to preserve the files in their offices. The 
answers showed that no special paper was used and 
that no nu'ans were taken to preserve those in the worse 
condition. Inquiries weie sent to paper manufacturers 
with no more satisfactory results. i\Ir. Hill had not 
then found any newspaper that printed extra copies 
on a l)etter grade of paper, but subsequent inquiry has 
di.sclosed that the Red Wing Republican, of Red Wing. 
Minnesota, pi'ints 15 copies daily from which number 
it supplies paper to the Minnesota Historical Society 
and the Congressional Library, at Washington. It binds 
some for its own use and places them in vaults for re- 
ference. Its secretary and manager. ]\Ir. Jens K. Gron- 
dahl, says a fair grade of book paper is used. The 
paper has not ol)tained any scientific test. Mr. HilPs 
paper de.scribcHl the use of a liquid mixture in the Ger- 
man Governmental Paper Testing In.stitute. of Berlin, 
by the use of which it was aimed to indefinitely pre- 
serve wood pulp !)apers and make them fit to read for 
centuries to come. The method was to dip the sheets 
one by one into a "eellit" solution and then hang them 
up to dry or to spread them on large meslied nets. ilr. 
Hill suggested that it might be to the interest of pub- 
lishers and librarians if a few copies of each issue of 

the newspapers should be printed on paper which had 
been treated with this chemical in the roll. 

At a recent meeting of the Committee of the Ameri- 
can Library Association, I\Ir. Codric Chivers, a book- 
binder, of Brooklyn, spoke of the successful experi- 
ments he had made with the German product "Cellit, ' 
by painting the edges of bound volumes with it. He 
was of the opinion that paper so treated would last 50 
or 75 .vears. and that the treatment could be repeated 
with the same result. The expense of treating the vol- 
ume page by page might deter most librarians and 
publishers from attempting that method of preserva- 
tion. He pointed out the necessity for binding the 
newspapers as quickly as possible so that they might 
not long be exposed to the air. 

United States Government Specification. 

In 1904, Secretary Wilson, of the Department of Agri- 
culture, authorized the Bureau of Chemistry to investi- 
gate the .subject of suitable papers for Government pur- 
l)oses. The investigation covered about 5.000 samples 
of paper and resulted in the issue of two eirci;lars by 
the Bureau of Chemistry. Subse(iuently the Joint Com- 
mittee of Congress on Printing appointed a Commission 
to pass upon this matter. Its report was adopted 
December IS, 1911. and now conti-ols all Government 
supplies of paper and printing and binding materials. 
In the following month, a public bidding was held. 
The standard specification for printing paper that 
would "endure indefinitely" was as follows: 

Weight, 25x40, 500; 50-i>ouud basis (24x38-45). 

Thickness shall not exceed .0035 inch. 

Strength shall not be less than 18 points. 

Stock shall be not less than 75 per cent, rag; the re- 
mainder may be bleached chemical wood, free from 
unbleached or ground wood pulp. 

Ash shall not exceed 5 per cent. 

Size — The total ro.siu shall not exceed 2 per cent. 

The use of this paper was to be limited to copies of 
those permanent publications intended for Government 
libraries or Government use, or, at most, be limited to 
the copies placed in the depository and university 
libraries of the country. This is intended as the per- 
manent printing paper for the service, and while its 
use will not be extensive, it will serve a very important 
purpose. The important historical documents of the 
Government and its original scientific contributions 
should be printed on permanent paper. It is also desir- 
able that such publications, as the Statutes at Large 
should be printed upon this grade of paper. 

Mr. Veiteh, of the Bureau of Chemistry, who was a 
member of a Government Commission on' Paper Speci- 
fications, and who has given much research to these 
matters, says there is need for two sets of papers, one 
for ordinary handling and immediate accessibility,' and 
one for storing away for future reference. It should 
be practically inaccessible. He writes: "No paper 
which is subject to a great amount of handling and use 
can prove absolutely permanent. Even the best paper, 
if handled, will deteriorate and go to pieces, 'and, if 
handled constantly, would last but a few vears. If 
handled very little, it would last for several hundred 
years, and if the volumes were opened but several times 
a year and were stored in a suitable place, they M-ouId 
undoubtedly last for many hundreds of years. In otlier 
words, the problem is one largely of us"e and 'storage. 

January, 1913 



"The sheets should never be folded. They should 
be kept in binders and not folded repeatedly backwaid 
and forward upon themselves." 

The Bureau of Chemistry and the Bureau of Stand- 
ards at Washington concur in the matter of ink. They 

say : 

"Very liltlo dil'lii-ulfy would be experienced with the 
ordinaiy i>rint('r"s ink. The black inks eonsisr essenti- 
ally of carbon, which is very permanent, and. tlievefore, 
very little anxiety need l)e fi'lt for any publications 
ju'liitcd with black ink." 

How the Congressional Library Cares for Old 
Newspaper Files. 

In the Congressional Library at Washington, special 
efforts are made to preserve eighteenth century files. 
The volunu^s are sealed in dust pi-oof cases. They are 
bound with buckram and tinislied with materials recom- 
mended by the best authorities. The books lie fiat with 
air spacing every six inches for ventilation. Channel 
iron ribs are used in the stacks. Air that has been 
washed or screened to remove dust is forced through 
the .stacks and then exhausted. The temperature is 
kept uniform the year round. Flour paste boiled with 
alum is used for binding. Protecting sheets of paper 
are inserted between eveiw double page. A thin tough 
linen ledger paper is used for guards. Tha only pos- 
sible criticism tliat might be offered toward the perfec- 
tion of these provisions for preservation is the occa- 
sional sunshine in the storage room. The volumes thus 
protected cost .'{JlO.OO each for binding. Tlie ordinary 
binding of the current news])a])er volumes in the Con- 
gressional Library costs !};2.00 per volume. The dele- 
terious effects of the products of gas combustion are 
avoided in the Congressional Library because electricity 
is used for illumination when artificial lighting is neces- 
sary. No records are kept of the humidity of the at- 
mosphere. The cleanliness of the entire establishment 
is its insurance against animal organisms. 

In the New York Public Library, the newspaper files 
are stored upright, in well ventilated stacks with some 
protection against dust by the screening of the air. The 
thermostat in the public file room was fixed in August 
at 68 degrees. The files in the north room and in stacks 
rest on steel ribbed shelving. - No attempt is made to 
regulate the humidity of the storage place. Gas is not 
used in the building. 

Pour large steam pipes pass thi'ough the room of the 
^lontague branch of the Brooklyn Public Lll)raiy, con- 
taining the old New York Herald files. There is no sun- 
shine there, but the main hall where most of the news- 
paper files are kept is flooded with sunshine. Some of 
the files lie flat and some are upright. The ordinary 
effort is made to preserve uniform temperature by heat- 
ing in cool weather, but there- is no special regulation 
of temperature, or hnmidily. or ventilation, or exclusion 
of dust. 

The Philadelphia Public Library stores its newspaper 
files flat in the cellar. It permits the access of very little 
sunshine. There is some ventilation and somi> oppor- 
tunity for variations of humidity due to changes in the 
atmosphere. Gas throws off its deleterious products of 
combustion in this room. Steam heated pipes pass 
through the cellar. The newspapers are bound in buck- 

No Profit in Printing Newspapers on Special Paper. 

Conceding the failure of the newspapers up to this 
time to do that which is more or less of an obligation 
upon them, it should be borne in mind that until recent- 
ly very little data has been available for ascertaining a 
standard quantity of printing paper that would endure 
indefinitely under proper storage. From time to time, 
the subject has been taken up by newspapers. Several 
canvasses have been made of the possible revenue to be 
obtained from such an issue. Apparently, the expenses 
would far exceed the probable revenue. The purchases 
would be restricted to the larger public libraries, some 
college libraries, and some historical societies. I doubt 
if subscriptions could be obtained for one hundred 
copies of such a publication. It seems like a dream as 
a commercial proposition, though some newspaper 
genius may accomplish such a result some day. A rich 
institution, or newspaper publisher or philanthropist, 
like Mr. Carnegie, who lias enthusiasm for the accurate 
historical guidance of future generations, might endow 
such an effort and make it possible. In any event it 
lacks the attractiveness of direct profit. The mere 
cost of the paper M'ould be a bagatelle. One hundred 
copies of an ordinary daily newspaper upon the terms 
and specifications of the Government's contract would 
hardly exceed iff'2.y>0 per diem, but the cost of preparing 
the plates and rolls to meet the varying conditions 
would carry the total cost to a figure that very few 
publishers would care to incur as a permanent obliga- 

Storage of Newspaper Rolls. 

Some newspaper publishers have asked me to gather 
for them information that will enable them to store 
newsprint paper rolls under such conditions that will 
avoid deterioration. The experience in recent years 
has tended to the belief that paper stored by manufac- 
turers in warehouses near the place of consumption has 
become so brittle within three months that it interfered 
with prompt printing of the paper by reason of breaks 
in the web and increased waste. This brittleness is at- 
tributed to the artificial heat or absence of moisture in 
the warehouses. 

100,000 Tons of Print Paper on Hand. 

The print paper manufacturers of the United States 
carr.v nearly 100,000 tons of newsprint paper, of which 
the supply at the mill averages 40,000 tons, or 9 days' 
supply for all newspapers of the country; .six 
days' supply in tran.sit, equaling 27,000; seven days' 
supplv in places of consumption, equalling 31,500; 
total, "98,500. 

This total of approximately 100,000 tons of paper 
represents a selling value of about .$3. 500. 000. Up to 
date there is no evidence of any general eft'ort either bj' 
manufacturers or by consumers to standardize the 
method of storage or to improve conditions. Obviously 
it would be to their mutual advantages to encoiu-age 
and promote every such effort. The International Paper 
Co. stores over 1,800 tons of paper in the loft of the 
big shed at Pier 39, North River, New York. The place 
is not heated in any way and it is subject to all the 
variations of temperature and humidity which are inci- 
dental to the free play of the air on the river front. Its 
officers say they can store paper rolls indefinitely in 
that loft (as much as three years) and deliver the rolls 
to newspaper consumers in good condition. Their only 
trouble in storing paper is due to one extra handling, 
which is. however, less than cartage and storage in a 
warehouse. Some of the paper is stored in a warehouse 



January, 1913 

in Franklin Street, New Vork. in order that the com- 
pany may not have all of its eggs in one basket. The 
Chicago Daily News stoi-cs 1,000 tons of newspriiit 
paper as a reserve. Eighleeii months ago during the 
pendency of a paper strike, it used 600 tons of paper 
that had been stored for five years in a cellar that was 
open to the free play of the atmo.sphere. The rolls were 
set upright on strips that permitted ventilation under 
and on every side. The windows had never been closed 
in all that period. It is reported that when the stored 
paper was put upon the presses, it ran better than fresh 

New York City uses 750 tons of newsprint per diem. 
The total tonnage stored in this city is not readily 
a.scertainable. The Great Northern Paper Company 
carries between 8,500 and 9,000 tons at Pier 42, North 
River, to supply the needs of its customers. The In- 
ternational Paper Company now has approximately 
3,500 tons in .storage in its loft and on cars in the city. 
In Kansas City, the Star carries 2,000 tons of paper. In, the Eagle carries a month's supply. 

Experience of International Paper Company in Storing 

Mr. A. E. Wright, vice-president of the International 
Paper Company, was asked for suggestions for storing- 
paper in the new building of the New York Times. He 
answered as follows : 

"Our experience has taught us that paper stored in 
a room of fairly even temperature of from thirty to 
forty degrees, with a free circulation of air at all times, 
is best suited for the storage of newspaper. 

"As you no doubt know, the warmer the air the 
higher percentage of moisture it carries, therefore we 
suggest a temperature of from thirty to forty degrees. 
When necessary to get as low a temperature as this dur- 
ing the summer months, we would suggest some sort of 

a refrigerating device through which the air would pass 
before entering the store room. It is well to avoid as 
far as possible excessive temperature and moisture con- 
ditions, and allow for as free a circulation of air as 

"We suggest the storing of paper on a vrntibited 
platform fully three inches from the floor, this will 
allow circulation across the bottom of the rolls. 

"As to the effect of light upon paper, we do not 
think that this has much bearing, as long as the wrap- 
pers are left on the rolls. We should say that the most 
satisfactory place for paper storage would be a base- 
ment with windows for ventilation on all four sides, 
and the paper stored on a platform such as recommend- 
ed above. 

"We feel sure from our experience in storing large 
quantities of paper in roll form that if our suggestions 
are followed out as outlined above, very little, if any, 
change in the character of the paper will be found, 
after it has been stored for a considerable period." 

It should be stated that no one has ever attempted to 
adopt refrigeration as a method of preserving stored 
paper rolls. 

Vertical or Horizontal Position for Rolls. 

Another phase of this matter of storing rolls is the 
question of carrying rolls in a horizontal or vertical 
])osition. Practically all the paper companies and news- 
papers store the roll vertically because' it seems to re- 
quire less space. The New York Times, in planning its 
new Annex, has aimed to store over 1,000 tons of paper 
and. to preserve the horizontal position of the roll to 
avoid the waste and labor incidental to mp ending each 
roll and subsequent throwing of the roll to a horizontal 
position. In the Government printing office, five men 
have been observed helping to change the position of a 


Showing That While the Aggregate of Water Powers in Canada, Potential or Available, is Enormous, 

Yet There are Difficulties in the Way of Making an Approximate 

Estimate of Amount of Power Capable of Development 

While without doubt Canada possesses a larger 
amount of i)otential water power than any country in 
the world, roughly speaking, perhaps, twice as much as 
the United States, for example, it would be a very diffi- 
eult thing to give anything like approximately accurate 
figures for the quantity available. The Conservation 
Commission some little time ago published a very valu- 
able book full of data on this important subject, but 
the comp-leis recognized this difficultv of giving a true 
represenialion of the facts, wonderful" as thev are. some 
ot the principal conclusions reached bv this bodv in 
commenting on the subject may be summarized as' fol- 
lows : 

First Water power is dependent, primarilv, upon 
precipitation. Other interests such as municipal and 
domestic water supply, navigation, asjriculture and 
UTigation, are likewise dependent upon the same source. 
The subject of water powers, therefore, can not be pro 
perly considered wuhout making fair allowances for 

the demands of the other interests that have just claims 
upon water as a natural resource. 

Second. Knowledge of the phj-sical circumstances 
intimately associated with water powers is e.ssential to 
an intelligent classification of then. It is as unreason- 
able not to differentiate between water powers as it 
would be not to dift'erentii+e betwe-n timber tracts, 
mineral lands, or the items of any other natural re- 
source varying in quantity. Quality and situation. 

Third. The accuracy of published data to 
water powers must be accepted with qualifications, un- 
less that data is based upon carefully ascertained f.icts 
obtained in the field. 

Fourth. General statements, so commonly made, of 
vast numbers of existent water powers are misleading 
and tend to disguise the fact that the number of water 
powers in Canada, at present desirable from an 
economic standpoint, is much smaller than generally 

Jamiarv, 1!)13 



Kil'lh. Keliable data ui)oii water powers have de- 
liiiite eliaractcristics. Al the present time, there is 
m-f^eiit need for siieli data and toi- detailed tDpograj)!)!- 
cal maps. 

Sixth. Certain steps are necessary to seeure water 
power data that ai-e th(i)-o>ighly relialile. i\Ieteriiig sta- 
tions should l)e estahlished at earefully selected points 
on llie jii-incipal rivers and sti'eams. and accurate cress 
sections of the river ))eds made at such stations. Per- 
manent benchmarks should l)e established. A substan- 
tial gauge sliould be erected in an accessible place at 
eacli gauging or Tiietering station. Carefully conducted 
discharge measurements could then be made from time 
to time during the year, and gauge i-eadings could be 
taken daily, by some reliable per.son resident in the 
locality; or, on the more imi)ortant rivers, self-register- 
ing gauges could be installed. As a result of such 
procedure, rating tables could be prepared to show the 
discharges at all stages of the water. Tims, in the course 
of a very few years, recorded data of fact would l)e on 
tile, and fi'oin such data the maximum, niiniminu and 
mean monthly and mean yearly disdiarges could be 
ascertained. Purtliermore, if the areas of the drainage 
iiasins of the respective watersheds are known, and 
information upon the rainfall is available, important 
deductions relating to the run-off may l)e made. 1 1' 
good "common sense'' judgnu'ut were exercised in the 
selection, equipment and ari-angements for the I'lain- 
tenance of gauging stations much vahial)le and relialile 
information could be olitained for a eomparativeiy 
limited initial outlay and subsequent ainiual expend • 

Owing to the paucity of information available re- 
specting water powers in Northern Canada and the 
northern portions of the various provinces, and. also, 
respecting many of the minor powers in the settled 
area, the Commission did not consider it advisable to 
make an estimate of the total water power in Canada. 
One "estimate" places it at nearly 17.000,000 h.p. ; but 
it does not, and cannot, rest upon any basis of reliable 

The information procured would seem to justify the 
following table showing the total water power de- 
veloped in Canada in liHO. and the principal industries 
using it : 

Electrical Paper Othei- 

Province. Energv. and Pulp. Industries. Total. 

H.P. II.P. H.P. HP. 

Ontario* 400.683 57.575 74.008 532.266 

Quebec i;tl,2.52 76.!)26 31.975 300,153 

Nova Scotia .. 1.875 12,000 1,397 15.272 

New Brunswick . 3.400 3,050 3,315 9.765 

Prince Edward 

Island 50 450 500 

Manitoba 48,250 50 48,300 

Saskatchewan 45 45 

Alberta 7.300 7.300 

lirit. Columl)ia. 88.145 8.500 4.275 100.920 
Vukon 2,000 2,000 

Total 742.955 158.051 115.515 1,016.521 

*lneludes all Ottawa River powers between Montreal 
and Lake Timiskaming whether wholly in Quebec or in 
Ontario, or partly in each. 


According to a report of Herr Reg.-Baumeister F. 
(iutbrod of Berlin (Z.V.D.I., 1912, page 1663). a card- 
board called "Agasot" is being employed in America 
for lining the sheet-iron Pullman cars, this cardboard 
being a fir?-]>ioof and watertight material, and being 
manufactured by the Pantasot Co. of New York. A 
l)revious trial had been made with aluminum for lining 
the ears, but this proved to be unsuitable owing to its 
high conductivity of heat. Between the cardboard and 
the sheet-iron of the car a narrow layer of air is left, 
whereby further heat-insulation is obtained. Agasot 
cardboard 5 mm. thick is directly employed as the lin- 
ing for the ceiling, the side walls above the window, 
the bottoms of the beds, the partitions between the 
beds and the side walls between the seats; it has not so 
far been covered with upholstery. Agasot has the 
advantage that it can be pressed into any desired 
form, can be well and permanently coated with paint, 
and is of very light weight. By employing this ma- 
terial the weight of the car was reduced from 66 to 65 
tons. The chief engineer of the Pullman factory, how- 
ever, is afraid that, as in the majority of similar 
articles pioduced in the United States, the fire-resisting 
(|nalities will gradually disappear in consequence of 
chemical changes in the impregnating material arising 
from moisture. In any ease he by no means considers 
Ibis new lining to be a final solution of the problem. 

Editor's Note. — Recently in Canada inquiries have 
been received from the Canadian Pacific Railway for 
a quantity of leather board about '^ i"- thick for lining 

steel frame box cars in place of the matched wood now 
used. The present difficulty, however, is the warping 
properties of most leather board, which can doubtless 
soon be arranged for. 


Consumers of power in many parts of Ontario are 
in line to save a large sum yearly as the result of the 
recent reduction in power rates by the Hydro-Electric 
Commission, and users in the Niagara district will 
benefit immediately by lower distribution rates. The 
rates of some of the larger cities, such as Toronto and 
Berlin, have not yet been dealt with, but in a number 
of cases commercial rates will be reduced by over one- 
third. Domestic consumers will benefit in proportion. 
so that all told the creation of the Hydro-Electric sys- 
tem will be attended with almost .stai-tling economies 
to the public in the way of power and light. 

A pamphlet which will be of interest to pulp manu- 
facturing interests has been issued by the United States 
Geological Survey upon the results of measurements 
on the flow of streams of rivei-s running to the Atlantic 
coast. They cover the region extending from St. John 
River, forming the eastern boundary of Maine, to the 
Rappahannock River in Virginia, and including the 
i-ivers Kennebec. Penobscot, Androscoggin. Saco, Mer- 
riniac. Hudson, Delaware. Potomac and Susquehanna. 
The value of these rivers, not only as navigable high- 
ways, but as sources of waterpower, is becoming yearly 
more recognized. 


P U I, p AND PAP E R ]\r A G A Z T N E. 

Januarv. 1913 



I>y .lames Scott, in Papcrmakei- and British Pajier 
Trade Journal. 

Tlie purposes J'oi- whieli ice paper and card can be 
used are many, ami include the manufacture of fancy 
boxes, picture mounts, calendars and table knick- 
knacks. Indeed, there are so many directions in which 
this pretty material is capable of fulfilling a desii'able 
duty that a long list of them could be written. Ice 
paper can be made distinct from the card, and be after- 

Fig. 1— Magnified Pinhole View of a Piece of Ice Paper, 
Showing the Typical Crystals of iLead Acetate 

ward gliuHl or pasted to the latter; though in many- 
eases it would be i)referable to deal directly with the 
card, and so save the intermediate trouble and time 
necessary when ice paper is fastened to card. 

This substance is obtained by the simple method of 
bi'ushing a concentrated solution of acetate of lead over 
the well sized surface of either paper or card, and 
allowing these to dry while exposed to warm air, the 
sheets being undetached from one another. Afterward, 
the surface, when thoroughly dry, is rapidly and evenly 
overlaid with a liim of tran.sparent varnish. These 
simple instructions will l)e sufficient to guide the maker 
who wishes to produce this kind of material; but, as 
is my custom, I should like to be allowed to amplify 
somewhat, because I always feel that when a maker is 
interested — either on account of his own investigations, 
or through the information conveyed by others — in any 
goods he prepares, his business is likely to possess for 
liim far more pleasant associations than in cases where 
orthodox plans are carried out in merely mechanical 
fashion. Man is a reflective creature, and ought to find 
interest in knowing something about the substances he 
uses so widely in the various branches of commerce. 
To be ignorant of the curious facts bearing upon trade 
productions, is equal to saying that so long as buyers 
relieve one of goods, and exchange cash for them, the 
matter is finished. 

'IMiis acetate of lead, for instance, which is proposed 
as a coating for i)aper and card, is a very peculiar 
chemical. It is called sugar of lead on account of a 
sweetish flavor noticeable when a solution is tasted. 
The comiwund consists of acetic acid and the metal 

lead, thoroughly incorporated together. The lead can 
be removed therefrom in its metallic condition by vari- 
ous methods. 

By adding })ieces of lead to stale beer or wine, ace- 
tate of lead is procurable in addition to other matters. 

For commercial purposes, acetate of lead is made by 
dissolving either litharge (i.e.. yellow lead oxide) or 
the metallic lead in dilute acetic acid. Litharge is 
made by strongly heating lead. This acetate, when 
complete, forms what is known as a crystalline solid. 
It nuiy be obtained in spongy white masses, composed 
of needle-like crystals of various sizes; also as lumps, 
in which four-sided prisms may be detected ; or as 
powder, obtained by crushing either of the two forms 
already referred to. This acetate is used as an astrin- 
gent medically. 

One-seventh of the weight of lead acetate con- 
sists of what is known as water crystallization: 
the reference meaning that acetic acid and lead con- 
stitute six-sevenths of the salt, and combined water 

It should be pointed out that lead acetate is a poison- 
ous substance, so that great care should be exercised 
by workmen and others during its use. The results 
of lead poisoning are so terrible that no trouble to 
avoid contamination from the compounds of lead should 
be considered too much. So long as the salt is not 
allowed to enter scratches or sores on the hands or 
face, nor dust be breathed as it arises during the hand- 
ling of the salt, there is not much chance of the work- 
ei-s being endangered by its use; but definite instnic- 
tions on these points shcmld be conveyed to them in 
order to avoid risk. 

A solution of lead acetate presents a milky appear- 
ance. Under the microscope such a fluid discloses 
nniltitudes of the tiniest possible specks, these being 
regarded in some quarters as particles of lead, separated 
by and combined with the carbonic acid of th.e water, 
thereby forming detached carbonate of lead. The.y 
are, too minute to be filtered oil'. The quantity of ear- 

Fig 2. — Magnified Pinhole View of Hot Solution of Lead 
Acetate Allowed to Evaporate 

bonic acid in water varies, rain possessing, as a rule, 
the largest proportion, drawn from the air during its 


■Tanuai-v, 1913 



Various crystalline effects may be produced, accord- 
ing to the way in which the acetate or its solutions are 
ilcalt with. Wlien either ice paper or card is made the 
in-etty effect of layei-s of frost covering them is very 
striking. Even on a white surface the result is very 
picturesque, as the fine slender crystals are arranged 
in all manner of positions, and so beautifully catch and 
ii'tieet tlie light. When richly colored paper or card 
forms the basis for the reception of the lead acetate, 
([uite a cliarming production is insured. 

The true form of crystallization for lead acetate is 
that of a four-sided prism, of the kind shown in Fig. 1. 
'fills may be small, or fairly large, according to the 
strength and quantity of the evaporated solution. At 
the same time, these prisms may be so elongated, in 
proportion with their width, as to resemble meres 
needles, in which case they are named acicular. 

Ill Fig 2 is shown the magnified appearance of a hot 
solution of lead acetate spread over glass and allowed 
to cool to a dry film. A less pretty, though somewhat 
similar, result is obtained when a cold solution is 
liru.shed over a slide and evaporated. 

One of the strangest features of the crystalline be- 
havior happens when the lead salt is melted. Place a 
sciNip of the clry powder on a strip of glass, heat it 
sti'ongly, and then find that each speck or fragment 
liquifies to a transparent substance. When removed 
fi-om the heat it almost instantly cools, and we see. on 
magnification of a .speck a rosette of the kind shown in 

Fig: .3. 

It is worth mentioning that if a strip or rod of zinc 
is suspended in a glass jar containing a strong solution 
of lead acetate the lead will be extracted and deposited 
upon the zinc in the shape of glisfening particles, beau- 

plied, because the two things, water and varnish, have 
a natural antipathy to each other. If the paper or 
card is damp when varnished the latter will get 
streaked, spotted or otherwise spoiled. The varnish 
is, of course, intended to fix the salt. 

Fig 3. — Magnified Pinhole View of Tiny Piece of Lead Ace- 
tate Melted and Quickly Cooled 

tifully arranged in tufts, the whole sight resembling 
a small tree made of metal. Such objects used to be 
sold as chemical curiosities a few years ago. Some 
idea of this matter can be got by inspecting Fig. 4. 
which is on a light ground. 

These facts ought to make the manufacture of ice 
])aper more interesting than they would otherwise be. 

A few points may need emphasizing. In the first 
place the better the paper or card used as basis happens 
to be the more successful is likely to be the final pro- 
duction.- Great care should be taken to see that the 
material is thoroughly dry before the varnish is ap- 

Fig 4.- Magnified Pinhole View of a Scrap of Zinc Removing 
Metallic Lead From Solution of Lead Acetate — In- 
stantly Withdrawn in the Form of Ferns 

It should be remembered that a very strong and hot 
solution of the lead acetate is required; otherwise only 
a filmy, almost indistinguishable, figuring will result 
from the operation. By using the solution hot and 
very highly concentrated the maker will be enabled to 
produce a paper or card that is sure to attract atten- 
tion whenever seen. 


It is not at all iincommon to find insutficiemt or un- 
suitable provision for distributing the rosin size to the 
various beaters. Such arrangements are messy and 
wasteful as regards the spilling of the size, and more- 
over involve a considerable expenditure of time and 
labor. In a properly designed mill, the size boiling 
house will be two storeys higher than the beater room 
and will be constructed entirely of masonry. The stor- 
age tanks for the dilute size-milk will occupy the storey 
between the size-boiling house and the beaters. These 
tanks should be of ample capacity, constructed of 
cement, and the size should flow directly from them to 
the measuring tanks at the beaters. Each measuring 
tank should supply two beaters, the discharge pipe 
being attached to a swivel which can be turned over 
either engine. The measurement of the size l\v a float 
and pointer is not recommended, it is much better to 
have a glass gauge-tube with a legible scale in red and 
black behind it. The discharge pipe should be fitted 
with a woollen bag to strain the size. In mills where 
the size boiling house cannot be erected at a sufficient 
height above the beater room, endeavor should at least 
be made to find head-room for the size storage tanks. 
Failing this, the measuring tanks themselves might 
take the place of storage tanks and the size pumped up 
to them by means of a pistonless, slow-speed diaphragm 
pump. Injectors and other kinds of pumps are objec- 
tionable on account of froth. 



January. 1913 


If a mineral pigment, has been nsed. it will remain 
in the ash in which it may be identified b.v well-known 
tests. With aniline dyestiift's the is white and the 
dye must be extracted tVom the paper itself. A piece 
of the paper weighing altout half a gramme is folded 
in a ziz-zag and boiled successively with water, alcohol, 
glacial acetic acid and ammonia, the extracts obtained 
from each treatment being set aside in separate tubes. 
and subsequently concentrated by evaporation. In 
order to test whether the extracted dyestuffs are acid 
or basic, a shred of woollen yarn and a piece of cotton 
mordanted with tannin and tartar emetic are digested 
together in the same solution. If the cotton is dyed 
the coloring matter is l)asic, but if only the wool is 
dyed an acid color is present or else a substantive dye- 
stuff. The substantive dyestuff may be recognized In- 
adding some Glauber's salt and a piece of unmordnnted 
mercerized cotton ; this will absorb sui)stantive dyes but 
not acid dyes. 

Hut there are other organic coloi-ing matters besides belonging to the three classes mentioned. For 
instance, the pigment colors, which are insoluble in 
water but will generally appear in the alcoholic or 
glacial acetic aeid extracts of the paper. An exception 
is lampblack, which is insoluble in everything, but may 
be detected by boiling with sodium hypochlorite; it is 
the only black organic pigment which will resist this 
treatment. Another exception is Indanthrenc blue. 
which also is insoluble in the extracting licjuids men- 
tioned above. This may be recognized by pulping up 
some of the paper with weak caustic soda, making a 
cake of the pulp, drying it and touching it with a drop 
of 40 per cent, nitric acid. In the case of indanthrene 
blue, this acid forms a white spot which becomes blue 
again on steeping in a solution of staiiiious chloride. 

Of the natural vegetable coloring matters, log-wood 
and fustic are still occasionally used. Log-wood is dis- 
solved by glacial acetic aeid giving a yellow solution 
which becomes dark l)luish-red when water is added. 
If ether and stannous chloride are added the solution 
turns magenta colored. Fustic behaves almost in the 
same way, but the watery layer becomes more strongly 
.\-ellow in color, whilst in the ethereal layer a greenisli- 
yellow fluorescence is formed. Quercitron dissolves in 
boiling water with a pale dirty color which becomes 
bright yellow when alum is added. Catechu dissolves 
in alcohol and gives a green or greenish-brown colora- 
tion with ferric chloride. Alizarin, or madder, is ex- 
tracted from the paper by glacial acetic acid' giving 
a yellow solution. The extract is divided into two 
parts and ether is added to each. Stannous chloride is 
added to one portion and the color should remain un- 
eluinged: caustic soda when added to the other portion 
siiould turn it bluish-violet. 

The newer type of artificial organic pigment colors, 
such as the Lithol, Hansa and Helio paste colors are 
extracted by alcohol or aeetie aeid. but are precipi- 
tated again when the solvent is evaporated. Kglantin, 
which is also a pigment color, may be recognized by 
the tact that wlnn warmed with benzene it gives a 
solution with a brown fluorescence. Further, there is 
a series of Indanthrene colors, yellow, green and violet- 
these all become blue when boiled with livdrosuli)hite 


The first reaction for which alum is required is the 
neutralization of the temporary hardness of the water. 
When alum is added in excess to a hard water a pre- 
cipitate is formed which is constant in quantity and 
compo.sition, until the amount of alum exceeds seven 
times the theoretical equivalent of the lime actually 
present. When as much as nine times the necessary 
amount of alum is added no precipitate is formed at all. 
With any reasonable excess of alum the precipitate 
produced consists of a basic sulphate of alumina con- 
taining 70 per cent, of Al.O. and 30 per cent, of SO., 
ns compared with the original sulphate of alumina con- 
taining .30 per cent, of Al.O., and 70 per cent, of SO. 
calculated on the drv substance. Thus the ordinary 
chemical equation: ' AL(S0J,-f3Ca (C0,H),=A1, 
(0H),;-|-3CaS0j-L6C0„ does not hold since only four- 
fifths of the total alum used are active. Hence to neu- 
ti-alize 10 grams of CaO in the form of bicarbonate, 50 
gi'ams of alum must be reckoned instead of 40 grams 
as indicated in the above equation. 

The second function of the alum is the decomposition 
of the resin size, or rather that portion of it which is in 
neutral combination with soda. Dr. Neugebauer has 
made experiments with dilute solutions of neutral size 
and alum in various excessive proportions. He finds 
that the precipitate produced always consists of a mix- 
tuie of about one-third free resin and two-thirds basic 
aluminum resinate. The actual proportions of free 
resin and i-esinate vary according to the amount of 
alum used in excess, from 31 per cent, of free resin 
with a slight excess of alum to 41 per cent, of free resin 
with an excess of twelve times the recjuisite quantity. 
The free re.sin can be separated from the basic alumin- 
ium resinate by dissolving it in alcohol of 0.8773 spe- 
cific gravity. This alcohol, which is of only 75 per cent, 
sti-ength, will dissolve free resin but not the resinate. 
The resinate, which is soluble in ether, contains about 
3.9 per cent, of aluminium and corresponds to a basic 
aluminium resinate of the fornuila A1.,0R^ (where R 
represents resin acids of molecular weight 353). 

The proportion of free resin in the sized pulp will 
consist of the free resin in the size used plus one-third 
of the combined resin of the size, whilst the remaining 
two-thirds will exist in the pulp in the form of basic 
aluminium resinate. The proportion of free resin in 
the finished paper will depend on the yield on the paper 
machine. It may be estimated by extracting the paper with 75 per cent, alcohol, which removes the free 
resin, and then with ether which extracts the resinate. 
Various papers thus analysed were found to contain 
from 50 to 75 jior cent, of their total resin in the form 
of free resin. 


A French patent. No. -144.708. has be, n granted Mr. 
Purly, of United States, for treating waste paper, dur- 
ing or after its transformation into i)ulp, with a solution 
of not more than two jiarts In- weight of caustic soda, or 
Its equivalent of some other alkali, to one thousand parts 
of water, heating the mixture to 145 degrees Fahr. The 
juiljiy is afterwards steeped andVashed in fresh 
water ,all inqjurities being thus removed. 

In place of caustic soda, a solution of borax kept at 
bnihng point during its action upon the paper may be 
used. A variation of the process would consist in treat- 
ing the old paper with a solution of bicarbonate of soda, 
lieated to a temperature above its boiling point; treat- 
ment with fresh water completing the operation. 

January. ]f»1.3 





(Written Speeially for Pulp and Paper Magazine.) 
By Raleigli Raines. 

In the search for lihres that may serve as substitutes 
for wood in the manufacture of paper, special attention 
lias been given to a continuation of the studies of corn 
stalks, broom-corn stalks, and rice straw, by the De- 
partment of Agriculture during the year. Congress 
has repeatedly provided appropriations for conducting 
experiments in paper making from these and other fib- 
rous plants in the hope that a profitable way oi- method 
might be discovered of utilizing these and other waste 
material. For the current fiscal year congress has pro- 
vided the sum of $22,590 for fibre plant investigations 
and for testing and breeding fibrous plants, which in- 
cludes tlie testing of flax straw for paper making, which 
experiments are now in process of development by the 
paper experts of the department. The numei'ous lots 
of materials collected or grown for use in the laboratorj^ 
and mill experiments included three ear loads of care- 
fully harvested corn stalks for food extract production 
and a ton of papyrus tops imported from Palestine. As 
n result of the work accomplished, the conclusion has 
been reached that materials better suited for special 
purposes must be discovered rather than something 
cheaper than those now in use. In line with this con- 
elusion, more emphasis will be placed by the depart- 
ment in the future on the production of crops especiall.v 
adapted for paper making. 

Among the digestions made in the laboratory of the 
department in Washington have been those of sugar 
cane pith fa by-product of the diffusion process of 
sugar making), nolina texana a yucca and sotal rela- 
tive, vetiver grass a plant which yields a soap scenting 
iiaterial flax straw, castor-bean stalks, palmetto leaves, 
hop vines, and papyrus. An attempt is now being made 
to work out a method of cooking specially suited to each 
material Preliminary tests which promise well have 
been made to determine the suitability of hemp pulp, 
l^roduced by t\\p soda process directly from retted 
stalks. Hand made slieets are prepared from all pulps. 
and a special pulp screen has been devised which 
greatly facilitates the work. In all laboratory digestions 
determinations are made of optiraiim steam pressure, 
per cent, of cooking reagents, and yields of fibre. 

During the year, fifty-four cooks of soda pulp have 
been inade. Rice straw has proven a very promising 
material, but the problem of soda recovery remains to 
be worked out. or methods of cooking must be devised 
which will render recovery unnecessary. Rice root grass 
tops, a waste product of the zacaton root-brush fibre 
industry, have yielded an especially promising pulp, 
closely related to that of poplar. The hemp materials 
are also especially promising of good results. The corn- 
pulp yields were the most satisfactory thus far obtain- 
ed. Pith pulp experiment-s have not been consummated, 
but will be continued with the view of manufacturing 

paper specialties. Sixteen corn stalk extractions were 
made in large rotary digesters of 3,000 pounds capacity. 
The j)urpose of these experiments was two-fold ; they 
were conducted in co-operation with the h ireau of ani- 
mal industry, which used the extract in feeding eight 
milch cows. Between eight and nine hundred gallons 
of extract were produced, containing about forty per 
cent, of solids. In connection with the production of 
extract a large quantity of pulp was produced, and a 
test of the resistance of corn stalk pulp was carried on 
with this material. It M*as stored wet and unbleached 
in a drainer and wet down from time to time. Afier 
eight months of wet storage, paper of good quality is 
still being produced from it. The stored pulp has been 
found to lileach more readily than that worked up im- 
mediately after cooking. During the ensuing .'ear es- 
pecial attention will be given to flax straw investiga- 
tions under the provisions of the agricultural appropri- 
ation bill which contains an item of $12,580 for that 

It is the hope of the department that the investiga- 
tions will develop suitable methods of handling the raw 
fla.x straw, and of cooking and bleaching same. Hemp 
stalks both retted and unretted. and hemp wastes, will 
receive attention. Other work will include a study of 
the individual variables in the cooking of different ma- 
terials and a critical comparison of the celluloses ob- 
tained from them. Tests will be made of corn pith for 
making various pnlp products, diffusion methods of 
extracting food by-products, and soda recover^' from 
rice straw liquors. Extensive field work with flax, hemp, 
esparto and other plants will also be prosecuted. 

The investigations of plant fibres have received espe- 
cial attention and an exhibit made at the first world 
congress and exposition devoted exclusively to paper 
plant fibres. The great interest manifested in an almost 
universal desire to extend human knowledge of plant 
fibres, was clearly demonstrated at the exposition where 
the great collection of plant fibres, the fine display of 
fibre cleaning machinery in operation, and the daily 
conferences of men especially interested in fibre pro- 
ducing plants from all parts of the world afforded ex- 
cejitional opportunities for gleaning valuable and accur- 
ate information and for exchanging same. Of the hard 
fibres, about 3,000 of the agava cantala, the most pro- 
mising fibre agave of Java and the Philippines, have 
been introduced and set out in co-operative trials in 
Porto Rico and on the Florida Keys. Henequen. sisal 
and zapupe plants set out in Porto Rico in former y ;ars 
are flourishing, and many of them are now ready to 
yield their first harvest of leaves. After extensive ex- 
periments with hemp, it has been successfully demon- 
strated that the crop can be profitably grown in Wis- 
consin and that the fibre can be prepared in a satisfac- 
tory manner with machinery. The interest aroused by 
these experiments has resulted in about 200 acres of 
hemp being planted in that locality this season. While 
the department has been conducting exi)eriments with 
flax for some time the work of breeding flax for the de- 
velopment of improved strains for both fibre and seed 



January 1, 1913 

are being prosecuted, and laboratory tests indicate a 
distinct improvement in the third generation of selected 
plants. In addition lo tliese experiments others are be- 
ing conducted regarding the deterioration of fibre 
strains of flax from American grown seed in the State 
of Minnesota. Many reciuests for information about 
ramie have been received by the department, and in 
order to supply the detailed information a circular has 
been prepared dealing with the experiments in the cul- 
tivation of ramie under irrigation in California. The 
crops of leaves of sisal, henequen. ami zapupe will be 

harvested when ready in Porto Rico and the Florida 
Keys, and a study made of the relative merits of several 
different kinds of hard fibre plants introduced there. 
EtTorts will be made during the coming year to induce 
farmers to increase the cultivation of flax to supply the 
increasing demand for flax seed, much of which is now 
imported, and a great amount supplied free by oil mills 
to farmers. On the whole the work outlined by the de- 
partment in the line of experiments and investigations 
of paper plants promises to furnish valuable results for 
the use of the paper and cordage trades. 


For testing the degree of purity of wood cellulose — 
i.e., estimating residual lignin. the following methods 
are suggested . 

Treatment with chlorine gas aiul titration of the 
hydrochloric acid formed, the absorption of iodine from 
a standard solution, and the Hempel-Seidel method. 
The chlorine method is influenced by light and it is 
difficult to remove the last traces of chlorine; the results 
of the iodine method are influenced by the hardness or 
softness of the pulp; on the other hand, the Seidel 
method gives concordant results and is considered to 
be the best. It consists in digesting the cellulose with 
nitric acid (13 per cent. ITNCS) at 98 deg. to 100 deg. 
C, collecting and titrating the nitrous gases produced 
in the oxidation of the lignin. 

The following modifications of the original Seidel 
procedure were found to be desirable ; 5 Gm. of the 
s;imple should he treated with 100 Cc, of the acid, 
instead of with PO Cc. ; the rime taken for heating up to 
100 deg. C. should always be the same, viz., 15 minutes 
and the water-bath should be maintained at the boiling 
temperature for 60 minutes. Owing to the formation 
of a mist of acid when the temperature reaches about 
70 deg. C.. the author has slightly modified the ap- 

A long-necked distillation flask with the side tube 
high up is used and a suitable condenser is inserted 
down the neck and fixed there, Avith rubber or pulp; 
the condenser should occupy as much space as possible 
in the neck of the flask and a glass tube should pass 
through the centre of it for the introduction of air. 

The samples to be tested must first be freed from 
resin by extraction with ether, then with alcohol, and, 
lastly, with water. With extracted spruce wood rasp- 
ings the best result was obtained by treating about 3 
Gm. of the wood with 100 Cc. of the acid. The yield of 
nitrous acid was 1.07G Gm. calculated as N„Os, per 10 
Gm. of dry and ash-free wood, and this value is taken 
as a standard, equivalent to 28 per cent, of lignin. 
From this standard the percentage of lignin may be 
calculated from the nitrous acid formed by the treat- 
ment of any sample of wood cellulose; typical samples 
showed from 2 to 3.5 per cent, of lignin, the results 
heme comnlimentary to the yields of cellulose by chlor- 
mation ; 20.1 per cent, of lignin was found in jute. 

The method is quite satisfactory for technical pur- 
poses, whereas Klason's colormetric method with sul- 
phuric acid often gives contradictory results with sam- 
ples of dilTerent type and manufacture. Seidel's 
methodhas also been used for the determination of 
mechanical wood pulp in papers. 


U.S. Consul J. G. Foster reports to his Government 
that he has obtained the following figures concerning 
the quantity of sulphite and chemical pulp manufac- 
tured in Canada in 1912, compared with 1907: 

According to his statement, there is now 40 per cent, 
less suli)hite produced for sale in the Canadian market 
than there was five years ago, or. including the sul- 
phate pulp, the present production for sale is 20 per 
cent. less. The mills' daily production for sale is given 
as follows, the mills starred being users of sulphite pulp 
in their own paper manufacture. The amounts given 
for these are surplus productions. 

1907. 1912. 
Tons. Tons. 

Riordon, Hawkesbury 90 TOO 

Riordon, Merritton . :iO 20 

*Booth :■> 

*Sault Ste. Marie Gf) 15 

*Sturgeon 25 15 

*Laurentide 35 20 

*Eddy 5 

*Jonquiere .3 

Dominion 20 20 

Mirimichi 50 

Gushing 40 40 

St. John Sulphite Fibre Company 30 10 

393 235 

The history of sulphite making in Canada has, he 
says, in the past resulted unfavorably to some of the 
mills. The business, however,- is now profitable and in- 
creasing in volume, but it is not likely to increase in 
production much more rapidly than the Canadian de- 
mand for sulphite pulp. 

The amount of unbleached chemical pulp now being 
exported annually to the United States from Canada 
for sale is said to be between 40,000 and 50,000 tons, 
the balance of the export being destined for paper mills 
owned by the companies producing the sulphite pulp. 
It is claimed that the amount of Canadian sulphite 
exported to the United States for sale in the open mar- 
ket is less than it M-as a few years ago, while European 
shipments of this character to the United States have 
increased very materially. 

Attention should be given to the upkeep of boiler 
mountings. Some firms follow the excellent practice of 
keeping a spare set, so that any defective fittings may 
be replaced. This reduces the inconvenience due to 
stoppage, and at the same time removes the temptations 
to continue their use until they become positively dan- 

Janujirv 1. 1D13 




With Reclaiming of Turpentine and Rosin, Which Separate Out When the Wood is Heated in a Closed Ves- 
sel, After Which the Cellulose is Prepared by Continued Heating and Mixing With Alkalis. 

By H. K. A. Savior. Konie. (ia. 

Pine or spruL'e wood is chipped in small ciiips, about 
half an inch long and one-eighth to one-ciuarter of an 
inch thick, and charged into the cylinder 1, until 
nearly tilled. At the same time aliout one and a half 
ounces of drv caustic soda is added per cubic foot. 
The man-hole cover 25 and the valves 12, 28, 19, 35, 17 
and 37 are then closed, and the valve 32 on a pipe 
connected out with the jacket and the lower part of 
the cylinder 1, arc somewhat opened. Some steam un- 
der a low pressure is then let in. and the vacuum pump 
33 started, until practically a complete vacuum has 
been obtained in the cylinder 1. 

The evacuation of the air from the interior of the 
cylinder, before it has been heated more strongly, pre- 
vents the carbonizing of the chips and the discoloring 
of the turpentine and rosin. 

As soon as a complete vacuum has been obtained in 
the cylinder 1, the valve 32 and all outlets from the 
e.vlinder are closed, and the valves 9, 12 and 15 opened 
so that steam enters into the jacket and into the cylin- 
der, until a pressure of 80 to 105 pounds has been 
reached. This is continued for about one hour, during 
which time the turpentine separates out from the wood 

and the molten rosin collects on the bottom. The valve 
28 is then opened and the heating continued for two 
hours more. During these two hours turpentine and 
steam together pass through the pipe 27. are condensed 
in the condenser 29, and collected in the receiver 30. 
where they are separated in the usual way. 

The valves 28 and 15 are closed after about three 
hours of this treatment, but the valve 12 is left open. 
The valve 19 on pipe 18 is opened and the steam pres- 
sure presses the rosin, which has collected under the 
false bottom 6. through pipe 18 into the funnel 38. 
from where it passes into the rosin retort 39. The 
valve 12 is then closed. About two-thirds of the rosin 
remain in the wood after this treatment. 

The wood in e.vlinder 1 is now transformed into cel- 
lulose in the following manner. The valve 19 is closed 
after the first collected rosin has been let out through 
the pipe 18. and a solution of caustic soda of 15° Be. 
under a pressure higher than the pressure in e.vlinder 1 
pressed in through pipe 34. Enough of this solution 
of caustic soda is introduced to cover the chips. The 
valve 35 is then closed and the valves 12 and 15 opened, 
and steam let in into the e.vlinder 1 and into the jacket, 
until the pressure has reached about 125 pounds. This 
pressure is kept up for about five hours, during which 
time all valves on the cylinder, except the steam valve 
12. are closed. 

Soon after the pressure in cylinder 1 has been in- 
creased the valve 28 is opened for a short time and the 
remaining turpentine blown off. The pressure of 125 
pounds is kept up in the cylinder until the wood has 
been transformed into cellulose. The rosin collects 
under the bottom 6. The valve 19 is opened after one 
and one-half hours, and all rosin let out through pipe 
18. after which the valve 19 is closed. 

At the end of this treatment which lasts for five to 
six hours, the wood is completel.v changed into cellu- 
lose. The valve 15 is then closed and the valve 19 
opened for a short time. The pressure in e.vlinder 1 
then forces the lye out through pipe 18 into a container, 
from where it is taken into an evaporation apparatus 
treated in the well-known way. The valve 19 is then 
closed, the valve 37 opened and the cellulose blown off 
through pipe 36. 

The whole process lasts about ten hours. — B. 

Press rolls of granite have, during the last years, 
been substituted with advantage for east-iron rolls, 
with or without a metal lining for paper machines. 
The advantages of the granite rolls b.v reason that the 
paper does not stick to them, and their resistance and 
strength, etc., are generally known. Granite rolls, 
however, sooner or later wear to an uneven surface, 
because the rock is not homogeneous enough, and be- 
cause mica, one of its constituents, has but little resist- 
ance against friction. Porph>Ty is evidentl.v a better 
material for press rolls. 



Januarv 1, 1913 



(By R. H. Campbell, Dominion Director of Forestry.) 
The Forestry Branch of the Department of the 
Interior has developed a well organized system for 
handling the forest resources of the Dominion which 
are under its administration and for investigating the 
whole question of forestry as it affects Canada in 

Up to the present time one difficulty in the way of 
rapid development has been the lack in Canada of men 
who have had technical training in forestry. Little 
progress can be made without a fair proportion of men 
in the service who have had the advantage of the study 
of forestry methods from the scientific standpoint, and 
who. therefore, understand the lines upon which ad- 
vancement must be made and the ultimate purposes 
which the administration must have in view. The 
difficulty is now l)eing overcome by the forest schools 
established in the Dominion, which are graduating each 
year a number of men who should fill this gap in the 
administration. The Forestry Branch of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior has so far furnished the chief 
openings for these graduates, and there are now on the 
staff 20 technical men. 

. The exploration of the pul)lic domain in order to 
ascertain the extent and present conditions of the for- 
ests to hold permanetly in national forests the non- 
agricultural lands is an important side of the work, 
and a first necessary step for the establishment of a 
permanent forest policy. Consequently, six parties 
were detailed for this work during the past year in 
Keewatin, Northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and 
in Alberta and the Railway Belt in British Columbia, 
and these have added much to our knowledge of the 
forests, and defined extensive additional area that 
should be held for forest purposes. 

The protection of the vast extent of northern forest 
is a task of great magnitude. The belt of land, more 
or less forested, stretching from Hudson Bay to the 
Rocky Mountains, covers a distance of 1.500 miles from 
east to west, and from 300 to 700 miles from north to 
south, and, with travel, railway construction and 
settlement steadily working into it from all directions, 
the danger of fire is great and constant. On the whole, 
the staff of rangers patrolling in these districts is of a 
good class, but the nuin1)er so far employed, 200, is 
utterly inadequate to tlie task when the season is at all 

One of the weaknesses of the fire ranging outside of 
the reserves has been a lack of proper inspection to 
determine what districts shall be patrolled and how the 
patrols of the rangers shall be arranged to ensure that 
the patrol is being carried out fully. During the past 
vearan organization for lietter inspection has been 
provided and improved the service very much. The 
patrol along the railway lines by the " companies as 
provided for by the Railway Act, has been put into 
force during the past summer under the inspection of 
the Forestry Branch and has resulted in greatly im- 
proved conditions. 

The lumbermen in (he West have not heretofore 
taken as live an interest in the protection of the timber 

from fire as the investments that they have in timber 
limits would seem to justify. A more active participa- 
tion by the lumbermen in the system of protection 
should" lead to better results, and, without their co- 
operation, it is difficult for the Department to accom- 
plish all that should be done. A scheme for co-opera- 
tion by the lumliermen in this work should be heartily 

The organization of the permanent forest reserves so 
as to make them fireproof and to provide proper man- 
agement is work that requires a good permanent staff 
and a system of permanent improvements, such as 
forest ranger stations, trails, roads, bridges, telephone 
lines, etc. As the forest ranger staff is the groundwork 
of all the organization for handling the reserves, the 
choice of the right kind of men is a factor of the 
greatest moment. The improvement work above re- 
ferred to as required on the reserves is necessary if 
there is to be effective protection and management, and 
as all this work is yet to be done it will he seen that 
there miist be a large initial expenditure Avhich cannot 
be expected to be ret^^rned by the forest immediately. 
The work on permanent improvements is, in fact, a 
capital expenditure, and should be considered as such. 
A proper system of roads, trails, buildings, etc.. 
throughout the reserves will cost a large amount of 
money, the incidence of which should be distributed 
through a series of years. These works, once done, will 
require a comparatively small expenditure for main- 
tenance, in addition to such work as may be done by the 
permanent ranger staff. So long, however, as this work 
remains undone the forests are exposed to danger which 
cannot be coped with in seasons of light rainfall, and 
which renders much of the expenditure that is being 
made for fire patrol finally nugatory, as the history of 
the drv years so eloquently testifies. 

It must be expected, therefore, that the expendiiure 
on the forests for a considerable period will exceed the 
revenues. A permanent policy, in the present condition 
of our forests, cannot be worked oiit on any other ex- 
pectation. The waste of years of unchecked fires can- 
not be repaired in a day. When the fire danger has 
been eliminated and proper system of ciitting timber 
introduced, the condition of the forests will steadily 
improve, and finally will reach the stage where a sus- 
tained annual yield can be obtained which will give 
revenue sufficient to cover the costs of administration 
and furnish as reasonable a profit as a Government 
would be expected to obtain. 

The collection of statistics in regard to forest pro- 
ducts is an important corollary to the other work of 
this Branch. Previoxis to the starting of this work by 
the Forestry Branch, in 1908, there were no reliable 
records of the yield of the forests of Canada or of the 
value of the forest as a producer of wealth and a sup- 
port of native industries. These reports, combined 
with the export and import returns of the Department 
of Customs, have revealed our strength and our weak- 
ness. They show an annual value of Canadian forest 
products of $166,000,000, second only to the agricul- 
tiu-al production ; that, as far as pulp wood is con- 
cerned, Canada is the greatest producer and supplies 

Jjimiarv 1, 1913 



not only Canadian requirements, but a large part of 
those of the United States, but that as far as the iiioie 
valuable woods are concerned, especially hardwoods, 
the supply is steadily approaching the point of exhaus- 
tion, and, in most hardwoods, has already piaetieally 
i-eached it. A strengthening of the staff handling this 
work would make the reports still more valuable and 

A further development that would properly round 
out the natural work of the Forestry Hraneh would be 
the investigation of waste in the forest and in tlie 
manufacture of wood and experimentation in new i)ro- 

cesses to prevent waste. Unquestionably one of the 
developments in the direction of economy must be in 
the elimination of waste outside the forest, as well as 
inside. The drain upon our wood supplies will become 
so great that they must not only be protected when 
standing in the forest, but must be followed all along 
the line of use and made to spread as far as possible 
both in quantity and time. The work of the Forestry 
Branch cannot be considered complete until it can fol- 
low the products of the forest through this whole cycle 
and assist in economizing them to the end. Provision 
for investigations on the lines indicated should be made 
without delay. 


As stated in the hist number. Prof. K. .1. Zavitz, well- 
known in connection witli the Ontario Agricultural 
College and with forestry work in that ])rovinee. has 
lieen appointed Forestry Commissioner for Ontario — a 
new position in the Department of Lauds, Forests and 

In this office Prof. Zavitz Avill advise the department 
with regard to nil matters of cutting, and no lumbering 
operations will in future be allowed without his recom- 
mendation. He will see to the destruction of debris 
and slash from lumbering, and will also deal with re- 
forestation and conservation all over the province. 
Prof. Zavitz 's work is well known in connection with 

Prof. E. J. Zavitz 
Ontario Commissioner of Forestry 

the reforestation and conservation scheme in Norfolk 
County, wher« some 1,500 acres of waste land are be- 
ing reclaimed by the Department of Agriculture, which 
work, however, will likely be turned over to the new 
branch. Considerable reorganization will immediately 
be carried out, at the conclusion of which the Govern- 
ment will extend the work of reclaiming waste areas. 
Particular attention will be paid to forestry work in 
Northern Ontario. 


It gi\es but a .flight indiealiun of the extraordinary 
amount of forestry work to be done in British Columbia 
to state that the province is heavily timbered, is 700 
miles long by 400 wide, and that the actual work covers 
an area of something like 130,000,000 acres. 

At present very little is known about most of the 
province, and this infoimation is held by a number of 
surveyors, prospectors, hunters, trappers, and others, 
who are difficult to find and who when found cannot 
usually describe the country in the manner wanted by 
the Forest Administration, and have never looked at 
the countr.y from the Forester's point of view. 
• In addition, very little of the province has been sur- 
veyed. The coast line, international boundary, rail- 
ways, patches of settled land in different parts, the 
Dominion Railway Belt, a few areas surveyed by the 
Geological Survey of Canada, and some of the leased 
and licensed timber areas are about all that has been 

The work has been carried out by a large number of 
different agencies and is linked up by no triangulation 
of the country or system of townships. 

All this makes the collection of reliable data much 
more difficult, and without such data it is impossible 
to organize the province by districts for forest adminis- 

The aim of the energetic men who are imdertaking 
the work in Bi-itish Columbia is to have at head- 
quarters a map and a well arranged store of in- 
formation from which to see what land is timberland 
and what not timbered, according to the definition con- 
tained in the Land Act of British Columbia, which says 
that timbered land is land bearing 8,000 board feet or 
more to the acre in the countrj' west of the Cascades 
and 5,000 board feet or more to the acre in the country 
east of the Cascades. 

The timbered land again may be good, medium or 
poor, so we want to know roughly what the stand is in 
each part; of the eountrj'. 

It is not the desire at present to make a close cruise, 
as it would serve no good purpose and be a waste of 
time and money, so they are contenting themselves with 
an ocular estimate showing classes 0-5000, 5000-10.000, 
10,000-20.000 and 20,000 board feet to the acre and up. 

In every other country that has carried out a recou- 
noissance of its forests there has been some system of 
surveys on which to base the work over the greater 
part of the area, but British Columbia being a new 
country the difficulties are immensely increased, and 
there is nothing for it but: to tackle the work and con- 
quer the difficulties as they arise. 


1* [• L P A N D P A P E R MAGAZINE. 

Januarv 1. 1913 


By E. 15. Archibald, B.Sc. A.M.A.I.E.E. 

A new type of power i)huit is coming very rapidly to 
the front in the name of the "The Wood Refuse Pro- 
ducer Gas I'laut," which should be of interest to many 
of the large lumber, furniture and other manufacturing 
concerns in this country, having no end of wood refuse 
and cheap timber at their disposal. 

This tyi)e of plant can be run on such fuels as shav- 
ing.s, wood blocks and all kinds of wood refuse, and 
should find a laige field in the future in localities where 
the supply of wood can be obtained at a minmum cost, 
and where the cost of coal is almost prohibitive, due to 
the heavy transportation charges incurred in its travel 
from the base of supplies. 

The standard type of suction gas plant to-day suit- 
able for use with gas coke or anthracite fuel has an 
extremely small consumj^tion, yet in many cases this 
fuel is very costly, and is subject to rapid fluctuations, 
which is chiefly true in isolated places. This has led 
many engineeis to consider the design of a plant which 
would be suitable for saw mill engineers and others to 
obtain power for driving their machinery from unsale- 
able wood refuse. The question of disposing of wood 
refuse in timber and other trades economically, is one 
of the important questions that needs careful con- 

Fiom the following remarks one will see a few of the 
main principles underlying the design of a wood refuse 
producer gas plant, and it will be found that it is much 
the same as in the case of a suction gas plant operating 
with anthracite as a fuel. There will, however, be found 
the following principal points of difference with regard 
to the wood refuse plant, as compared with an anthra- 
cite plant. 

1. No vaporizer or steam boiler is required, Hie 
nece.ssary steam rccpiired for enriching the gas and 
keeping the producer temperature down is derived from 
the moisture found in the fuel itself. 

2. A centrifugal washer is provided for the purpose 
of removing all tarry matters and impurities from the 

Brief Description of Operation. 

On the suction stroke of the gas engine, a vacuum is 
created throughout the plant and in the pipes connect- 
ing the plant with the engine. Air is then drawn into 
the generator below tlie fire grate, and then passes 
through the hot fuel causing chemical reactions to take 
place, thus forming a combustible gas. The gas thus 
generated passes from the top of the generator into a 
dust collector box, and thence to the bottom of the coke 
scrubber. Passing upwards through a body of coke 
which IS saturated with water, the ga,s then passes 
througli a centrifugal washer, and is freed from all 
tarry matters. From the washer the gas finallv passes 
thi-ough a sawdust scrubber before lieing allowed 1o 
enter the engine. 

Special Features in Connection With This Plant 

No chances are taken in tlie fuel feeding arrange- 
men s. Very safisfaelory results are found in using a 
positive feed valve which prohibits any excess air to 
pass info the producer, while the operation of feedin-. 
is m progress. In this case a balanced plate valve is 
attached to the hopper on the top of the producer so 
designed to prevent light fuds beconiin«. blocked in "the 
hopper, and thus projecting the generator 

In many cases there is a great tendency in wood re- plants in the pipes between the generator and 
scrubber becoming clogged with tarry matters and saw- 
dust. This tendency has been overcome in the wood 
refuse plant manufactured by Davey, Paxman & Co., 
of England. In their producer a dust collector box of 
special construction is placed between the generator 
and scrubber, so arranged that gases in passing through 
the same are brought into contact with jets of water, 
which both cleans and cools the gas, and also keeps the 
gas passages free from deposits. Should any sawdust 
be drawn over, it is washed down, and is deposited in 
the seal pit. 

The coke serul)ber and sprayer is similar to that used 
in an anthracite plant. The sawdust scrubber is large 
enough in design to prohibit any luidue suction on the 

The chimne.v pipe is attached to the top of the pro- 
ducer, and can be closed by means of an air-tight cover 
on top of the pipe. Poking holes are arranged in suit- 
able positions throughout the plant. 

The following data gives an outline of a test made on 
an installation of the above type manufactured by 
Messrs. Davey, Paxman & Co., Ltd., England. 

The plant experimented upon was connected to a gas 
engine rated for a continuous load of 36 h.p. 

Fuel Used. 

A shipment of cocoanut shells from Ceylon crashed 
down approximately to pieces of 2-inch to 3-iuch 
square. Fire was laid with wood w^ool, and shavings to 
level of fire doors, then fuel was fed in up to level of 
lio]iper top. 

First Day. 

Time. Remarks. 

Kl.d.i a.m. — Lit fire and commenced to blow on hand 

10.20 a.m. — Gas lit at engine. 
10.22 a.m. — Engine started. 
10.2.5 a.m. — Commenced to put load on engine. 
10.38 a.m. — Full load lieing carried by engine and 

maintained until 4.45 p.m." 
4.4.5 p.m. — Engine shut down. - 
After shutting down the engine, the gas and air 
valves were removed. No tar was found upon the valve 

Plant Opened Out. 

The fire was found to be in good condition and no 
elmker could be seen on the bars. There was no diffi- 
culty m getting a poking tool through the grate bars 
and right across the body of the fire; this fact indi- 
cates that very little clinker could be present after the 
day's run. 

The dust box and gas pa.ssages were practically as 
clean as they were before starting the plant. A "con- 
siderable quantity of tar was washed out of the gas 
both at the dust box and in the extractor. 

The fuel was not drawn out of the generator at the 
end of the day's run. but the chimnev pipe was left 
open overnight so as to keep the fire alight ready for 
running on the following day 

Januarv 1. 1913 



Second Day. 

Fire already in generator, alter being backed up all 

Time. Remarks. 

7.35 a.m. — Commencpd blowing on fan. 
7.43 a.m. — Gas lit at engine. 
7.45 a.m. — Engine started. 
7.48 a.m. — Commenced to put load on engine. 
7.55 a.m. — Full load being carried by engine and 
maintained till 6.15 p.m. 
10.15 a.m. — Supply of fuel exhausted. Generator then 

filled to level of hopper toji. 
6.15 p.m. — Engine shut down. 
The gas and air valves on the engines were examined, 
the valve spindles and seats were found to be quite 

Plant Opened Out. 
The dust box and gas passagi's were still clean, as at 
the end of the day's trial. 

Fuel Consumption. 
From the rough tests which were able to be made it 
was found that 3i o lbs. of fuel had been used for every 
b.h.p. which was given off at the engine, including the 
fuel consumed whilst the plant was banked up over- 

Water Consumption. 

The figures given hereunder, cover the whole of the 
water required for the plant. (Coke scrubber, tar fx- 
tractor. and spray pipes in dust box, etc.) 

The quantity of water consumed worked out- at four 
gallons per li.h.p. hour. A liberal feed of water was 
given to all points of the plant, as it was deemed advis- 
able to place the latter under the best. conditions as far 
as the water supply was concerned, in order to deter- 
mine whether entire elimination of the tar was possible. 
In order to produce the necessary spraying effect, a cer- 
tain quantit.v of water would always be required 
through the plant, quite regardless of the quantity of 
gas which might be passing, therefore in a plant of 
larger size the water consumption per b.h.p. hour would 
be considerably lower than was the case with the com- 
paratively small plant now under consideration. 

General Remarks. 

The fuel packs well in the generator, and the atten- 
tion required is very little more than would be needed 
by a plant working with anthracite as fuel. Upon 
referring to the log of the second day's run it will be 
noticed that no fuel was fed into the generator afl:er 
10.15 a.m., but that the engine continued to run till 
6.15 p.m. In other words, the engine ran for eight 
hours without any stoking of the gas plant, and no 
poking whatever was done after 2.45 p.m. This means 
that the plant ran without any attention for 3io hours. 
Three-quarters of an hour l)efore shutting down the 
plant on the second day of the tests, the engine was 
tried with about 10 per cent, overload, and carried the 
same for several minutes, although the fire in the gen- 
erator was by this time rather thin. 

The above mentioned plant has been worked with 
wood, blocks, chips, shavings, bark, twigs, tanbark and 

When one travels through the lumbering and wood 
working districts of Canada it would appear that vm- 
saleable wood and sawdust could be used very efficiently 
in a plant of the above type as this refuse should not 
be discarded as being useless when so much available 
energy can be extracted therefrom by a proper appli- 


(Specially Contributed.) 

In a measure the pulp and paper situation in this pro- 
vince is in a somewhat critical state. The history of the 
industry shows that prices have gone in cycles or waves, 
and that high prices are followed by low figures. The 
tendency for the past few years has been towards higher 
levels, but the influx of new mills and the consequent 
increase in production has been faster than the demand 
warranted. The natural result will be a cutting of prices 
and a decrease in the earnings of the pulp and paper 
mills. While this may take place, it is not believed that 
the reduction will be permanent. Quebec seems destined 
to become the pulp and paper manufacturing centre of 
the continent. This province possesses abundant water 
powers, extensive pulp areas and the labor necessary to 
manufacture pulp wood into paper. The fact that paper 
can be manufactured in this province at $5.50 per ton 
cheaper than Ln the United States and the further fact 
that the export of pulp wood cut from Crown lands is 
prohibited, will tend to make this province a great pulp 
and paper centre. 

During 1911. a total of nineteen pulp, paper and lum- 
ber companies were incorporated in the province, with 
a total capitalization of $41,709,000. During 1912 the 
incorporations of new companies was practically nil, but 
many of the companies incorporated in 1911 began to 
produce during the present year. 

The Province of Quebec has twenty-eight out of fifty- 
four paper mills operating in Canada, and consumes 58 
per cent, of the total pulp wood consumed in the Do- 
minion. In 1910 thi.s province exported 779.000 cords 
of pulp wood, valued at .$5,090,000. In 1911 the amount 
exported was redu.^ed to 636,000 cords, valued at $3,958,- 
000. This reduction was due almost entirely to the pro- 
hibitory law put in foi'ce by Sir Lormer Gouin. stopping 
the export of pulp wood cut from Crown lands. In other 
words, this legislation caused a decrease of IS per cent, in 
the export of raw pulp wood, while the local consumption 
increased by over 14 per cent. The figures for 1912 are 
not yet available, but it is expected that not more than 
600.000 cords were exported during the year 1912. The 
daily output of pulp wood in the province now amounts 
to 2.850.000 lbs., while the daily output of paper is 
1.400,000 lbs. 

The Province of Quebec has a forest area of 111.000.000 
aci-es, which is estimated to be worth $445,000,000. The 
lumber production from Quebec's 450 mills amounts to 
1,000,000.000 feet per year, but it is as a pulp and paper 
centre that this province will become famous. The pri- 
vateh' owned timber lands comprise about 6.000.000 
acres, which are estimated to be able to supply from 
500,000 to 1.000,000 cords of wood per annum for some 
years to come. 

While in the main pidp and paper men are satisfied 
with the working of the Gouin Act prohibiting the export 
of pulp wood from Crown lands, there are movements 
from time to time in favor of a change in this Act. Re- 
cently a depiitation of pulp, paper and lumber men wait- 
ed on the Premier with the request that the Act be 
amended. It is also kno^Ti that American paper men 
are becoming restless under the fc^^trictions, and are 
seeking through the medium of their own Government, 
to bring pressure to bear upon the Quebec Legislature 
On the other hand, the Canadian Jlanufacturers' Asso- 
ciation recently started a movement for th.; purnose of 
putting an export duty on pulp wood. They are advo- 
cating the appointment of a Royal Commission for t^ie 

Continued on Page 42 



Janiiarv 1. 1913 


Geo. M. McKee, General Manager of the Donnacona 
Paper Company, Ltd., Quebec. 

A man of pleasing acldre.s.s, and great executive 
ability, coiues to u.s after a prominent connection with 
some of the best plants of the United States, and the 
broadest business and paper manufacturing experience. 
After a year as suljihite superintendent with the Friend 
Paper Company, West Carrolton, Ohio, Mr. McKee 
spent the time between 1898 and 1907 as general man- 
ager of Hinkley Fibre Company, in the latter .year be- 


coming president. A year ago Mr. McKee came to Can- 
ada to investigate paper making possibilities in Quebec 
Province, with the result that in August he purchased 
the Jacques Cartier River properties from the Forman 
interests and others, and organized the Donnacona 
Paper Company. He is now busy in con.structing a 
news and ground wood mill on these properties. Con- 
tracts have been let to Ambui-sen Hydraulic Construc- 
tion Company of Canada, Ltd., for the buildings of con- 
crete and brick, and dam 1,100 feet long, twenty feet 
high for a head of sixty feet, on a cost plus basis. A 
brief outline of the plant is given elsewhere in this issue. 

Wm. D. Gregor, General Superintendent, Kenogami 
Paper Mills. 

Our readers will find a sketch of ilr. Gregor's life in 
the September issue of the Pulp and Paper Magazine. 
Already he has made himself a place in the trade, and 
has gathered 1o himself a large circle of warm friends. 
His work is characterized by a thorough knowledge of 
the general principles, and details of paper making, as 
well as by marked success in handling his men. We 
congratulate the Canadian trade on attracting such 
men, and wish ]\Ir. Gregor all kinds of success amid 
new conditions. 

E. R Colbert, Manager Barber Paper and Coating 
Mills, Ltd. 

I\lr. Colbert came to (,'anada after fifteen years' 
American experience in CDated papers of every grade 
on the purchase of the Canada Coating Mills by the 
above concern. Starting as helper on a machine at the 
Wabash Coating ]\Iills in his home town, Wal>ash. Ind., 


he later became connected with the West Virginia Pulp 
and Papei' Mills, an<| the American Coating Mill at 
Elkait. liid 

With experience in every department of the mill, as 
well as office and sales, his management of the above 
mills is proving most satisfactory. 


;i Hilary 

1, 1913 



Joseph H. Slater. 

Alex. Annandale. 

We welcome 'Sir. Slater hack to Canada as geueral 
.superintendent of the Sjianish River Pulp and Paper 
IMills. Ltd. Of English birth, he came to Canada very 
young, and got his tirst lessons in paper making in the 
(leorgefown i'aper Mills. At about eighteen, the United 
States lured him away, where he worked as machine 
lender, etc., in a number of dift'ereut mills at Niagara 


Falls, in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Holyoke, ]\Iass., 
and Ohio, becoming familiar with practically every 
grade of paper made. When the Herkimer Paper Com- 
pany of Herkimer, N.Y., making manilla. fibre, and 
news papers, became a unit of the International Paper 
Company, he was promoted from tender to boss machine 
tender, later becoming superintendent, which position 
he held for six years. Going from there he held the sup- 
erintendency of the Glens Falls mill of the International 
Paper Company for several years and later went to the 
Ft. Edward Paper and Sulphite Mills in the same capa- 
city. After a few years here he became the superin- 
tendent of the International Paper Company's Otis Falls 
mill, one of their largest plants. Spending only a year 
and a half with them, he was chosen for the position he 
now occupies, and has a very busy time adding the two 
new nuichines, purchased from the Kansas City Star, to 
the Espanola plant, and remodeling the Sturgeon Falls 
mill, formerly the Ontario Pulp & Paper Company, and 
before that the Imperial Paper Company. Mr. Slater 
is a man of great executive ability and has a thorough 
knowledge of paper in its minutest details. 

Born at Polton, Scotland, of parentage in the paper 
business for two genei'ations ; educated at Edinburgh 
University, in the branches of chemistry and engineer- 
ing necessary to pulp and paper, after which he passed 
througli tile various departments of his father's mill at 
Peltinford, later rising to manager and partner. Upon 
this mill lieing sold, IMr. Annandale joined the firm of 
Jolin Annandale & Sons, Shotley Bridge, Durham, later 
becoming resident partner and sales manager in Lon- 
don. At the conclusion of this he went to South Africa 
in the interests of a syndicate, to investigate the oppor- 
tunities there, but war and financial tightness at the 
time prevented the organization of the proposed com- 
pany. After holding the managership of mills at Four- 
stones, making featherweight papers, and the Chunside 


Mills, Berwickshire, he did more expert work, which 
took him to Italy several times, to show them how to 
treat Esparto, then took a trip to Canada and decided 
to return at once to England and arrange his business 
to permanently settle here, which he finally accomplished 
this November. 

He is an Imperialist, holding strong views in tariff 
reform in Great Britain, and is heartily welcomed to 
Canada, as an experienced j^aper maker. 

Mr. Annandale has joined the Canada Paper Com- 
pany at Windsor Mills. Que., and we bespeak for him 
success in his new sphere of activity. 

The almost total destruction of the tamarack or lar.'h. 
which took place throughout Eastern Canada almcst 
thirty years ago, was caused by an insect, the larch saw- 
fly. It appeared again about eight years ago, and in 
its spread westward it is repeating its former devasta- 
tion on the younger tamaracks. The devastating spread 
of the sawfly in North America was due to the comxiara- 
tive absence of the natural means of control. Several 
important species of parasites new to science were dis- 
covered and have been studied and described. To in- 
crease the number of natural enemies of the sawfiv. at- 
tempts are being made to introduce and est'ih'ish in this 
country parasites which were discovered in England and 
wliich npiieared to control the there. 



January 1. 1913 



Following is an abstract of the chief laws and regulations governing the cutting of timber, licensing 

of timber lands, development of water powers, etc., in the Dominion and various provinces of 

Canada. Information is also included, where available, in regard to pulpwood statistics, &c. 


Mr. T. G. Loggie, Deputy Surveyor-General, in reply lo i ur 
request to be furnished with the latest estimate of the pulp wooil 
resources of the Province, says: "I am sorry no', to be ulile 
to comply with your request as we have practic!\ry no liguros 
as to how much pulp wood there is in th's Province. We ha'.e 
no regulations whereby pulp wood can be cut nor any spruce 
or pine tree, but what would make a log sixteen feet long and 
nine inches at the small end. I enclose the timber regulations 
for 1912-13, also copy of the Act respecting the prohibition of 
e.xporting pulp wood which came into effect on the 1st of 
August, 1912. I might say, however, we absolutely give no 
licenses at all to cut pulp wood which means a tree smaller than 
the regulation size as stated above. Some three years ago we 
did adopt a regulation whereby thickets could be thinned out 
and stunted spruce cut in certain localities, but we found the 
regulation worked very badly for the Province and it was con- 
sequently withdrawn." 

The Act respecting the manufacture of spruce and other 
pulp wood cut on Crown lands follows: 

1. All sales of timber licenses by the Surveyor-General 
which shall hereafter be made and which shall convey the right 
to cut and remove spruce or other soft wood trees or timber, 
other than pine and poplar, suitable for manufacturing pulp or 
paper, and all licenses or permits to cut such timber on the 
limits and berths so sold, and all claims entered into or other 
authority conferred by the said Surveyor-General, by virtue of 
which such timber may be cut upon ^ands of the Crown', shall be 
so made, issued or" granted, subject to the conditions set forth 
in the first regulation of Schedule "A" of this Act, and it shall 
be sufficient if such conditions be cited as "The Manufacturing 
Condition" in all such licenses, permits, agreement or other 

2. The regulations set out in schedule "A" of this Act are 
hereby approved and confirmed, and declared to be legal and 
valid to all intents and purposes, and the same shall apply to 
all licenses or permits hereafter issued, whether for the "first 
time or in renewal of licenses or permits heretofore issued or 

3. The Lieutenant-Gnveruor-in-Council may make any further 
or additional regulations necessary to enable the Surveyor- 
General to carry into effect the object and intent of the regula- 
tions contained in schedule "A." 

4. No licensee of any timber license or permit shall hereafter 
sell, assign or in any way transfer to any other person or com- 
pany the interest of such licensee therein under such license, 
until such licensee shall have paid to the Province the sum of 
four dollars per square mile. 

5. The first three sections of this Act and the reguh^tions 
thereby approvcl shall not come into force until the first dav 
of October, A.D. 1911. 


1. Kvery timber license or permit conferring authority to 
cut spruce or other soft wood, trees or timber, not being pine or 
poplar, suitable for manufacturing pulp or paper on°the un- 
granted lands of the Crown, shall contain and be subject to the 
condition that all s«ci> timber cut under the authority or per- 

mission of such license or permit, shall be manufactured in 
Canada, that is to saj-, into merchantable pulp and paper, or 
into sawn lumber, wooden ware utensils or other articles of com- 
merce or merchandise, as distinguished from the said spruce 
or other timber in its raw or manufactured state; and such con- 
ilition shall be kept and observed by the holder or holders of 
any such timber licenses or permit, who shall cut or cause to 
be cut spruce or other soft wood trees, or timber, not being pine 
or poplar, suitable for manufacturing pulp or paper under the 
authority thereof, and by any other person or persons who shall 
cut or cause to be cut any of such wood trees or timber under 
the authority thereof, and all such wood trees or timber cut 
into logs or lengths or otherwise, shall be manufactured in 
Canada as aforesaid. It is hereby declared that the cutting of 
spruce or other soft wood, trees or timber, not being pine or 
poplar, suitable for manufacturing pulp or paper, into cord 
wood or other lengths, is not manufacturing same within the 
meaning of this regulation. 

2. Should any holder of a timber license or permit, or any 
servant or agent of such holder, or any person acting for him, 
or under his authority or permission, violate or refuse to keep 
and observe the condition named in the preceding regulation, 
then, and in such case, the license or permit to cut spruce, or 
soft wood trees or timber, not being pine or poplar, on the limit 
or berth, territory, lot or lots included in the license or permit, 
and on which, or on any part of which, there was a breach of 
such regulation, or a refusal to observe or keep the same, shall 
be suspended and held in abeyance and shall not be reissued, 
nor shall a new license or permit issue unless and until so 
directed by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Couneil and then only 
upon such terms and conditions as the Lieutenant-Governor-in- 
Couneil may impose. 

3. The Surveyor-General, his officers, servants and agents, 
may do all things necessary to prevent a breach of the afore- 
said condition and to secure compliance therewith, and may, 
for such purpose take, seize, hold and detain all logs, timber or 
wood so cut as aforesaid, and which it is made to appear to the 
Surveyor-General it is not the intention of the licensee, owner, 
or holder, or person in possession of, to manufacture or cause 
to be manufactured as afor-said in Canada or to dispose of to 
others who will have the same so manufactured in Canada, 
until security shall be given to His Majesty, satisfactory to the 
Surveyor-General, that the said condition will be kept and 
observed, and that such logs, timber or wood will be manufac- 
tured in Canada as aforesaid, and in the event of the refusal on 
the part of the licensee, owner or holder, or person in possession 
of such logs, timber or wood, to give such security, within four 
weeks after notice of such seizure and demand of security by, 
or on behalf of the Surveyor-General, then the Surveyor-General 
may sell or cause to be sold such logs, timber or wood by public 
auction after due advertisement, to some person or persons who 
will give such security to His Majesty as the Surveyor-General 
may require, that such logs, timber or wood shall be mapufac- 
tured in Canada. The proceeds of such logs, timber or wood, 
shall after such sale and after deducting all expenses of such 
seizure and sale, and any sum due and owing to His Majesty 
for or in respect of any timber dues trespass dues, ground rent 
or on account of the purchase of any timber, or timber berths, 
by the owner, licensee or holder of a permit or other person who 

.i.muiirv 1, v.n:i 

1> r L !■ A N I) 1' A P E K M A G A Z 1 N E. 

lias cut or caused to be cut such logs timber or wood or who is 
the owner or holder of the same, to be paid over to the porsnn 
cntitleil to the same. 

■i. Provided, nevertheless, that nothing in the preceding 
rcgulatious which requires spruce or other timber, not being 
pine or poplar suitable, for manufacturing pulp or paper to be 
manufactured in Canada as aforesaid, shall apply to logs, timber 
or wood cut and in use in Canada for fuel, building or other 
purposes for which logs, timber or wood in the unmanufactured 
state are or may be used. 

5. After seizure the burden of proving that the timber is to 
be manufactured in Canada shall be on the owners of sucli 

(). Where the timber to be seized is mixed up witli other 
timber the whole, of the timber may be attached and dealt with 
accordingly until satisfactorily separated. 


At a general sale, to be held at the Crown Land Office, ;tt 
such time in the year, A.D. 1912, as the Surveyor-General may 
determine, all timber licenses which have heretofore expired, 
or which may hereafter expire, or be declared cancelled under 
these regulations shall be offered for sale. 

The upset mileage in all cases to the twenty dollars per 
square mile, subject to the stumpage, regulations and restric- 
tions hereinafter provided. 

The stumpage payable on all logs, timber or other lumber, cut 
or made upon Crown Lands under license shall be as follows: 

For spruce, pine, or hackmatack saw logs, per M super- 
ficial ft ,. . $1.25 

And for all other descriptions of lumber, such as knees, foot 
hooks, cordwood, etc., fifteen per cent, of the market value 
thereof at the mill. 

All lumber cut under this license shall be scaled or taken 
account of in the customary method of scaling of lumber for 
stumpage (except hemlock, which shall be scaled at full con- 
tents) by some person or persons to be appointed by the Sur- 
veyor-General, to be hereinafter termed sealers who shall return 
to the Surveyor-General the quantity cut under this licens-e. The 
scaler and his assistants are to be boarded and lodged at the 
expense of the said licensee and should such licensee refuse to 
board and lodge such scaler or assistants, he or they to report 
the same to the Surveyor-General, who may thereupon take such 
means as he sees fit to provide the said scaler and his assistants 
with board and lodgings and the expense thereof shall be paid 
by the licensee and shall, until paid, remain a charge and lien 
upon all lumber so cut under this license. 

All applications for timber licenses on vacant Crown lands, 
shall be made by petition, which shall describe the situation 
thereof, and specify the number of square miles required by the 
applicant. No petition to be for more than ten nor less than 
two square miles. Only one application to be received by the 
Surveyor-General for the same ground. 

All logs, timber, trees or other lumber, as aforesaid, cut upon 
unlicensed Crown lands, or which may be cut by any person 
beyond the limits of his own berth, shall be seized and for- 
feited to the use of the Crown; and no timber shall be cut on 
any berth until it be purchased at public auction. 

As a protection to the Government against lands being held 
under license for speculative purposes, and not operated on, all 
Licensees shall make such operations annually on the lands held 
li.y them under license as may be deemed reasonable by the 
Surveyor-General, and the Surveyor-General shall have the 
power to call upon any licensee to cut an amount equal to at 
least (10) Ten M. superficial feet of lumber for each square 
mile of licensed land held by him, and may require that such 
operttion or. cut shall be made on such blocks or timber lands 
held by the licensee as the Surveyor-General may determine or 

direct. Should the licensee prefer to pay the stumpage that 
would be due on such quantity of lumber at 10 M. superficial 
feet per mile, instead of making the required cut, he shall have 
the right to do so in any year, on notifying the Surveyor- 
Geueral and obtaining his consent thereto; and such charge in 
lieu of stumpage shall be payable on or before the first day of 
August, when such licenses expire. On failure of the licensee to 
comply with any of the foregoing conditions, the licenses shall 
be forfeited and the berths held open for application by any 
other person. 

Licensees who have paid their stumpage dues in full, and have 
otherwise fully complied with all the conditions of their 
licenses, on or before the first day of August in each year, shall 
be entitled to annual renewals of licenses for such parts of the 
grounil held by them as may at the first day of July in each 
year be vacant and unapplied for, on payment of the mileage 
thereon, at the rate of eight dollars ($8.00) per square mile, 
payable 1st August in each year. These renewals of licenses 
may be received for a term of twenty-four years from August 
1st, 1894; provided, nevertheless, that no renewal mileage on 
licenses shall be received unless all stumpage dues have been 
fully paid; also provided, that no license shall be reckoned at 
less than two square miles, and that each license must be re- 
newed for its full extent or entirely dropped. By this clause 
failure to renew the license acts as a forfeiture. 


All applications for licenses to cut timber on Crown lands, 
shall be made by petition, addressed to the Commissioner of 
Crown Lands, setting out the definite location of the lands ap- 
plied for, and such further particulars as set out in the form 
provided. No petition for license to cut timber shall be for a 
less area than twenty acres, except where an isolated block of 
Crown lands contains a less area than twenty acres, or in case 
of an application to cut timber for cordwood, firewood, shingle 
logs, fencing or hackmatack posts or railway ties, etc. The 
fee to accompany each petition is 25 cents per acre, but no fee 
shall be less than ten dollars. 

In cases of license to cut timber for saw logs of pine, spruce, 
hemlock or hardw-ood, there shall be in addition to the license 
fee, stumage dues per thousand superficial feet to be fixed by 
the Commissioner. 

In case of a petition for license to cut timber for pulp wood, 
there shall be stumpage dues per cord of 128 cubic feet piled 
for measurement or as per cubic rule, additional to the license 
fee before mentioned, which shall be fixed at twenty per cent, 
of the market value at the mill or point of shipment; subject, 
however, to the power of the Commissioner to fix a greater or 
less price according to conditions. It is further directed that 
no license shall be given to cut pulp wood on lands where the 
trees are such as will grow to be suitable for timber and lumber. 

Stumpage dues not otherwise provided for shall be as follows: 

Hardwood timber, 12 inches and upwards, round, sided or 
squared, ten per cent, of market value. Spruce piling, 10 inches 
and upwards, twenty per cent, of market value. 

All trees must be cut low and in a proper manner, and no part 
of the top that is fit for timber shall be left in the woods. If 
the stumps are cut too high, the same may be measured under 
the direction of the Commissioner and charged to the licensee 
at regular rate. All spruce or pine trees used for skidding or 
building roads, or for like purposes, shall be chargeable to 
licensee at regular rate. 

No spruce or hemlock trees for saw logs which are less than 
twelve inches in diameter, no pine trees for saw logs which are 
less than fifteen inches in diameter, and no spruce trees for 
piling which are less than ten inches in diameter, shall be cut 
under any license to cut timber; such measurements to be made 
upon the butt of the log as cut from the stump. 

38 PULP AND PAPER MAGAZINE. January 1, 1913 

QUEBEC. article of commerce; nor waney nor board timber, nor timber 

in the form of poles; but timber completely squared and rail- 
In this Province the Minister of Lands and Forests has con- ^^.,^y .jjes are considered as manufactured, 
trol of the Crown Lands, the national parks and forest reserves fjie stumpage tariff is as follows: 

within the province, the property of the .Jesuits' estates, aud _^,j ^^^^ g^^^jg ^^^ ^^ virtue of a license after the 1st Sep- 

questions of water powers. tember, 1910, shall be subject to the following charges: 

For the administration of forest lands, the province is divided j_ Square, waney or flat timber per cubic foot: 

into "agencies," and the agents have charge of the granting f^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^^ ^3,.^ hickory, walnut 6c. 

of timber licenses, inspection of lands, the collection of fees, ^j^^ -^^^ ^j^g^ g],j^^ .^j.,]^^ cedar, basswood, birch, maple, 

and the location of lands offered for sale. The agents are under tamarac 4c. 

the authority of inspectors. The Lieut.-Governor-in-Council may ^^,^ Spruce, balsam, grey pine, or banksiau pine, hemlock, 

classify lands as ' ' suitable for cultivation, " and "lands for ^j^^^ y^-^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ p^pj^^ 3e. 

forest industries," and after such classification no lands may g. Saw logs and boom and dimension timber in the raw 

then be set apart for colonization purposes out of such reserves. ^,^jg^ ^^^ thousand feet board measure: 

When land is sold for settlement, no more than 100 acres may , , ,„, ... ,,.,., j..-, nn 

, , , , ,,.-,", (a) White pine, oak, walnut, hickory . . . , J.J.UU 

be sold to any one person, and no one person may obtain deed ,,„,.,, , , , , ■ , i 

,, ^, „ ,, „,„ (10 Red pine, elm, ash, cedar, basswood, birch, maple, 

trom the Crown of more than 300 acres. , ,. 

„ , ,. ,. I 4.- 1 4. 1 1 • i i 1 tamarac I.-IO 

Yearly licenses to cut timber are granted, subiect to reyula- , , ^ , , . , , ■ • , , , 

.,,.,■,„ ,. ... rriv, r ■ 0, 11 ' 1 (<■) Spruce, balsam, gray pme or banksian pme, hemlock, 

tions established from time to time. The licensee shall make '.,,.' ^ o j r c 

, c ^- 1 i. 1 i- 1 .. 1, ■ 1 i- white birch, aspen, poplar l.Oo 

returns ot timber cut, and timber so cut may be seized tor „, , „ , , ,, . , . , i, i, ^ ^ 

, „ -, ^ ,. .,, , . , The rate of ground rent shall not be increased until the nrst 

arrears ot Crown dues. Owners ot saw mills may be required , ~ 

u ^i. VI ■ 1 1 1 ■.. ^1. 1 \ September, 1920. 

to prove where they obtained logs, and it the logs are shown .,,.,,, , , .,, , , , , ^■ 

. , , ,/.,,!, „ , ,■ , , 1, , All license-holders who comply with the law aud regulations 

to have been unlawfully taken trom iiulilic lands, they may be . , , . ., „ ... ,. 

, , , , until that date, nave the privilege of renewing their licenses 

seized and condemned. ' , , , , • 

„,„..,,. .^ ^ , 1 t- r. , ■ , :it the same rate of ground rent, and the dues hereby imposed 

bale ot timber limits must be by auction, after being adver- , ., , 

,.,.,,„, „ i J, .." , ^ ,,, , ; ■ ., on all timber cut under license shall not be increased until the 
tised in the Quebec Gazette for at least .11) days, except in the 

„ ,. ., „ ,, , , , ,- , ", i- , ,, , Jirst of September, 1920. 
case of limits of small extent, when lu days notice shall be 

given. The Minister shall have the right to examine the books Nevertheless, the rate of ground rent may at any time be in- 
kept by any licen.see recording the quantity of wood or lumber creased for license-holders wh , do not operate on their limits, 
,.,jt-„ the Crown reserving the right to fix the quantity of timber to 

Section 1619 provides: "All timber cut without license, not '^^ <^^"' ^° constitute sufficient lumbering operations, 

more than ten miles from the boundary line dividing this Pro- This shall not affect the right of the Crown to regulate terri- 

vince from the United States, or from the neighboring Province, tories under license for other purposes. 
as soon as it shall have been established that the said timber 

Jias been cut unlawfully, and that a due seizure thereof has been ONTARIO. 

made, may be at once sold by the person duly authorized for ,„. , 

ti,ot ,,„,„„„„ „•<.! 1 1- 1 ■ 1 1- 1 i • 1, ,■ , rimber licenses are under the authority of the Commissioner 

that purpose, without his being obliged to give the notice and . , . 

,ioin,r ^„„„;^„,i „„ 1 • -1 ■ i j> ., . o' Crown Lands, and sales of timber limits are by public auc- 
delay required, under similar circumstances, for any other iiart 

of the Drovince " ^'°" '" ^^^ highest bidder. In case of sale of pulp wood areas. 

TV,o a■ran^■,nn nf i«. ' 1 ' i i ii ■ 1 i i , . ^^^'^ successful tcndercr is required to erect mills, employ a cer- 

Jne erection ot dams is subject to the right ot lumber com- ^ f j 

panies to float timber and rafts down stream, and it is forbidden *"'° °""''" °^ ^'''"^'' ^"'^ ''^P'"'^ '="*^''' '^'P'*='' '''*^'" =" 

to throw bark, slabs, etc., into rivers. specified time. All timber licenses expire on the 30th April 

All HoAnsoo oro o„i,i<,„t t„ „ , „ 1 1 t ^ J- "fi^t after date thereof; but as to lots sold or loc-ted during 
All licenses are subject to a yearly ground rent of $o per 

square mile, dating from 1st September, 1910, and are granted ""^ currency of any license, the same shall immediately after 

from 1st May to 30th April each year after issue and may be ^""^^ °'' ^°'=^"°° ^^ withdrawn from the operation of such license 

renewed to licensees who comply with the regulations. Licenses '° ^'" ^' "'"^''' °'^^'' '^^"^ P^°' ^' concerned. Lots so with- 

may be annulled where the value of a limit has been dama<.ed '^'''''''° ^'■°"' '"■^°^'' ^'^^'^^ ^'''"^''' withdrawn, even though such 

or destroyed by fire. Licenses may be transferred at the will ''^''^ °' '°''''*'°" '^^" ''='''" ^^^"^ cancelled. 

of the Minister, on payment of a bonus of $4 per square mile. '^'^^ present annual ground rent on timber berths or limits, is 

Transfers may be granted without a bonus on conditions laid ^^ P*'' square mile, which shall not be increased for a period of 

down by the Minister. ten years, dating from April SOth^ 1910, and the fee for the 

Stumpage dues are levied on all stumps over two feet above transfer of limits is $5 per square mile, or fraction of a mile, 

the ground, on all timber over six inches in diameter left in the '^^'^ Crown dues on spruce pulp wood are 40c. per cord, which 

tops, on all lodged trees, on all trees used for skids for build- "'^^ shall not be increased during the same period, 

ing camps, bridges, corduroy roads, dams and other works and ^^' order-in-eouncil, January, 1900, new regulations were 

on all logs left in the woods. passed governing the cutting of timber for pulp wood. 

License holders are not allowed to cut on Crown lands white Every license or permit conferring authority to cut spruce 
and red pine of less than 13 inches, and other trees of a diameter or other soft wood, trees or timber, not being pine, suitable for 
of less than 12 inches measured at the stump at two feet above manufacturing pulp or paper, on the ungranted lands of the 
the ground; but it is lawful to cut swamp spruce and paper Crown, or to cut such timber reserved to the Crown on lands 
birch down to 7 inches in diameter measured as aforesaid, as leased or otherwise disposed of by the Crown, which shall 
well as balsam of any diameter. be issued on or after the SOth day of April, 1909, shall be sub- 
Section 13 provides that all timber cut on Crown lands after ,iect to the condition that all such timber cut under the author- 
1st May, 1910, must be manufactured in Canada, th:it is to say, ity or permission of such license or permit shall, except as here- 
converted into i>ulp or paper, deals or boards, or into any other inafter provided, be manufactured in Canada, that is to say, 
article of trade or merchandise of which such timber is only into merchantable pulp or paper, or into sawn lumber, wooden- 
t '0 raw^ matorial. ware, utensils, or other articles of commerce or merchandise as 
The following shall not be considered as manufactured, within distinguished from the said spruce or other timber in its raw 
thc^meaning of the present regulation; timber simply cut into or unmanufactured state; and it is declared that the cutting 
lengths, piled, barked or otherwise worked preliminary to the of sueh wood into cordwood or other lengths is not manufac- 
manufacture of pulp or paper, deals or boards or any other turing the same within the meaning of this regulation. 

Januarj' 1, 1913 




In 1907 regulations were approved governing the lease of 
water powers of over 150 horse power on Crown lands. 

In leasing lands containing water powers, the Crown does not 
alienate the water privilege, but reserves it with sufficient land 
required for its development, such as dams, flumes, races, 
flooded lands, etc., compensation being made to the owner of 
flooded land by the lessee of the water privilege, which forms a 
separate property. A right of way to the water power is re- 
served in all grants of adjoining lands. In applying for a water 
power, a plan and full notes by an Ontario land surveyor shall 
be filed with the Department of Lands, Forests and Mines, with 
a report by a competent engineer, showing location and de- 
scription of land, height of fall, volume of water at average 
high and low stages, height of dams, plans for developing power, 
cost of development, form of power to be transmitted, lands 
overflowed or affected by the proposed works, and nature of 
proposed industries for which power is to be used. The Min- 
ister may dispense with such requirements if he is already in 
possession of necessary information. The applicant may be re- 
quired to furnish all such information at his own expense, and 
may be required to furnish such details to the Hydro Electric 
Power Commission of Ontario; and shall submit proof of his 
financial standing. A deposit may be required before a lease is 
granted. All rentals fixed shall be payable yearly in advance, 
and no lease is granted for a longer period than 20 years, but 
the lessee may have the right of renewal on terms to be fixed 
by the Minister. 

The right of timber owners to drive logs down stream shall 
not be interfered with, and in new dams provision is to be made 
for such right, and lessee shall not obstruct navigation in any 
river previously navigable. 

The lessee shall agree to develop special quantities of power 
within specified periods, and shall agree to allow the use of 
surplus power to others on terms to be agreed on, and the Hydro 
Electric Commission may determine such matters in case the 
parties fail to agree. The Hydro Electric Commission may 
exercise supervision over such works while in construction and 
operation, and may itself acquire such works "by purchase, 
lease or otherwise." 

At expiry of lease the water privilege reverts to the Crown, 
the lessee being allowed a reasonable time to remove machinery, 
and such leases are subject to the general regulations that may 
be made by the lieutenant-Governorin-Council. Leases may be 
cancelled for non-payment of rents, after a period of 90 days. 


In the Province of Manitoba, as existing up to 1911, Crown 
lands were under the Dominion Government, but there were no 
areas of forest on a scale available for the pulp industry. By 
the Act of 1912, the boundaries of Manitoba have been ex- 
tended to the shores of Hudson Bay, and considerable new 
forest lands have been added to the Pro^-ince. It is understood 
that the Dominion Crown lands will be transferred to the Pro- 
vince in due course, and it is likely that the forestry and water 
power policy of the Province will be on lines parallel to those 
of Ontario. 


By the Dominion Act creating the Provinces of Alberta and 
Saskatchewan, the Crown lands have remained till now under 
the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government. 

Licenses shall be disposed of by public auction at the office 
of the Dominion timber agent for the district. Before sale the 
timber land shall be surveyed into berths not exceeding 25 
square miles, by a qualified Government cruiser, who shall esti- 
mate the timber and fix an upset price, cost of survey to be paid 
by purchaser. The berths shall not be sold at less than the 
upset price. Sixty days' notice of sale shall be given in a local 

newspaper, and in a paper of general circulation; and a record 
shall be kept of the names of applicants. Purchases to the 
amount of $1,000 or under shall be in cash at time of sale; pur- 
chases amounting to from $1,000 to $5,000, one-half cash and 
three months note at 5 per cent, interest; purchasers of over 
.$.5,000 and up to $10,000, one-third cash and balances in three 
and six months, with 5 per cent, interest; purchases exceeding 
$10,000, one-fourth cash and balances in three, six and nine 
months. Default in payment forfeits license, and no license is 
issued till purchase price and first year's ground rent is paid. 
All licenses expire on 30th April each year. Licenses are renew- 
able from year to year, if conditions have been fulfilled, and 
subject also to terms and conditions fixed by the regulations at 
time of renewal. The Minister of the Interior, under whose 
authority the licenses are issued, may withdraw portions of the 
berth for settlement. Thirty days' notice of withdrawal is 
given to licensee, and ground rent is reduced in proportion. 
Right to timber berth cannot be assigned without consent of the 
Minister, the fee for transfer being $1 per square mile. 

In his contract with Government, the licensee agrees to cut no 
timber less than 10 inches at the stump, unless for making a 
road to get out merchantable -timber; he shall take precautions 
against fires; shall keep a record, open to inspection, of timber 
taken out each year. Licensee pays half cost of guarding tim 
ber from fire. If a railway becomes entitled to land under 
license, whether as part of railway subsidy or for right of way, 
it shall be withdrawn upon due notice, the ground rent being 
reduced accordingly. 

Ground rent is $5 per square mile, except in district west of 
Yale, B.C., which is 5 cents per acre. Dues on timber cut are 
as follows: Sawn lumber. 50 cents per thousand feet, board 
measure; railway ties, eight feet long, ll<2 cents each, railway 
ties, nine feet long, 1% cents each; shingle bolts, 25 cents per 
cord; and 5 per cent, on the sale of all other products of the 


Land in these Provinces required for the development of 
water power, can be sold or leased only under regulations made 
by Governor-in-Council. All maps and plans showing lands to 
be acquired for such purposes, to be certified by qualified 
Dominion land surveyor, submitted in duplicate and registered. 
The applicant shall give address, occupation and financial 
standing, and shall explain character of works, such as descrip- 
tion of source of water supply, height of fall at high, medium 
and low stages, the maximum and minimum amounts of water 
power. If applicant is a company, names of company's direc- 
tors, paid-up capital and proposed method of raising funds; if 
a municipality, its location, boundaries, population, etc., value 
of property subject to taxation. The applicant shall enter into 
specific agreement, setting forth the amount of power to be 
developed, the time of conftruction of works, the area within 
which the works shall be operated, etc. The term of license 
shall be for 21 years, at an annual fee to be fixed, and renew- 
able for three like terms, on conditions provided by the regula- 
tions. The work shall be subject to supervision of an engineer 
appointed by the Minister. At the expiry of each term the 
Government may cancel the lease, giving one year's notice, and 
fees may be readjusted on renewing lease. On termination of 
third term of lease, compensation shall be paid for the works, 
the amount to be fixed by arbitration. In the event of expro- 
priation by the Crown, a bonus will be allowed as follows: If 
the works have been in operation five years, a bonus of 30 per 
cent, of their val..e; if from five to ten years, 25 per cent.; if 
from ten to fifteen years, 20 per cent.; if from fifteen to twenty 
years, 15 per cent., and if twenty years or more, 10 per cent. 
Rates for power shall be approved by Government. 


Changes are being made in the regulations affecting timber 
cutting in the province, but those recently in force were as fol- 



Jamiarv 1. 191S 

Leases of timber lands that have been granted for a period of 
21 years, may be renewed for like periods, on the terms in force 
at the time of expiration of a term, provided conditions ha\e 
been fulfilled. 

All timber cut from ('rovvu lands under license, must be manu- 
factured within the pro\iiic-e. Any person cutting timber on 
Crown lands witliont autliorit^y, is liable to fine of from $5 to 

Special licenses for cutting timber may be taken out, comply- 
ing with forms of application, the applicant describing the lands 
according to form, and publishing at his own expense a notice 
in the B. C. Gazette, and one local newspaper. Within two 
months the applicant shall pay the fees on the land, which shall 
be: For each license for land west of the Cascade range, $1-40 
for an area not larger than 640 acres, and east of the Cascade 
and in the district of Atlin, $115. The license shall be subject 
to such taxes and royalties as may be imposed from time to 
time. Licenses may be renewed by notice on or before 1.5th 
April, and may be extended for a period of 16 years at the 
same amount as now paid, with the addition of a royalty of 10 
cents per thousand feet, board measure, on timber suited for 
spars, railroad ties and mining props. Special timber licences 
are transferable and renewable for 21 successive years, on pay- 
ment of a fee of $20, these special licenses being subject to 
changes in the Government regulations, and subject to an extra 
impost of $25 to $50, where the applicant has failed to fulfil 
the conditions. No timber license shall be granted on Indian 
reserves. There is reserved to the use of the Crown a royalty 
of 25 cents for every cord of wood, and 50 cents for every thou- 
sand feet, board measure, on timber for spars, piles, saw logs, 
railroad ties, mining props and shingle bolts. The Lieutenant- 
Governor-in-Council may allow a rebate on piles, telegraph poles, 
and crib timber not manufactured in the province, if deemed 

The taxes on timber cut from Crown lands are according to 
the following schedule: Mining props and logging and railway 
ties, 50e. per cord; cordwood, 25c. per cord, with a rebate of all 
the tax above 1 cent per cord where the wood is used in the 
province. On shingle or other bolts, the tax is $1 per cord, with 
a similar rebate if used within the province. Timber cut with 
out a license is liable to seizure, but miners and settlers have 
certain specified privileges. 

By order-in-council of April, 1911, the price of Crown lands 
which are open to sale, was fixed at $10 per acre for "first- 
class," and $5 per acre for "second-class." 


An Act to declare the rights of the Crown regarding waters 
and water powers, was passed in 1909, and by this Act a Board 
of Water Commissioners was provided for the province, being 
divided into water districts, and the District Boards having 
power to adjudicate upon claims, and direct the character of 
works to be established. 

Persons or companies desiring water privileges shall post 
notice of their intention to apply for license, notice to be on a 
form supplied by the Commissioners, such notice to specify the 
quantity of water to be used, the area of land to be occupied, 
the purpose of the works, etc. No license shall issue to one 
person or company for more than one purpose, but licensees mny 
construct works jointly. Plans of the proposed works shall b"c 
presented, giving details, and 'the licensee shall give security for 
compensation to owners of property affected injuriously by the 
•works. If the amount of compensation for such injury cannot 
be arranged, it sliall be settled by arbitration. 

One clause provides: "If as a result of the construction of 
any works by a licensee under this part any (new) water power 
IS created, the licensee shnll not, by reason of such construction 
only have any right, title or claim to use the power so 
created. ' ' 


The Montreal Paper Co. :<re now moving into a new oiiice of 
concrete construction at their mill at Port Neuf. 

Mr. Burrows, engineer of Boston, Mass., has completed inves- 
tigations in connection with the power at the Pont Rouge mill 
of F. W. Bird & Son. 

The Riordou Paper Mills Co. are planning to build a new 
paper mill at Merritton, adjoining their present pl.'tnt, at a cost 
of between one and two million dollars. 

.M. J. O'Brien, of Cobalt aud Toronto, is completing plans for 
a large plant for the manufacture of pulp, paper and by-pro- 
diu'ts near Haileybury, Ont., to employ 750 hands. 

Mcssi-s. J. Ford & Co., Port Neuf, have just completed a 
new machine room for No. o mill of concrete and steel. This 
mill runs eutirely in building papers. 

Mr. Robt. Marx, of J. Marx & Co., London, is at present 
spcmling a few weeks in the interests of his firm, with the 
C:niadian representative, Mr. ,1. A. DeCew, of Montreal. 

The Munn Lumber Co., formerly owning largo tracts of 
timber land in the Algonquin National Park district, but which 
sold its rights to the Ontario Government, has given up its 

The Toronto Paper Manufacturing Co. has declared a divi- 
dend at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum for the quarter ending 
December 21st, payable on the 15th prox., to shareholders of 
record on the 31st December. 

Engineers for Mr. Geo. F. Hardy, in charge of Messrs. 
Remsen & James, are engaged at the Laureutide Company mill 
at Grand Mere, Que., in making a complete surveys and flow 
readings for the new power being developed for the company. 

Mr. William Whyte, the superintendent and local manager of 
East Canada Pulp & Paper Co., has left Murray Bay to become 
superintendent of the new 100-ton ground wood mill of the 
Abitibi Pulp & Paper Co., at Iroquois Falls. These are the 
Hansen and Ogilvie interests. 

Mr. Chas. M. Bollard of Arthur D.-Little Laboratory, Boston, 
has been investigating the sulphite plant of the Toronto Paper 
Mfg. Co., Cornwall, with a view to making elaborate altera- 
tions. They also have under consideration the modernizing of 
their power development. 

• « « « 

We hear from Quebec Province that the Government is con- 
sidering following the example set by the Ontario Government 
in regard to the Abitibi limits, and may call for tenders for 
cutting pulp wood in the hinterland of north Quebec, with the 
l.roviso that the successful contractors shall establish mills. 

E. A. Bullis, a well-known millwright, of Ottawa, who built 
the first E. B. Eddy mill at Hull, and the first J. R. Booth saw 
mill in Ottawa, died recently at the advanced age of 86. He 
was born in Vermont. He retired from active business about 
ten years ago, and recently celebrated the 61st anniversary of 
his marriage. 

Mr. S. J. B. RoUand has been appointed president of the 
Rolland Paper Co. in place of his brother, the late Hon. J. D. 

Jannarv 1. ini:3 



Rollaml, so widely known in paper circles. He lias been in 
intimate connection with the mills at St. Jerome anil was an 
imiiortaut factor in the buying and reorganizing of the St. 
Allele Mill. 

• • • * 

The claim of the Dominion Government against the estate of 
the late Jas. Davy, pulp manufacturer, ThoroUl, Ont., for 
$28, l."?!, on the ground that more water had been used by him 
than the amount covered by a lease dated February 11th, 1880, 
and originally granted to John Battle, of Niagara Falls, Ont., 
who had afterwards asigncil the lease to Mr. Davy, has been 

The St. Maurice Lumber Co., of which Mr. H. Hilliard, of 
Dalhousie, N.B., is the representative, has purchased the pro- 
perty of the Gaspe Lumber & Trading Co., carrying on business 
at Gaspe Basin, including mills and a fine site on the harbor. 
Tt is stated that the company will embark extensively in the 
pulp and p:iper industry, one of the first steps being to erect a 
large sulphite mill. 

The <\lgoma Eastern Kailway, connecting Sudbury with the 
Great Lakes at Little Current, has now been completed and the 
Ontario Government will be asked to fulfil the terms of its 
subsidy grant. This line, which was part of the proposition for 
the Manitoulin and North Shore Railway, was originally pro- 
jected by the Clergue interests, but was abandoned when the 
Sault Ste. Marie allied interests became entangled in difficulties. 

We hear that a factory is to be erected in Medicine Hat at a 
cost of $75,000, to make cardboard and coarser grades of paper 
out of straw. Details are not yet to hand. The quantity of 
straw which annually goes to waste in the Canadian Wtst is an 
alarming economic feature, and any attempt to utilize it is to 
be viewed with sympathy. This will be the first commercial 
attempt on a large scale to convert it into paper materials in 
Canada, though an the United States and other countries there 
are a number of factories established. F. A. Barton and C. F. 
Sehanh, of Calgary, are interested. 

Mr. M. Hirsell, of Hinkley, N.T., has completed an installa- 
tion of his own design for the acid system of the Kiordon Paper 
Co. 's new extensions at Hawkesbury. It is on the principle of 
the tower sj'stem in units of three, in series^ connected in 
I'arallel. A very high absorption is obtained by altering the 
liistribution in the second and third towers, passing a much 
higher per cent, of the water through the second than the third. 
These towers are of concrete about 50 ft. high. Mr. Hirsell has 
a 50-ton system working very satisfactorily at the Hinkley 
Fibre Co. He has, we understand, recently applied for patents 
on the idea of the distribution. 

the general manager of Laurentide Co., who, with Mrs. Cohoon, 
were guests. Mr. Crooker, manager of the Laurentide 's Toronto 
oflice, acted as best man, and- Mr. Sabatin, a director, was one 
of the ushers. Numerous pulp and paper people of Canada and 
Glens Falls were among the guests, the groom having been very 
popular at Laurentide where he held the position of engineer 
before joining the staff of Mr. Hardy. The Pulp and Paper 
Magazine extends best wishes to Mr. and Mrs. Bennett, who 
will reside at Kenogami, Que. 

The Anglo-Newfoundland Development Co. recently issued its 
annual statement for the year ending August 31st last. After 
making provision for depreciation of all plant and machinery 
and logging gear, and for depreciation of houses, fur- 
nishings and other equipment, etc., the profits amounted to 
£51,233. The directors have written £16,398 off the cost of issu- 
ing the debenture stock, and this item now disappears from the 
balance sheet. After payment of debenture interest due, and 
setting aside the amount accrued to August 31st, there remains 
to be carried to the balance sheet £9,834, to which has to be 
added the credit balance brought in from last year, making a 
total balance of £14,931 carried forward to the credit of profit 
and loss account. It was pointed out that the additions to the 
plant have only so recently been completed that the benefits 
resulting therefrom have scarcely been able yet to show evi- 


Mr. Moore, chief chemist for the Brown interests, is spending 
his entire time at their La Tuque Mill, for a few months, bring- 
ing that mill up to his very high standard of scientific control. 
In this connection he is carrying on numerous and elaborate 
experiments to adapt his mill to Canadian conditions. The 
record of their Berlin mills, and the Burgess sulphite have been 
a wonder in pulp manufacture. Mr. Moore has become a verit- 
able wizard, and keeps himself and his twenty-five chemists 
hard at work continually in their numerous pulp and paper 
laboratories, which are without doubt the most elaborate in the 
world. He has made not thousands, but hundreds of thousands 
of dollars for his principals, which goes to show what can be 
done by a realization of the value of technical experts. In this 
connection we take occasion to deprecate the tendency among 
some other mills to try and find out by means, fair or foul, the 
secrets so discovered by others. These secrets are only scientific 
facts, which are the reward of any untiring searcher. Only by 
spending energy and money can they be discovered, bringing 
to the owners at the same time all the benefits derived from 
such investigations. We feel it would be better for the industry 
as a whole if these results were less closely guarded, but one can 
hardly expect anything else when so few mills spend money in 
these departments. 

The following have recently received appointments at Price 
Bros." Kenngami Mill: Wm. Jarratt, boss machine tender, 
formerly of Laurentide Co., Ltd.: Eobt. Cranston, boss paper 
maker, of J. R. Booth's, and later E. B. Eddy Co.; M. L. Gregg, 
night superintendent of Spanish River Paper Mills; R. Hill, 
sulphite and ground wood superintendent, of International Paper 
Co., Rumford, Me.; Robt. Farnam, superintendent of ground 
wood, and Frank Coty, night superintendent, both of Interna- 
tional Paper Co., Rumford: .1. E. Bergeron, meelianical superin- 
tendent, formerly superintendent of ground wood and sulphite, 
.lonquiere Pulp Co. 

• * • • 

Mr. Harry Bennett, resident engineer for Geo. F. Hardy at 
Kenogami Paper Mills, was married in Glens Falls, N.Y., on 
Deiember in. to Miss G. Clarke, a relative of Mr. G. Cohoon, 


Last year Canada sent wall paper to the value of $19,555 to 
New Zealand, as compared with a value of $2,340 in 1910 and 
$905 in 1909, and this year the total will be much higher than 
last, according to a report of Mr. W. A. Beddoe, the Canadian 
Trade Commissioner at Auckland, to the Trade and Commerce 
Department. Mr. Beddoe says: — 

"During the season of 1910 a direct representative of a 
Canadian wall paper firm visited New Zealand and personally 
called upon the importers. The designs and materials were 
favorably received, and a good business resulted. The same 
representative repeated his visit last year with even more satis- 
factory results. The results illustrate the advantage of send- 
ing direct representatives to New Zealand. Canada in each 
year securing a larger proportion of the waU paper trade." 



January 1. 1913 

The Situation in Quebec Province. 

Continued from Page 33 

investigation of tliis wliole (|uestion, vnd, if possible, to 
recommend that tlie Dominion Government put an ex 
port duty on pulp wood. They point out that last ye;u' 
the total out of pulp wood in the Dominion was 1,520.2;?T 
eorcs valued at .$9,678,616, or an average price of $6.37. 
Of this. 44.2 per cent, was manufactured in Canada, 
while 5.5.8 per cent, was exported in its raw state, prac- 
tically all to the United States. This raw pulp wood ex- 
ported to the United States was valued at $5,340,592. Of 
the total amount, over 75 per cent, went from the Pro- 
vince of Quebec. Their idea in putting an export duty 
on is to compel the manufacture of all pulp wood ar 
home. This, they believe, would force American parser 
mills either to locate in Canada or else to buy their paper 
from Canadian mills, 

While there is a certain amount of uncertainty re- 
garding future legislation in connection with pulp and 
paper, and while there is a certain amount of uneasiness 
regarding stability of present prices, the general feel- 
ing among pulp and paper men is one of optimism. They 
believe that the coming year will be a favorable one des- 
pite the many new mills which have come into the mar- 
ket. The general prosperity of the Dominion, the influx 
of hundreds of thousands of new immigrants, the open- 
ing up of new towns, the starting of new papers and the 
increase in the size of established ones, will all tend to- 
wards the prosperity of the industry with which they 
are connected. In common with all other business men 
they believe that "the 20th Century is Canada's," and 
M-hile there may be temporary set-backs there is nothing 
sufficiently .serioiis in the present outlook to cause real 
apprehension among pulp and paper men. — R. 


(Report Specially Prepared for the Pulp and Paper 


London, December 20th, 1012. 
It is on record that Sir T. Vausittart Bowater. of the 
English paper trade, once remarked that he tried to 
ascertain what were the benefits to be derived by becom- 
ing a member of the British Wood Pulp Association, but 
ha\-ing failed in the eiifort he was, consequently, not in 
a position to give any secrets away. The remark just 
about sums up the experience of those who attended' the 
annual gatherings of the Association, held early in De- 
cember in London. But though no secrets were "divulged 
during the proceedings about the passing of business in 
the wood pulp trade, yet a few questions of extreme im- 
portance to Canadians were dealt with and these, com- 
bined with an excellent menu and list of vins — the suc- 
-ess of which rested with Mr, F, E. R. Becker, of Messrs, 
Becker & Co.. Ltd., agents for the Chicoutimi Pulp Com- 
pany and the Macleod Pulp Company— provided good 
material for a pleasant so.iourn in the English capital. 

The usefulness of the British AYood Pulp Association 
is demonstrated by the recent formation of a "Protection 
Association," which the members have promoted for deal- 
ing, on behalf of those who belong to it, with disputed 
matters arising out of the carriage of wood pulp by sea 
or land and matters kindred thereto. Recent litigation 
in the Ena-lish High Courts has proved the necessity of 
.^iich a protective organization, and there is no reason 
why wood pulp men should not possess such a fiehting 
machine like the shipowners. M-ho through their clubs can 
in cases of dispute spread their liabilities over a large 

number of their members, thereby sa^ang not only the 
personal trouble of attending to a dispute, but, also, very 
often considerable expense. This protective body of the 
British Wood Pulp Association will deal with claims and 
other matters at home and abroad, and, undoubtedly, it 
will prove a useful and powerful instrument of defence 
in the future. 

Another interesting subject which the Association con- 
sidered, was the sampling a7id testing of pulp for mois- 
ture. An investigation was made some time ago into 
the mode of sampling and a report was furnished in 
which disapproval was expressed of the way certain tests 
were carried out under the Association's contract form 
The matter has not been fully settled yet, as the help of 
the Scandinavian Wood Pulp Association has been called 
in and when the advice of that body is received, the re- 
sult vriM be watched with keen interest. The British Wood 
Pulp Association has a set of rules .set down for analysts 
for sampling wood pulp for moisture, and they must be 
strictly adhered to. 

Mr. Prank Lloyd, head of Edward Lloyd. Ltd.. was 
re-elected president for the ensuing year. He is one of 
the most highly respected men in the British wood pulp 
and paper trade, and at the banquet at night in the Con- 
naught Rooms, which was attended by over 200 people, 
he displayed brilliant talent in interspersing humor with 
sentiment. His advice on the conservation of forests will 
appeal to all Canadians. He said: "Last year I made a 
few observations on the storage of water and the better 
regulations of the flow of rivers, but this year I would 
like to give sound advice on the conservation of forests. 
It is incumbent on every pulp maker in every pulp pro- 
ducing countrv to foster the forests of it and devote his 
earnest attention to the question of the preservation of 
areas where pulp is made. I, therefore, strongly urge 
and appeal to all pulp makers to do all they can to stimu- 
late interest in this way for the good of the industry and 
to induce their govei-nments to encourage forestry and 
replete all denuded areas, in addition to teaching the 
better handling of existing forests. If every pulp maker 
did that, he would develop the wood pulp industry and 
assist those dependent iipon it." 

The honor of submitting the toast of the president's 
health was bestowed on Mv. F. E. R. Becker, who re- 
ceived a great ovation, beincf a member of a firm who 
rank amons'st the largest of British importers of wood 
pulp from Canada and Scandinavia, He remarked that 
the British Association was not merely an association of 
tho>e who sold pulp and of those who were servants of 
these who' made pulp. It was an association of 
the largest buyers in the world. They had men like 
Frank Llovd. who produced and consumed wood pulp. 
I\rembers of that association had found the paper makers 
their best friends and the Canadian Association had 
found in it a support and thorough co-operation on the 
part of the buvers. which was seldom met vdth in any 
other trade. The Bi-itish Wood Pulp Association had 
helped to 7nake business easy for those who found it diffi- 
cult to do business and had done something to smooth the 

Mr. Becker is one of the vice-presidents of the Associ- 
ation and it was through his instrumentality that the 
trade and paper makers in England subscribed so liber- 
ally towards the relief of those people who suffered loss 
at the big fire in Chicoutimi when the pulp mill had 
a narrow escape from devastation. Other vice-presidents 
are A. E. Reed. L. P. Andrews. T, Owen. W. G, Tavlor 
and Harrv B. Wood. 

. Fa Hilary 


P TT Tj P A N D V A P K R M A G A Z T N E. 



(Special to Pulp and PajxT Jfagazine.) 

Ottawa, Doceml)er 30. 

Seated in his office at the Chaiuiieie. JMr. George H. 
Millen. joint manager and the "grand old man" of the 
E. B. I'^ddy Company, last week received tlie congra- 
tulations of his Imndreds of friends on the occasion of 
tlie .50th anniversary of his marriage. He was made 
the object of .several presentations, one being that of a 
magnificent gold loving cup by managers and agents 
from all over the country, a delegation of half a dozen 
representing about twenty-five all over the Dominion 
doing the honoi-s, while employees and directors of the 
company also remembered the occasion. 

Mr. Jlillen, who is joint manager with Mr. W. H. 
Rowley of the E. B. Eddy C()mi)any, was born at Glens 
Falls. N.Y.. and fought in the American Civil War. 
In 1866 he came to Hull on a visit and there met, the 
late E. B. Eddy, who, shrewd business man that he was, 
saw that Mr. Millen would make a valuable addition to 
his forces. Since his couueetion with the firm, Mr. 
Millen has invented a number of useful time and lavor- 
saving devices, which are now incorporated in the 
Eddy plant and is now superintending the extensive 
alterations and additions which are being made in its 
power facilities. 

No additions will be made to the plant of J. AY. 
Woods, Limited, which on January 1 amalgamates with 
the Smart Bag Company, of Montreal, just at present, 
and none of the paper and other bags which the new 
concern will manufacture will be made at the Ottawa 
plant, your correspondent learns. The authorized capi- 
tal of the new company is $5,000,000. and, according to 
present arrangements. Col. Charles A. Smart, of Mont- 
real, will be president and managing director, and Col. 
J. W. Woods of Ottawa, a vice-president. The two com- 
panies which go to make up the amalgamation will be 
bought in as going concerns. 

The Woods concern has factories at Hull and agencies 
at Jlontreal, Winnipeg, Calgary and Vancouver, while 
the Smart Bag Companj' has factories for the manufac- 
ture of paper bags in Toronto, Montreal and Winnipeg. 

Mr. N. G. Guthrie, to whom was entrusted the ship- 
pers' case against the Canadian railroads when the 
latter applied to the Railway Commission some months 
ago for permission to increase their rates on pulp wood 
from Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime Provinces to 
New York State, has put in a written statement as re- 
quested by the Board and judgment is awaited at any 
time now. The pulp men consider they have a strong 
case, and that the railways cannot justify the increase 
unless the Board takes into consideration the difference 
between eastern and western railway rates, which is at 
present the subject of inquiry, and allows the higher 
rates as a matter of equalization in this regard. 

Of interest to shippers and consignees of pulp and 
paper are the new cartage rates fixed by the Railway 
Commission this week. The new rates are 50 cents per 
ton and 15 cents for what are known as "smalls." The 
former rate was 40 cents, and the railway had applied 
for permission to increase them to 60 cents at Toronto. 
Hamilton and IMontreal. and 50 cents at smaller points. 
During- the hearing of the application it was hinted by 
some of the railroad witnesses that the roads might 
abolish cartage facilities altogether. 

No action in regard to the placing of a Federal ex- 
port duty on pulp wood to United States is likely to be 
taken by the Government until March. The Budget 
Speech, your correspondent learns, will be then de- 
livered when the Government will probably decide 
whether it will accede to the wishes of the deputation 
which saw it in this regard some months ago. 

Shippers of pulp, pulp wood and paper are uniting 
with in other lines of trade in a movement to 
have I'ceiprocal demurrage, that is a system of demur- 
rage charges which will fine the railway as well as the 
shipper for delay in unloading ears, instituted by the 
Dominion Raihvaj^ Commission. The new demurrage 
charges fixed last month by the Board are $2 for the 
first daj' beyond the free time allowed, and $S for 
every day afterwards. The former rate was .^l. 

Much interest is being taken locally in the demonstra- 
tion at the United States Forest Products Laboratory, 
at Wausau, Wis., of the fact that jack pine pulp may be 
used for the manufacture of news print paper. There 
is much jack pine in Eastei-n Canada on land which 
has been cut or burnt over until the more valuable 
woods have been driven out, according to Conservation 
Commission statistics. 

The last issue of the Dominion Trade and Commerce 
Department Bulletin contains a trade inquiry from 
manufacturers' agents in Calgary who desire to get 
in touch with Canadian manufacturers of commercial 
and correspondence papers and stationery specialties 
and novelties. 

A national park to take in hundreds of acres of 
wooded land between the Gatineau and Coulonge 
Rivers, in Quebec Province, has been favored by the 
Ottawa municipal authorities and is meeting with 
much favor b.v residents of the nearby district and 
Government otfieials. Mr. W. H. Rowley, joint manager 
of the E. B. Eddy Company, in a recent interview, ex- 
pressed his approval of the plan while other lumber- 
men of the district favor it as a conservation measure. 
There are a number of private interests to be dealt with 
first, however. 



A terrific explosion occurred in the sulphite mill of 
the Lauren tide Co., Limited, at Grand Mere, Que., 
on December 23rd. A fourth 48-ft. digester, under con- 
struction Ijy the JIanitowock Engineering Works had 
just been completed, and it was during the test that the 
explosion occurred. The theory at the mill is that the 
excessive cold weather affected the boiler plate, causing 
weakness. The new extensions to the buildings under 
construction were completely destroyed, and the three 
digesters disabled, thoiigh not seriously injured. Por- 
tion of the screen room was injured as well, but the 
total loss only amounts to about $] 00.000, which is en- 
tirely covered by insurance. Four helpers. D. Dessur- 
eault, Adelard Berthiaume. Luc Landry and J. Tre- 
panier were killed, and slight injuries were sustained 
by two others, but work on the ground-wood and paper 
mills only suffered a day's interruption. Mr. C. C. Hock- 
ley is .superintendent of the sulphite mill, which position 
he has held for some years. He came to Grand Mere 
from Shawinignn Falls as civil engineer, later being 
given charge of this mill. Under him the sulphite mill 
has been greatly improved and enlarged and is one of 
the most progressive plants making news fibre. We 
lament this mishap, as an interruption in his very fine 
production record. 



J;imi:irv 1. V.)V>, 


(Spec-ial to the Pulp niul Paper Magazine.; 

Montreal, December 20th, 191-2. 

A year eud review of the conditions in the pulp and 
paper trade may be briefly suuuuari/.ed as being --very 
good." All tlie paper mills are as busy as they can be. 
and the new nulls which commenced operations this ye;ir 
seem to have sufficient business to keep them going at 
full capacity. There are dangers, however, that the in- 
dustry is being over-capitalized, and over-production will 
eause^i serious shrinkage. The attention which has been 
turned to the manufacture of news paper, has excited the 
imagination of promoters and tinaaciers, with the result 
that new mills are being starteil up when there is abso- 
lutely no reason for them being in existence. People 
with spruce lauds and undeveloped water power natur- 
ally turn to paper making as the first means of realizing 
ontheir forest lands and water falls. However, if many 
more mills are projected and the product placed on the 
market, it will be most unwise, and will prove injurious 
to the established mills. Already in the United States 
there has been a decrease of $3.00 per ton in the price of 
news paper since last year. This is due to the over-pro- 
duction. As it is in the United States market in which 
any new production of paper must find an outlet, paper 
manufacturers and promoters of paper companies should 
lie verj- wary about starting new mills. So far the in- 
creased produetion has not affected the price in Canada, 
but a reaction is bound to follow if the over-production 
keeps up. 

As compared with a year ago. sulphite in Canada is 
i)lentiful, but is selling "at from $.j.00 to $6.00 per ton 
higher tiian a year ago and from $7.00 to $8.00 higher 
than it was at the end of 1910. It is expected, however, 
that in another two years it will be down $7.00 or $8.00 
below present prices. Prices for news ai-e about the 
same as they were a year ago, but ground wood is lower 
owing to the greater production in the United States and 
the increase in the production in Canada. During the 
past year Canada practically increased her production 
of paper by 500 tons per day and increased her production 
of ground wood from 400 to 500 tons per day. This in- 
crease in paper and ground wood makes a difference 
against ground wood of almost 800 tons per day, and as 
the United States took 300 tons per day less this fall than 
a year ago, it is easy to see that the ground wood market 
is in a bad condition. As a matter of fact, the Eastern 
Canada Power & Pulj) Company has gone into liquida- 
tion, chiefly because it was unable to sell ground wood at 
a profit. The compauy have heavy overhead interest 
charges amounting to about $4.00 per ton. This combined 
with low prices and over-production, has forced them into 
lii|uidation, and a meeting of the stock holders and Iwrnl 
holders will be held on the 27th of this month. 

Another factor which is making ground wood cheaper 
in Canada is the development taking place in Newfounil- 
land. From that colony large quantities of grottnd wood 
are being exported to the United States, where it is com- 
l^eting with Canadian ground wood and causing a lower- 
ing in values. The only favorable feature in connection 
with the ground wood situation is that wood in Euro]ii' 
is scarce, and as the freight rates are abnormally higii 
between the various European countries, the probability 
is that the demand from European soin-ces for grotnid 
wood during 1913 will licl)) Canada to a considerable 
extent. The development in connection with news mills 
is that the present iiroduction is sufficient to supply the 
demand for at least another five years. On the other 
side, the Tnternational Papei- Company are curtailing 

their output of news by 400 tons per day and are making 
other lines of paper. In Canaila the increase in news daily 
this year was 50 Otons, and will shortly be increased 
to 600 tons, as a number of new mills will start manu- 
facturing early in 1913. This is likely to cause a shrink- 
age in present values. 

Sulphite which has all along been the strong feature 
of the market is also threatened with lower prices. While 
fewer companies have started up in the sulphite business, 
there seems a tendency now to go into this branch of the 
business. The York Ltuuber Company, owning 1,200 
S(iuare miles in Gas])e. are forming a partnership with 
the Hillyard Company, who own some 800 scjuare miles 
on Bay "Chaleur, and lietween them will erect a sulphite 
mill with a 100-ton per day capacity. If this is repeated 
very often, the price of sulphite will fall. ( )ne- prominent 
paper manufacturer said: 

■'The people led by promoters and financiers have gone 
crazy over pulp and paper manufacturing. They have 
heard that paper can be manufactured more cheaply here 
than in the United States and that the estatilished mills 
have been making money, and believe that they should go 
in and start more mills and help share in the fortunes 
which are being made. They forget that the established 
paper mills have had many lean years, and are apt to 
have lean years in future. They also forget that the 
Americans are apt to cut the prices to such a figure that 
Canadians will hardly be able to compete with them. If 
the Americans find that the Canadians are still compet- 
ing, they will go to their Government and secure addi- 
tional protection, as they will be able to point out that 
the industry in the United States is unable to make head- 
way. The Government will then put a duty on Canadian 
paper, and the new mills in this country will be in a bad 
way. ' ' 

Summing up the year's Inisiness, it is found that the 
increase in the output of paper has been very marked, 
and while the Canadian news papers have been increas- 
ing in size and in nundiei-. the Canadian market will not 
liegin to take care of the output. Already in the I'nited 
States there is a drop in values, which soon must aft'eef 
( 'anadiau pajjer men. Prices at i)resent in Canada, with 
the exception of ground wood, are as good or better than 
a year ago. but the iiulieations are that they will soon 
tend towards lowei' levels. 

J. C. K. 

A deptitation from the Canadian Forestry Association, 
including Senator Rostock, of Ottawa. W. C. J. Hall, of 
Qtiebec. Elwood AVilson of Grand Mere. Que.. Denis 
Murphy, Geo. ilurphy and others of Ottawa, waited 
upon the Dominion Government last month urging that 
the resolutions passed at the Victoria Convention be act- 
ed upon. They had to do with the proper disposal of tree 
tops and debris after lumbering operations, prevention 
of settlement on land only adapted to forest, establish- 
ment of additional forest reserves, and others. Right 
Hon. R. L. Borden and Hon. Robt. Rogers pronnsed con- 


Jnnii;iiy 1. i;)i:{ PULP AND P A P K R MAGAZINE. 45 


Tlie following tiilile shows in brief suinmarized form 127,269,000 lbs., compared with 'J2.1-47,000 lbs. in 1911. 

the exports of pulp and paper, etc., from and the im- For this, of course .the opening up of new mills and the 

liorts of the same into Canada from the principal eoim- extension of previously existing ones is mainlv respon- 

tnes with wlueh ( anada trades m these items. It should ,ib, ^ ^^^^^ .^.jth the natural development' of trade 

he noted, however, ha ,n newsprint there has been a ^^.-^^ ^^^ ^.,^j^^^ g^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^.^^^^,^ ^^ ^^^.^^. ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

very huge increase both m production and in exporta- t- ■, r, a, ^ i i 4*4.1, +• tv,„+ ^^ -^i,„. 

tion. and tliat the chief part of this increase has taken .' "^'f ^''''^^«. ^'^^^'l^*^*- ^V ^^\ '^T ' \ \ 

place during the last few months in a period later than '"§ the last six months, there has been a veij material 

tlie tigures summarized. October, for example, '"""'^^''f ™ the imports of P^Pe^.^^^to Ca°«*^,^,|he in- 

Canada's export to the Pnifed States was 16,234.600 crease being estimated at nearly $1,000,000 during that 

n)s.. as against 5,687.000 lbs. in October. 1911. United Pe^od. 

Slates' estimates show for the ten months ending Oeto- The figures given are for the fiscal years of 1910. 1911 

her .SI St. imports of news from Canada amounted to sind 1912. 

Books anil perioiiieals, incliuling labels, maps, charts, advertising; folders, etc 


Paper, and manufactures of (albumenized and other papers and films chemically pre- 
pared for photographers ' use) 

Bags or sacks, printed or not 

Card board, not pasted or coated 

Cards for playing 


Hangings, or wall paper, including borders 

Mill board, not coated or pasted 

Pads, not printed, papier niache ware X. O. P., papeteries and manufacturers of paper, 
N. O. P 

Printing paper .^ 

Ruled, border and coated papers and boxed papers 

Tarred paper and other building paper N. O. P 

Wrapping p.-iper 

All other ' Dutiable 

All other • Free 

Totals, paper and manufacturers of Dutiable. 

Free. . . . 

Rags of cotton, linen, jute, liemp and woolen, paper waste, clijipings, etc. 
Wood pulp 

Exports to Great Britain. 

Books, photos, etc.. 
Paper — 



Other, X. E. S. 

Wall paper. . . 

Totals, paper 913,532 

Imports from Germany. 


















































































Books, periodiicals, advertising folders, etc 

Papers and manufactures of — 

Hangings of wall paper, including borders 

Paper, photographic, plain basic, baryta coated, adapteil for use exclusively in the mam 

of albumenized or sensitized paper Free 

Printing paper 

Ruled and bordereil and cnateil jpapers; bo.xed papers and papeteries 

Wrapping paper 

All other 

Totals, paper and manufactures of Dutiable 

Free. . . 

Exports to Germany. 





































46 PULP AND PAPER MAGAZINE. January 1, 191. 3 

Imports from United States. 

Books, periodicals, advertising folders, etc Dutiable 



Paper and mnnufaotures of — 

Album iusides, made of paper 

Albumenized and other papers and films cliemieally prepared for [ihotographers ' use. 

Bags or sacks, printed or not 

Cards for playing 

( 'ard board, not pasted or coated 


Felt board 

Hangings or wall paper, including borders 

Leather board, leatheroid and manufacturers of, N. 0. P 

Itill board, not coated or pasted 

Pads, not printed, and papier mache ware, N. 0. P 

1 'aper, manufactures of, N. 0. P 

Paper, matrix, not being tissue paper, for use in printing 

Paper, photogi-aphic, plain basic, baryta coated, adapted for use exclusively in the 

manufacture of albumnized or sensitized paper 

Paper tubes and cones of all sizes adapted for winding ya'ru thoreon 

Patterns, boot and shoe, manufacturers of paper 

Printing paper 

Ruled and bordered and coated and boxed papers and papeteries 

Straw board not pasted or coated 

Tarred paper and other building paper N. O. P 

Twine or yarn of paper imported by manufacturers for the purjiose of being woven 

into fabrics 

Union collar cloth paper, in rolls or sheets, glossed or finished 

T'nion collar cloth paper, in rolls or sheets, not glossed or finished 

Window blinds of paper of all kinds 

Wrapping paper 

All other 

Totals, paper and manufactures of Dutiable 


Rags of cotton, linen, jute, hemp, woolen, paper, waste and clippings. Free 

Wood pulp 












■ 102,869 

























































































Exports to United States. 

1910 1911 1912 


Felt $ 5,381 $ 2,171 $ 5,253 

Printing 1,246,822 1,962,832 l.'^-89,863 

Wrapping 104 1,183 68 

Other, N. E. S 65,106 104,388 84,552 

Wall paper 2,128 5,315 6,568 

Totals, paper 1,319,541 2,075,889 2,086,304 

Stationery 8,i56 10,909 11,833 

Wood pulp — 

Chemically prepared 1,597,319 1,298,162 1,585,615 

Mechanically ground 2,577,990 3,796,427 2,834,329 

Imports from France. 

1910 1911 1912 

Books, periodicals, etc $146,106 $145,289 $184,038 

I "1^' 6,309 2,319 4,697 

Paper and manufactures of — 

Hangings of wall paper, including borders 6,796 6,937 9,354 

All other Dutiable 62,108 79,559 83,405 

Free 1,934 829 753 

Totals, paper and manufactures of Dutiable 68,904 86,496 92,759 

Free 1,934 829 753 

Exports to France, 

^ 1910 1911 1912 

Book?, pamphlets, etc $1,837 $2,781 $10,045 

Wood pulp 62,316 120,417 ....'.. 

1, inin 



Total Imports into Canada from All Countries. 

Bonks, periodicals ami othor printed matter Dutinble 

Free. . . 

Paper ^nd manufactures of albumenizcd and other papers and films cliemicallv proiiared 

for photographers ' use 

Cards for playing 

Hangings of wall paper, including borders 

Printing paper 

Ruled and bordered and coated papers; boxed papers and papeteries 

Tarred paper and other building paper, N. O. P 

Wrapping paper 

Paper, other Dutiable 


Wood luilp 

Total Exports from Canada to Other Countries. 

Books, pamphlets, maps, photos, eli- ('aiiadi:;n ])rniliico 

Foreign produce 

Printing paper Canadian produce 

Foreign produce 

Wall paper Canadian produce 

Foreign produce 

Other p.Tper Canadian produce 

Foreign produce 

Wood for pulp 

Wood pulp 

For the six months ending Sept. 30. 

1910 1911 1912 

1,262,828 $1,568,144 $1,915,221 

892,430 994,395 1,183,931 

76,730 71,978 81,123 































$ 161,351 

$ 143,782 

$ 164,181 

























2,363 943 



Of Interest to Those Engaged in 
the Pulp and Paper Industries 

Improvements in Pulp Straining Machines. 

An invention relating to inaohines for straining pulp 
lia.s licen patented in Great Britain b.y John White and 
I'^rancis Win. Gray, engineers, both of James Bertram & 
Sou, Ltd., Edinburgh. 

This invention relates to machine.? for straining paper 
pulp, of the type wherein the diaphragm derives a 
variable to-and-fro movement from a vibratory member 
connected to a rotary crank or the like. The invention 
consists in a mechanism the essential elements of which 
are enclosed in an oil bath, and including means inde- 
pendent of the connection of the vibratory member to 
the crank or the like for varying the action of said 
inember on the diaphragm. The improvements while 
applicable to pulp strainers generally are more par- 
ticularly designed for use with strainers of the station- 
ary or oscillatory drum type referred to in the Specifi- 
cation of prior Patent No. 8599 of 1910. 

In tlie accompanying drawings Fig. 1 is a part eleva- 
tion, part longitudinal vertical section, showing b.v way 
of example the improvements applied to a pulp strain- 
ing machine of the type in which the straining vessel* 
iM'uiains stationary while the pulsating diaphragm is 
lioing opci-ated. Pigs. 2 and 8 show modifications. 

Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings, a pulsating 
diaphragm A is interposed between the straining vessel 
(Al) and the vat (A2) and is connected to and oper- 
ated by a piston or plunger (B) carried downwardly 
into a pi'cfcrably cylindrical guide (C) formed in a 

hollow chamber (D) extending horizontally under the 
vat (A2), and secured to the supporting standards (E), 
at each end of the machine, the chamber (D) forming 
an oil bath enclosing all the working parts. To-and-fro 
motion is imparted to the diaphragm (A) preferably by 
a rotating shaft (F) and crank (G) located at one end 
of said chamber (D) and a connecting rod (11) wliich 
extends from said crank through a rocking menilier (I) 

in the piston or phniger (B), and througii a sciMind 
rocking member (J) serving as a movable fulcrum. Tliis 
member (J) is fitted in a saddle (K) guided in the 
chamber (D) and adapted to be traversed horizontally 
within said chamber preferably by means of 
a screw-threaded shaft (L) operated by 


January 1, 1913 

means of an external haudwlieel (M), so 
that the position of the member (J) may 
be adjusted relatively to tiio erank (G) and the rock- 
ing member (I). By this arrangement the couneutiug 
rod (H) to which is imparted a vibratory movement 
constituted by a combined reciprocatory and swinging 
movement on the member (J) transmits to the plunger 
(B) a short vertical reciprocatory movement, the stroke 
of which varies according to the distance between the 
member (J) and the crank (G) ; and, as the position of 
the member (J) can be altered without stopping the 
machine, the stroke of the diaphragm (A) can be in- 
creased or diminished while the machine is in motion. 
The usual flexible water-tight connection (N) is pro- 
vided between the bottom of the strainer vat (A2) and 
the pulsating diaphragm (A), and in order to support 
partially the weight of the diaphragm and its actuating 
plunger (B) a spring (P) co-acting with an adjusting 
screw (Q) and plate (R) is inserted in the lower part 
of the chamber (D). 

To-and-fro motion may be imparted to the diaphragm 
(A) directly from below, as described, or in other types 
of strainers, liaving, for example, an oscillating dia- 
l>hragm (S). Fig. 2, fixed on a spindle (SI) operated 
from an overhead rod (T). The said rod (T) is carried 
through a flexible oil-tight diaphragm (T'^ closing one 
end of a casing (V) constituting an oil bath and encas- 
ing suitable articulated or linked connections from a 
connecting rod (W) actuated by means of a rotating 
crank (X) and extending through an adjustable ful- 
crum member (Y). As shown, the connecting rod (W) 
is arranged vertically, and the fulcrum member (Y) is 
nmunted on a block (Z) titled to slide in a vertical pait 
(Vl) of the casing (V), while a link (Wl) serving to 

ness. a screen adapted 
|)ul]i of proper fineness 
b.K'k' into the bca;iii,i 

as to have pass through it 
1 to discharge coarse tailings 
•ntrine, transfer mechanism 

couple the connecting rod (W) to the said rod (T) ex- 
tends along a horizontal or overhanging hollow arm 
(V2) of the casing (V). 

In a modification shown in Fig. 3. the said rod (T) is 
passed through a cover (A) supported by a flexible 
sleeve (B) adapted to be secured to said arm (V,). 

The vat and diaphragm of the strainer may be con- 
structed and arranged as described in the Specification 
of our Patent No. 8599 of 1910, but by preference the 
straining vessel, instead of moving backwards and for- 
wards, is stationary when the diaphragm is in action. 

Canadian Patent No. 142452, Pulp Machine.— C W. 
Shartle, ]\Iiddleton, 0. 

This is a pulp-redueing apparatus, comprising (as 
will be seen from the illustration), a beating engine, 
adapted to reduce pul]) to the desired degree of fine- 

adapted to remove material from the beating engine 
and deliver it to the sci'oen. means for supplying the 
beating engine with watri', a cylinder machine, means 
for transferring ti> the cyliinlrr machine the pulp and 
water which has passed through the screen, and means 
for transferring to tlu' screen the water which has been 
extracted from the pulp by the cylinder machine. 


]j. Skai'k. of Saybu.scli-Zywicc. Austria, has invented 
an apparatus for coloring pulp. The illustration shows 
the general principles of the idea. From an elevated 
receptacle, a, equipped with a close-fitting cover, b and 
a tube c for ol)taining a uniform pressure, the color 
solution is conducted through the spraying pipe f, and 

mixes here with the liquid pulp coming from the sUitV 

If several dye solutions are to be used, several of 
these receptacles a with special cocks, opening into a 
stirring box may be arranged and the solution is 
coiuluctcd fi-om here info the pipe conduit d, whence. 





tlirougli tlie spray-i>ipe f, it enters the receptacle e and 
thereby is mixed with the liquid pulp. 

In the pipe d two cocks h and i are introduced; the 
eock h is intended to regulate exactly the admission of 
the dye. whereas, by means of the eock i, the entrance 
of color may be instantly interrupted. 

The I'eeeptacle e is divided by means of the partition 
k so that the stuff coming from tlie box g is compelled 
to pass downward. aro\ind the walk k. T^y this means, 
with the aid of the tlanged shafts 1, 1, and 1.. the pii'p is 
intimately mixed witii the dyestuff, affiM- which, tlie 
now perfectly colored liquid pulp flows on to the i-un- 
ning wire. 


It has been the practice of most paper-makers to 
judge the length of fibres by squeezing a handful of 
the stock and noting the length of the shortest fibres 
visible. In the opinion of a writer in Paper Trade 
Journal, the habit of .pulgiiig the length of fibre by 
feeling the stock as it flows from the outlet of the Jor- 
dan is all wrong, because the feel of the stock depends 
more on the amount of water present than it does on 
the length of the fibre. For instance, a large quantity 
of water is emptied into the chest from the beater, the 
stock going through the Jordan will b& thin and even 
short stuff at this time will feel long because of its 
thinness. Exactly the opposite will be experienced 
when the stock passes through^at this time very long 
fibres will feel short, for there is present a body of 
stuff instead of three parts of water. The quality of 
fibre also misleads when judging the length of fibre by 
the feel of the hand, and hard fibres when short will 
feel long, -while soft fibres when long really feel short. 
The use of clay, alum and size is also a factor which 
iften causes the beaterman to go astray in judging the 
length of fibres. The safe and sane way is to become 
accustomed to judging the fibres by sight, and this can 
be accomplished by taking a small hand dipper and 
putting in a certain amount of fibres from the Jordan 
and sufficient water to thin and separate the fibres, so 
their length can be observed. 

There are several methods of determining the wet- 
ness of stock while preparing it for the machine; prob- 
ably the most ordinary is to take a handful of it from 
the beaters and by squeezing it and noting the amount 
of water which drains from it. A more accurate idea 
is obtained, however, in the following manner: — 

Weighed samples are taken from the beaters and 
each is drained on a piece of wirecloth of known mesh. 
A certain length of time after the draining the samples 
are again weighed and then dried bone dry and 
weighed again. The amount of water retained after 
draining, in comparison with the dry weight of stock, 
makes the figure from -which relative wetness can be 
obtained. Care should he taken when making the 
above tests to have all conditions as nearly alike as 
liossible. Still another method is feasible by taking 
from the beater a cei'tain quantity of the stock and 
placing it in a specially constructed bo.x. the cover of 
which can be pressed upon the stock to desired mea- 
surements. The quantity of water forced from the 
stoek by pressure of cover is measured, and a very fair 
idea of the wetness of the stock is had. 

By Robt. J. :\rarx. of London. 

This is by no means my first visit to the Dominion. I 
came here on a flying trip more than 15 years ago — a 
short period in the development of a country — yet how 
enormous the changes which have taken place in the 
pulp and paper industry since then! In those years, 
pulp, and especially ground wood, was looked upon as 
the alpha and omega of the trade. Timber in suitable 
quality everywhere in abundance, water power obtain- 
able by just asking for it, labor about as scarce then 
but only needed in a small measure. Canada at that 
time bade fair to become the general provider of ground 
wood pulp for the world's largest markets. To-day 
pulj) mills are looked upon as a kind of accessory to 
your iiaper mills. In fact, the birth of every new pulp 
scheme raises now at once speculative thoughts as to 
when the erection of the inevitable paper mill is likely 
to follow. 

We from the "Old Country" cannot think in thous- 
ands of square miles of timberland as quickly as you 
can. and I personally shall always be impressed by the 
vastness and grandeur of Canada, however familiar 
repeated visits may have made me with its great natural 
wealth and the resources of its inhabitants. 

To the uninitiated your achievements may appear an 
easy vistory and indeed no fundamental changes have 
been imported by Canada into the art of making paper. 
The general principles of the old text book recipes still 
hold good. Yet the work done has been of great magni- 
tude and the success due to the skilful acclimatization 
of means and methods to the requirements and necessi- 
ties of the country. Even the very best European 
paper mill, if bodily traii-splanted into Canada and 
located in an ideal spot wher timber and power are 
abundant would be doomed to failure. What strikes 
me particularly in Canadian paper mills is the simple 
means employed to attain the object in view. I think 
as far as labor is concerned there is no country in the 
world which can produce a given reel of paper with 
fewer hands than you do. nor any place where the task 
of the attendants is made lighter for them, yet you con- 
tinue to make the process of manufacture more and 
more automatic. 

You are satisfied to produce to-day grades of paper 
which fill the demand, but competition, which becomes 
keener every day. may soon make it desirable to obtain 
from your raw material as good a sheet as is commerci- 
ally possible. Your wealth is such that you can afford 
to smile at the waste of fibres and material which flows 
down every river on which paper mills are located. 
For some little time I have tried in a modest way to help 
you by the introduction of my various special devices 
to improve the standard of quality and to reduce the 
wastage in your mills, and, thanks to the enterjirise and 
open mind of those in charge, I have not been entirely 
unsuccessful. I much like to be with you and hope to 
cultivate our connection to mutual advantage. A 
fi-iendly hand has been extended to me everywhere 
and in readily complying with your desire for a sil- 
houetted impresion T trust you will permit me to wish 
the Pulp and Pajiei- Mag.nzine of Canada, as well as the 
"Industry" the very top of a happy and prosperous 
Xew Year. 



January 1, 1913 



The latest development in paper testers is a small compact 
instrument Hi inches thick, 4% inches long, and 3% inches 
liigh, and is being marketed by the Ashcroft Manufacturing 
Co., 85-87-89 Liberty Street, New York, well known as manu- 
facturers of instruments of precision for over half a century. 

Tn design, this instrument is a radical departure from those 
now in general use. In several features it differs entirely from 
.-.-ny other paper testing instrument. 

The base of the tester is made in two sections, the lower of 
which is a swivel plate, which opens at right angles to the iu- 
strumeut. This plate automatically locks in position, both 
when closed, or when open, and is released in both cases, by 
means of a push button, set in the swivel end of the plate. 
When open, the plate enables the operator to hold the instru- 
ment steady with the left hand, while the operating crank is 
turned with the right. Suiall rubber i)ads are secured to the 
liottom of the instrument, both to prevent it marring the sur- 
face of a highly polished desk or table, and to prevent the tester 
slipping while in operation. 

Paper to be tested is inserted in the clamp, and secured by 
turning knurled disc to the right. This feature deserves more 
than passing mention; the clamp is so constructed, that very 
small samples of paper, such as are often attached to a letter, 
may lie tested. The clamp is part of a metal arm, having an 
upward and downward movement, controlled by the operating 
crank. This clamping arm operates independently of those parts 
registering the strength. For this reason, any friction developed 
in this part of the movement, when making tests, will have no 
efl'ect upon the result registered. 

The bursting of the paper is accomplished by means of a 
metal plunger, the top of which is not crowned as in other metal 
plunger paper testers heretofore designed, but is cupper out, so 
tliat the paper is really broken over a ring about Yi-im-h 

The plunger is freely mounted, and does not slide in a guide, 
thus the movement of this part is accomplished without friction 
and the possibility of error from this cause is entirely elimin- 
ated. It is not capable of movement except when in contact 
with the paper being tested. 

When the operating crank is turned, preferably by means of 
the index finger, the entire clamping arm including the disc of 
i-lamped paper, is forced downwards and the paper is imposed 
on the plunger, which deflects until the maximum resistance of 
the paper is reached, when it again assumes normal position. 

The resistance, or bursting strength of the paper is indicated 
upon the dial in pounds per square inch. The indicating hand 
starts to circle dial at the moment the paper is imposed upon 
the plunger, and stops the instant the paper breaks. The cup, 
or ring shaped plunger used in the Ashcroft Paper Tester is 
claimed to be the result of an elaborate series of experiments 
conducted by the engineers of the Ashcroft Manufacturing Co., 
in an endeavor to develop some means of breaking the paper 
that would not present the disadvantages incidental to the use 
of rubber diaphragms, clamped in a surface equal to one square 
inch; the paper being tested by same, will naturally start to 
break in the centre of the circle, in other words, in the case of 
a rubber diaphragm, equal resistance is not exerted over the 
entire surface of the paper being tested, but is exercised first in 
the centre of the clamped circle. In case the diaphragm is not 
flat when in contact with the paper, but lays in wrinkles, as is 
the ease when the diaphragm has been used for some little time, 
the pressure will be very unevenly distributed. These two points 
cause more or less inaccuracy in r'^sults and aside from the 
deterioration of the rubber, form a serious drawback to the use 
of rubber diaphragms. 

On the other hand, a metal plunger with a crown top allows 
the paper to stretch over the crown, while the test is being 
made, and in the case of papers having long stretchy fibres, 
the tests include not only the bursting strength, but also a cer- 
tain amount of pull, tlie result being probably a compound ex- 
pression, including as chief factors, the average tensile strength 
the stretch or elasticity of the paper, and the relative distribu- 
tion of the fibres. 

The cup or ring shaped plunger as used in the Ashcroft Paper 
Tester, however, is claimed to eliminate all of these errors. It 
presents a flat surface to the paper being tested, but not, how- 
ever, as though the top of the plunger were solid. The paper 
forced over the rim of the plunger is in contact with the plunger 
only across its rim, which is very near the edge of the clamped 
idrcle of paper. As increased pressure is exerted on the rim of 
the plunger by the paper, the fibres over the cup are pulled 
apart in somewhat the same manner as in a tensile strength 
machine using strips of paper. 

The extremely small size of the plunger is one point upon 
which there will doubtless be considerable controversy. The 
Ashcroft Manufacturing Co., however, claims that of all sizes 
of plungers from 1 inch in diameter down to %inch, the size 
adopted (%-inch) gave the most uniform results on every class 
of paper. It is apparently a case of not what it is and why it 
is, but what it will do, and will doubtless be accepted on some 
such basis. 

It is claimed the Ashcroft Paper Tester contains no element 
subject to deterioration, and that it will remain accurate for 
many years, without readjusting. 

If all the claims brought forward in behalf of this instrument 
are justified, it will undoubtedly meet with great success. It 
would seem as if the points claimed are sufficiently important 
to warrant a thorough examination of the instrument by the 
testing bureaus of the larger mills and laboratories. 


The above company have opened an initial installation of 
four loom, soon to commence manufacturing in Canada, Pour- 
drinier wires, wire cloth, dandy rolls, and cylinder moulds. 

The following personnel of the new company assure its suc- 

President — .1. E. Buchanan, 16 years manager of sales for the 
Appleton Wire Works, and a practical wire man. 

Vice-President — Fred. F. Haefs, machinist and loom builder, 
from same firm. 

Secretary-Treasurer — Joseph W. Perazzo, wire expert, having 
past connections with William Cabbie Excelsior Wire Works, 
the Eastwood Co., and Appleton Wire Works. 

Superintendent — M. L. Peebles, steam and electrical engineer 
and patentee of numerous loom improvements. 

Managing Director — Wm. Buchanan, formerly of DeWitt 
Wire Cloth Co., Eastwood Company, Cheney-Bigelow Wire 
Works, and for the last sixteen years general manager of the 
Appleton Wire Works, Appleton, Wis., having had in all fifty- 
eight years' experience in the business. 

Their widest loom is 220 inches, so they are in a position to 
make wires of any width, in which they use their own metal' 

Already business is assured to almost double the initial 
capacity of the plant, which is a good omen for future success. 
This firm was attracted to Ottawa by the representation of the 
Publicity and Industrial Bureau, one of the best organizations 
of its kind in Canada. 

amiary 1, 1913 




Toronto, Dec. 30, 1912. 

In the earlv part of the month there was some slackening in 
the enormous Jemami for newsprint, and some pointed to 
the greatly increased eapaiity of the mills of whieh the lengthy 
article on progress, given on another page is evidence enough, 
as a cause. Since then, however, the market has picked up 
again, and although there has been some re\-ision of prices in 
order to find a market in certain large United States centres, 
there appears to be but little diminution now either in the 
price or the briskness of the demand. The Canadian product 
has displaced a considerable quantity in the American mar- 
liets, but great trade has been the rule. 

The book and writing mills are not complaining. In the 
former there was a trace of quietness in the earlier part of the 
month, but both are now experiencing very favorable condi- 
tions, and higher prices for the near future are considered likely 
by some in the trade. 

Wrappings retain the comparative strength which has now 
been enjoyed for some months, although it is still felt prices 
should be higher in order to enjoy a legitimate share of profit. 
Bags also have become firmer in tone. 

The demand from the United States for groundwood pulp 
has been unusually small for a long time past, owing to the 
satisfactory water conditions in their own mills. A slight im- 
provement in enquiries, however, is reported in some quar- 
ters. Meantime the manufacturers are not anxious, but con- 
tinue to make and pile large quantities in readiness for the de- 
mand, which they feel is sure to spring up before the end of 

Sulphite seems to be stronger than ever and the prices 

Paper Stock. 
Waste paper, f.o.b. Montreal. 
No. 1 hard shavings, $1.65 to $1.75. 
No. 1 soft white shavings, $1.60. 
No. 2 soft white shavings, $1.15. 
Mixed shavings, 50 to 55 cts. 
White blanks, 80 cts. 
Ledger, $1.15 to $1.20. 
No. 1 book stock, 90 cts. 
No. 2 book stock, 45 cts. 
Manilla envelope cuttings, $1.05. 
White envelope cuttings, $1.75. 
Xo. 1 print Manillas, 65 cts. 
Folded news, 50 cts. 
Crushed news, 45 cts. 
Good mixed paper, 45 to 50 cts. 
Rags, old and new, per 100 lbs.,, f.o.b. Montreal. 
Old white cotton, $2.50. 
Mixed cottons, $1.75 to $1.90. 
Light cottons, $1.90. 

No. 1 white shirt cuttings, $5.00 to $5.50. 
Light print cuttings, $4.00 to $4.50. 
Fancy shirt cuttings, $1.75 to $2.00. 
Blue overall cuttings. .$3.40 to $3.50. 
Brown overall cuttings, $2.25 to $2.50. 
Black overall cuttings, $1.5 to $1.70. 
Linings, $1.0 to $1.75. 
New unbleached cotton, $4.50 to $5.00. 
Bleached and unbleached cotton, $4.50 to $5.00. 
Bleached and unbleached shoe clips, $4.00 to $4.25. 
New light fianelettes, $3.75 to $4.00. 
Flock satinets roofing stock, 90 cts to $1.00. 
Ordinary satinets, 5 cts to 75 cts. 
Tailors ' sweepings, 65 cts to 70 cts. 

41/2 to 4% cts. 
41X. to 4% cts. 

Montreal, December 30th, 1912. 
Eeport on conditions in this market will be found under 
'Montreal Correspondence" page 44. 

Quotations for paper, pulp and paper stock are as follow.s: — 

News, $43 to $44, delivered in United States. 

News, $42, delivered in Canada. 

News Print, rolled, $2.00. 

News Print, sheets, $2.25. 

Book Papers — Carload lots. No. 3, 

Book Papers — Broken lots. No. 3, 

Carload lots, No. 2, 4% cts. 
Manilla B., 3V2 cts. 
Broken lots. No. 2, SVo to 5% cts. 
Carload lots. No. 1, SV, to 6% cts. 
Broken lots. No. 1, to 6-''4 cts. 

Manilla B., 3% to 3% ct>. 
Fibre, 3% to 4 cts. 
No. 2 Manilla, 3V- cts. 
No. 1 Manilla, 3% to 4% cts. 
Kraft, 4 to 434 cts. 

Ground wood (at mill), $14 to $15. 
Sulphite, $46 to $47, delivered in United States. 
Sulphite, $46 to $47, delivered in United States. 
Sulphite, $44 to $45, delivered in Canada. 
Sulphite (bleached), $51 to $53. 
Sulphite (unbleached), $45 to $46. 


C. E. Sontum, Canadian Trade Agent iii Norway, reports 
•that the wood pulp market is firm for all kinds, Ch^-mical 
pulp shows a rising tendency, and the buyers are eager to 
secure larger quantities. Mechanical pulp is also very firm, 
although there is not any special inquiry for this, but on ac- 
count of the war an increased demand for newspaper pulp is 
expected in the near future. It is hoped that the sulphite and 
pulp mills on the international market will make it possible 
for the Norwegian mills, in spite of the rise in the raw 
material ,to experience some good years, which are now very 
much needed. For the owners of woodlands and the popula- 
tions of these districts it is of the utmost importance that 
the mills should be kept running with some profit. 

Improved business for pulp is noted in Sweden. Foreign 
buyers, who have been out of the market for some time, hop- 
ing for a decline in prices, are inclined to believe this will 
not come for a long time, and are covering their requirements 
for 1913-14. 

In Finland, the mechanical wood pulp market is described 
as satisfactory. The prices quoted at the beginning of this 
year have been well maintained, and most mills have no 
stocks worth mentioning. At the prices ruling several large 
contracts for protracted periods have been concluded. The out- 
put of mechanical pulp has increased considerably, a couple- of 
new mills having been started and a few older ones being en- 
larged, but the market has been able to consume the increase. 



January 1. 191)5 


(Special to Pulp and l';iper Magazine.) 

Loinlon, Deoember 20, 191 'J. 
Tlie British paper traile is enjoying its full measure of pros- 
perity. Mill owners in England and Scotland state that thoy 
arc working at the highest capacity an-d for various grades of 
printings — which include news print — and writings, extra prices 
are deni.'jnded on new business. For some reason or other manu 
facturers of paper are not unanimous in combining to make a 
general .idvance in prices on all grades, and this action on their 
part seems all the more strange when one considers the high 
cost of pulps, esparto and rags. No doubt the extra cost of raw 
materials, and the extra taxation imposed by legislation recent- 
ly, will compel all mill owners in the near future to make a 
sulistantial increase in their quotations for contracts. As things 
stand at present pulp men would welcome an increase in the 
prices of paper throughout the United Kingdom, and they sa}- 
that the mills cannot drag on much longer on low rates. J[r::ii 
time, the demand for paper is very lirisk. 
* • » • 
In November, 50,70.5 tons of paper of all kinds, including 
lioards, printed and coated paper, were imported into the British 
markets and Newfoundland's share was 2,460 tons of printings 
or writings or reels. This was the highest importation receive.^ 
from Newfoundland on record. British mill owners exported to 
Canada 893 tons of writings and printings — the latter total over 
862 tons — which shows that the Canadian demand for printings 
is increasing. Canada, however, is not so much interested in the 
British markets as she is in the United States; the result is that 
she has left the field open to Scandinavian paper and German 

As the British paper markets are in a satisfactory condition 
and the mills busy, efforts are being made to meet the demands 
of the workers who want to cease work at noon on Saturdays 
and resume at 6 o'clock on the following Monday morning. A 
ballot of the men was taken and two-thirds are in favor of shut- 
ting down. Mill owners maintain that a week-end stop would 
reduce their output. For the prcsenl things are in abeyance. 
» « » • 

The mechanical wood pulp market is firm an 1 the demand 
good. So far prices remain unchanged .Vjiper makers h:i\ e in a 
good many cases satisfied their wan';s in JtlS at prices satisfac- 
tory to the producer. Canada has come m for n fair share of 
the deals. During the last few raonrhs some very large ship- 
ments of mechanical have reached Engl:>:!d from Newfoundhiu 1 
and Quebec; indeed, Newfoundland is becoming an important 
source of supply for the British markets, the shipment for one 
week alone reaching 2,500 tons. Some weeks the quantity is 

In November, 52,.S74 tons of mechanical were imported into 
the United Kingdom — a very great increase on the past three 
years — of this total Canada sent 4,270 tons, valued at 
£10,642. For the eleven months ending November, the total 
receipts was 36,294 tons, compared with 32,. 13 tons in 1911, and 
63,338 tons in 1909. The falling off between 1909 and 1912 is 
very material, it will be observed. 

• « • • 

The prosperous condition of the paper trade in England and 
Scotland very naturally causes a good request for chemical 
pulps of all grades. Prices are soaring higher every month uml 
good business is passing in favor of the producer. It is reported 
here that the United States during the last quarter have had big 
dealings with Swedish and Norwegian mills, but now there is a 
lull and the market is quiet, but firm. London quotations are 
about as follows: Sulphite bleached, £11-10 to ,£12-10 per ton; 
sulphite easy bleaching 1st quality, £9 to £9-10; sulphite 
"new.?" or strong quality, £S to £8-10; soda unbleached, 1st 

quality, £8 to £5; ditto, strong, £8.2.6 to £8-10. This week soda 
kraft was advanced, the price being from £8 to £9 per ton. 
* • • • 
Hags of all grades ;ire in keen demand and prices are on the 
increase. Continental reports states that stocks are limited in 
many places. The British demand recently has been very good 
and the demand from Canada has also increased, owing to a 
reported shortage some weks ago in the coloring. 

Bleaching powder is scarce, stocks being very low and manu 
facturers are unable to meet with the demands. Unfortunately 
the war between the Balkan States and Turkey has greatly 
upset the chemical export trade in many respects. So far no 
increased prices are asked for bleaching powder. 


The Canadian Pulp ami Lumber Co., Ltd., Winnipeg; capital 
$1,000,000. To carry on business as electrical engineers and 
contractors, importers of and dealers in paper, paper materials, 
and paper substitutes of all kinds. L. E. and Robt. Brownell, 
lirnkcrs; T. E. Ferguson, barrister, all of Winnipeg. 

Ungava Miners ami Traders, Limited, Montreal; capital 
$200,000. To carry on a wiile range of operations in Ungava. 

.lohnstone Strait Lumber Co., Ltd., Vancouver; capital 
$500,000. To manufacture lumber, etc. W. E. Burns, attorney. 

The Biordon Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd., incorporated under 
dominion laws, has been formally authorized by the Ontario 
Government to carry on business in that Province, with a capital 
not exceedingly $2,000,000. 

F. N. Burt Company, Ltd., has been granted authority by the 
Ontario Government to increase its capital stock from $2,250,000 
to $2,750,000. 

Canadian Roofing Mfg. Co., Ltd., Windsor. Ont. ; capital 
$75,000. To manufacture and deal in roofing and shingles of all 
kinds, wall board and building papers, etc. L. H. Cheeseman 
and C. .T. Cheeseman, both of Detroit; H. W. Unsworth and W. 
.T. Barber, of Sarnia. 

Dennis Canadian Company, incorporated under Michiga-n laws, 
has been authorized to do business under Ontario laws, in 
acquiring, manufacturing and dealing in lumber and other forest 
products, with a capital not exceeding $500,000. 

J. C. Wilson, Ltd., Montreal; capital $1,000,000. To do a 
general pulp and paper business, develop water powers, carry 
on a printing and lithographing business. They will make sta- 
tionery paper and specialties. 

• * * ♦ 

P. Dumontier & Cie, Ltce., Quebec; capital $50,000. To do 
business as booksellers and binders. J. C. P. Dumontier, J. J. 
Bedard, F. Leclere, Quebec City. 

» * ♦ • 

The, Reform Suit Box Company, Ltd., Montreal, Que.; capital 
$50,000. To manufacture boxes, trunks, suit cases, etc., of paper, 
wood, pulp, straw board, etc. Thomas S. Stewart. Harold Earle 
Walter, advocates, Montreal, Que. 

• • • • 

The Forest Products Company, Ltd., Peterborough, Ont.; capi- 
tal $40,000. To manufacture lumber and products thereof. Henry 
G. Rogers, Henry G. Logan. William Henry Hull. Claude Henry 
Rogers, all of Peterborough, Ont. The concern has been incor- 
porated to manufacture lumber and products of same. 



rp,.......-........ — ...—.•—.—.— ..— e—^------ 









S I K M K N .S .S C H U C K i: K T W K K K E 

S I E M E NS Ac H A L S K E 

MHi«Mr' ^iMiir 

^ ^^ife^-, JUJtei 



2 Siemens 320 H. P., 750 R. P. M., 3-Phase. 3000 Volt Slipring type induction Motors 
driving air compressros at the Acadia Coal Company, Nova Scotia. 

We supplied the aliove rnm|iany with 1'7 motors ranging from 4:» U.P. dnu-uwanls, togellier with l."i panel high 
tension switchboard and several miles of cable, etc. 

We undertake the complete electrical equipment of pulp and paper mills, i-ollicrios, steel works, rolling mills, 
cotton niills. woollen mills and clpctriral pl.Tuts of every di'sc-riptioii. 

Siemens Company of Canada Limited 









The troubles ai-ising fhroug-li conflict of lumbering 
intere.sts on the St. John liivvr. in New Brunswick and 
Maine, .seem likely shortly to be settled. It will be 
remembered that the diiTerences of opinion over the use 
of water for driving purposes and the delays experi- 
enced at the sorting gaps have more than once resulted 
in violence bel:-',veen the American and New Brunswick 
lumbermen. To avoid a recurrence of the troubles, 
which might easily have led to very serious conse- 
quences. The Canadian and United" States Govern- 
ments appointed the International St. John River Com- 
mission to gather data for to serve as a basis for an 
amicable understnding between the rival interests. 

The engineers found that with the expenditure of 
$471,510 for dams, the waters of the river and its tribu- 
taries can be raised to a comparatively high level, and 
so maintained, which would greatly facilitate log driv- 
ing on the river. To raise the river to a level suf- 
ficiently high for all purposes would cost, according to 
the engineers, $]. 273.576. To these amounts must be 
added the flowage damages, in some localities heavy. 

In order to improve the conditions for log driving at 
many points along the river, from $200,000 to $300,000 
might be expended at the rate of $10,000 to $15^000 
annually for a series of years. 

The general improvements suggested bv the en- 
gineers are divided into three classes: Channel im- 
provements, driving or flushing dams and reservoir 
dams. It is stated that the more the river channel can 
be improved the less the reservoir development will be 

found necessary or the greater will be the reserve of 
water for power purposes. 

The chief improvements will consist of storing as 
great a portion of the spring floods as possible, thereby 
reducing the height of the fre.shet stage and forming 
a reserve to be used when dry weather comes, as it 
usually comes every summer. 

Taking into consideration the matters of economy 
and return on investments required, the engineers sug- 
gest that instead of undertaking at once all of the im- 
provements which have been suggested, the most feas- 
ible way is to extend them over a series of vears doing 
that part of the work first that would appear to pro- 
duce the greatest effect and halting the work when that 
stage of improvement has been reached, bevond which 
expenditures do not seem to be justified bv the results 
to be obtained therefrom. 

It should be remarked that it is not a large quantity 
of water that is best for driving logs, but as steady 
and uniform a flow as possible throughout the entire 
driving season. Absolute uniformitv of flow cannot 
be obtained on the St. John River, as there are oppor- 
tunities for storing only a limited proportion of the 
spring freshet. By the construction of the reservoir 
dams recommended the freshets will be materially re- 
duced m heights, and in some of the branches will be 
nearly eliminated, thus reducing the expense and delay 
now experienced by returning to the water logs that 
have stranded at the height of the flood. 
_ The report, and still more particularlv the manner 
m which it IS acted on, will be read with keen interest 
by the lumber and pulpwood interests. 





Beating and Washing 

Paper Mill Machinery 





Lawrence Centrifugal Pumps 


Pulp and Paper Magazine 


A Semi-Mortthly Magazine Devoted to the Science and Practice of the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing 
Industry with an Up-to-date Review of Conditions in the Allied Trades. 

Published by The Industrial and Educational Press, Limited 

'24o-4-'). ("onfcik'i-atioii Lite Uuildiiii:, (Ciuccn St lMiti;incc), '["(Jidiitd, Out., TclciilioiK' Main (>.'?77. 
;MH. i;(,;u(lnr 'I'ladc Uidg., Montival, (inc., Telephone Main -im-I. 

I'jM-nii;. A. (h)i;ii<in McI ntmm:. 15. A.. li.Si 

Assoc. Kditoh, F. Vac.k Wii.sox 

Published on the Isl and 15th of each month. Changes in advertisements should be in publishers' hands ten days before date of 
issue. The editor cordially invites readers to submit articles of practical interest, which, on publication, will be paid lor. 

SUBSCRIPTION to any address in Canada, $2.00.-Elsewhere $2.50 (10 Shillings.) Single copies, 20c. 



No. 2 


We liave ]>revioiisly fefen-ed to a tendene.y iu some 
((uarter.s to di.spai'age the present fapid developioeiit of 
tlie pulp and paper industry in Canada on tlie ground 
that the iiltiniate effects of a l)oom are harmful rather 
than good. The Montreal "Shareholder.s" uses tlie recent- 
ly announced failure of the pjastern Canada Power & 
Pulp Company as the text upon Avhich to preach a 
little sermon upon the evils of over-development. 

There is a certain amount of truth in what our con- 
temporary says, though we cannot agree. iu)r do we 
lielieve the majority of those well acquainted with this 
particular industr.y would agree, in the larger conclu- 
sions which might he drawn from its argnim'iits. It is 
true that when the possibilities of an industry become 
generally recognized by the puljlic on account of the 
striking success of old-established enterprises, there are 
generally to be found a class of promoters ready to 
take advantage of the investor's interest and foist upon 
him a numl)er of new propositions, the chief merit of 
which consists in the ingenuity with which their finaii- ai'rangements are made to accrue to the jinitit of 
said proniiiters. And it is not surprising uiuier such 
cii-eniiist,-iiiers Mill 111 1 iiiia ! e inaiiufacturing and com- 
mercial success occupies a secondary ])ositiou in their 
minds compared with the facility with which shari's 
and bonds can i)e unloaded on a more or less beliexing 
investing public. Such success as has been ai/hiexid 
b\- Canadian pnlp and paper manufaetui ing companies 
has been won thi'imgh good .iutlgmenl in locating the 
mills in the right si)nt related lo accessjbilil \' to power, 
raw nialerials and to good shipping and marketing fa- 

cilities: lo downright hard \vi)rk and attention to detail 
in mill planning: antl to continuous good and aggres- 
sive management throughout. The financial success 
which followed was built in the first instance and all 
the way through on the prime requirement of success 
in the mainifacturjng and commercial departments of 
the mill. Prumoters of new enterprises are sanguine 
aiul are apt to forget this important truth; or rather, 
they are so taken up with the possibilities and the re- 
wards of tlie organization end of the business, that 
they are lilind to all else. 

The organizers of the Eastern Canada Power & Pulp 
Compan.y. including Sir Rodolphe Forget, ;\I.P.. who 
was also the organizer of several other financial organ- 
izations, evidently belong to the genus "promoter," 
whose chief interest lies in stock mani]iulation rather 
than in putting a mamifaeturing enterprise on a soinid 
footing from an industrial ])oint of view. We do not 
say the.y wilfully neglect Ibis imiiortanl jiart of the 
woi-k. but rather that they understand little of the re- 
(|iiiieiiienls of an enterprise other than launching its 
securities on the m;irkel. The i-esnlt is. as such crilics 
as the ■■Shai-elnibler" deehii'e. a black-eye to the ]mlp 
and |)ai)i'r industiw in Canada. 

To take the particular case iiameil. dn' Ivistern Can- 
ada Power iS: Pulp Comjiany, we nnilei'stand that a 
line of railway on which the management depemled for 
shipping faciliti(>.s, could mil be linaneed, or al any 
late that for some reason it was not bnill : also thai the 
water siip])ly was not such as had been caliMilated np.m. 
All we can sa.y is th:it if these things were (lepcnded 



Januarv 15. lOKi 

on for successful operatiou, good niauagemeut would 
have seen that they would be actually forthcoming be- 
fore asking investors for their money. True financial 
ability, as distinguished from .stoek-jobl)ing ingenuity, 
consists in just the dilferenee indicated. 

But. while we agree with the critics in their warning 
against this kind of iiappy-go-lucky proposition, and 
admit that there are one or two pulp and paper enter- 
prises in the field to-day which may be placed under 
this category, we cannot see that the industry as a 
whole is in any but a flourishing condition, excepting 
inasmuch as the almost unprecedentedly high water in 
Canada and the Eastern States during the past year has 
.slackened the demand for ground wood. The truth of 
this position is, we think, evidenced in the survey of 
the mills given in the editorial columns of our last 
issue. New mills there are. but the main j)ro]iortion of 

the growth ha.s been in the direction of gradual and 
conservative extensions imperatively demanded by a 
growing trade. 

The fact that mill capacity is growing more rapidly 
than population need not create anxiety. It should be 
remembered that a large part of the increase is required 
to fill the vacuum created l)y a contrary condition in 
the United States where indeed, owing to fiindamental 
inferiority to Canada in natural resources, new news 
jn-int mills are comparatively scarce and indeed old 
ones are being converted to the manufacture of wrap- 
ping paper and other lines. To look upon the piilp and 
paper industry of Canada from a purelj' Canadian 
standpoint takes too narrow a view; its growth should 
be regarded more as a continental matter, from which 
])oint of view it is evident that the limits are still a 
long way off. always provided that the essentials be- 
fore referi-ed to are kept in clear view. 


The announcement that the Quebec Government, 
through an order-in-council, has removed the embargo 
on export of pulpwood from certain limits has created 
wide interest both in Canada and the United States. 
Opinions among the manufacturers, several of which 
will be found on other pages, are most diverse, tiut can- 
not be said to have crystallized yet. This is not to be 
wondered at, in view of the line of cleavage wliirli 
exists between the various interests affected. 

It will be remembered that in 1910 the Gouin Gov- 
ernment, with a view to conserving the pulpwood re- 
sources of the province for the use of domestic manxi- 
facturers and encouraging the erection of mills by 
American capital, pa.ssed legislation restricting the ex- 
port of wood out from Crown Lands. Host people were 
agreed that the objects in view were in a fair way to- 
wards being attained. In the year succeeding the pass- 
ing of the restrictive legislation pulp, paper and lum- 
ber companies were incorporated in the province with 
a capitalization of no less than !);41 .000,000. New mills 
were started and old ones enlarged ; and this state of 
things is still going on. To a considerable extent it 
indicated that the paper industry, or the news print 
branch of it, was gradually removing from the United 
States, where raw materials were becoming exhausted, 
to Canada, where they were almost inexhaustible and 
where water powers were in abundance. 

So far. so good. But the conservationists stumbled 
against a snag in the shape of the clause in the United 
States reciprocity proposals which provided for the 
free admission into the American market of pulp and 
paper manufactured in Canada from wood produced 
on limits on which thei-e was no restriction as to ex- 
liortation but which jilaiid a duty of .$5.75 per ton on 
paper x>roduced from ai-oas on which any such embar- 

go was placed. This, it will '.e remembered, was the 
only part of the Reciprocity bill which became opera- 

Even this obstacle created no great handicap to Can- 
adian manufacturers for a time, though whispers went 
around, it is true, as to the extraordinarily lai-ge propor- 
tion of papei- which was being made from the product 
(if freehold lands. Leaving such nimors out of account, 
however, there is no doubt that mills favorably situated 
in regard to freehold pulpwood limit~s purchased or 
used as much raw material from this source as was 
economically possible, so as to take advantage of the 
opportunity presented by the terms of the above-men- 
tioned clause. This course of action was good so long 
as it was available. Recently, however, it became evi- 
dent that the radius within which wood could be econ- 
omically brought from surrounding freehold lands to 
the mills was becoming exhausted. Moreover, several 
American companies had been enterprising in the ex- 
tensive purchase of tracts of lands in fee simple. The 
Canadian companies might possibly have attempted to 
solve the problem by buying tlieir Crown land limits 
outright, or enough of them to satisfy the demand from 
the United States market. But this would have been 
expensive and would have met with opposition from 
those who made a sti-ong point of conservation of 
forest resources. 

The crux of the difficulty lay. not in the competition 
of American manufacturei\s. but in the difference of 
interest which was created in the ranks of Canadian 
paper-nuikers themselves. Those who owned freehold 
lands and were thus able to enjoy the advantage of 
free entry into the United States market, were quite 
content to allow matters to rest as they were. On the 
other hand, ownei-s of mills which had to relv finallv 

•hinuiiry 15, 191.'] 



ii|Hiii the prodiicl nf ( 'imwii hinds, oi- were only par- 
tially alilu to obtain wood from i)i-ivatfly owned lands 
and thus obtained free entry for a certain percentage 
ol' their paper, found themselves forced to meet the 
competition in that market of more favored mills in 
their own province. Naturally the situation was not a 
])lea.sant one. 

Nor was it an easy situation for Pi-emier Gouin. 
Without doubt, when he placed the embargo upon ex- 
port of wood from Crown lands, he did it after careful 
consideration foi- the best interests of the pi'oxince ami 
the ciiunti-y at large, and in symp.ithy wilh what he 
believed to be the ideas of Canadian pajxT nuinufac- 
tui-ers themselves. 

It is an example of how "best laid schemes o' mice 
and men gang aft agley" that inhcicnl defects of any 
legislation, particularly it may pci-hai>s be added of re- 
strictive legislation, only show themselves after it has 
been put into effect. Quebec's attemjjt to encourag,' 
l)a]ier nuniufacture and to presei-ve natural resources 
looked well and for a time worked well: but there was 
a flaw which gradually brought abnut .i cleavage. The 
fact has to be faced, and the remedy a])])lied in a con- 
structive manner. This is evidently the frame of mind 
in which Premier Gouin has faced a difficult situation. 
Partisan politics, such as the Montreal Star and the 
To)-onto Globe attempt to drag into the controversy, 
have no rightful place. It is simply a (piestion of th(> 
best method to pursue under the conditions which ob- 
tain, even though this may call for the reversal of a 
previous policy. 

As we understand if. the oi-di"r-in-council which has 
now been issued as an attempt to meet the new position 
of affairs grants the privileges of freehold lands to cer- 
tain -M-eas of Crown land limits owned by Price Bros., 
the Laurentide. Wayagamack. and Belgo-Canadian 
Paper Companies, sufficient to supply enough raw ma- 
t<'rial for the quantity of paper required for ex])ort by 
those coinjianies to the United States. 

An I'lcment of doubt still exists as to whether this 
statement covers the entire policy or whether it is to 
be enlarged so as to cover the product of other lands 

as well. In its present shape it would apjtear to have 
been modeled on the action of the British Columbia 
Government in lifting its restriction on pulpwood ex- 
port in so far as the Powell River Company are con- 
cerned. They are given the privileges of exporting 
wood, but it is thoroughly understood that it is only 
the product of the same which will be actually ex- 

While we have no symi)athy with the Bourbon-like 
attitude of standing by a policy or a conclusion once 
reached at any price, we confess to a feeling of dis- 
appointment that it has been thought necessary to ab- 
rogate regulations which appeared to have started 
working so well. Moi-e particularly is this the case in 
view of the recent Democratic victory in the United 
States which, it is quite conceivable, w'ould sooner or 
later have led to a removal of the surtax on importa- 
tions from restricted areas without any weakening in 
the Canadian attitude. However, it must be admitted 
that the same Democratic influence might lean in favor 
of free entry fi-om other countries, at any rate those 
enjoying favored-nations treaties, which would cmm- 
ter-Aveigh Canada's advantage above named. It would 
be interesting to know just what effect Mr. -Tohn Nor- 
ris' representations may have exercised in the outcome. 
The Dominion and the pi-ovinces should lie (|uite able 
to manage their ow]i jiolitics vrithout aid from out- 

As yet it is only presumed that the United States 
will allow paper made from the i)roduct of the exempt- 
ed lands to enter free of duty. In spirit, it ma.y be 
claimed, there is an element nf evasion in the Quebec 
Government's action, and the United States Govern- 
ment may delay in removing the handicap. But seeing 
that this has already been done in the case of the Bri- 
tish Columbia company mentioned, there is not lilcely 
to be .serious ditiRculty on this head. 

In the meantinu', the attempt of the railroads to ob- 
tain authority for higher i-ates on pulj)wood shipped 
from Eastern Quebec to American points, which has a 
close bearing on the problem involved, as explained in 
recent issues, will be watched with interest. A deci- 
sion is not expected for some time. 


The Ontario Commission, under Sir W. Meredith, 
which is looking into the question of the best basis for 
compensation of injured employees, is grudging no 
pains in arriving at the root of the difficult problems 
involved. Recently it heard Mr. P. T. Sherman, a New 
York expert, employed by the railwa,ys, who condemned 
the German system of compensation on the ground that 
it made the welfare of the people the playfield of im- 
pidsive experiment and entailed a radical change in 
lioliticaL principles and in industrial customs. Asked 

whether direct liability would make employers more 
careful and whether all idtimate cost was placed on the 
consumer. Mr. Sherman maintained that the whole 
question was adjusted by competition, the employer 
with low operating costs being able to place the loss 
upon the consumer, while the one with high operating 
costs and keen competition could oiil\- escape by enter- 
prise in accident protection. 

A striking feature of the enquiry throughout has 
been Sir William Meredith's pertinacity in getting at 



Janiiarv 15, ]913 

safeguards for the iutt'i'cst of the piil)lic as a whole, 
nndett'rred by legal technicalities and expert opinions. 
The evidenee of an intelligent ])iisiuess man carries as 
much weight with him as that of the most highly 
trained exjiert or lawyer. The whole |)r(ilileiii. as he 
sees it. is this: Can 1 propose an eeonoiiiii-,dly sinuid 
scheme which sliall he e(|iially and equally accept- 
able to both employers and employed.' 

In connection with the encpiiry. it is of iideiest to 
refei- to the lltll stat^istics on compensation ill Great 
Britain under the British Woi'kingmeu's Compensation 
Act. ^'MHi. and the Emi)loyers' Liability Act. 1880. The 
gi-oss total of the ]iersons employed in the seven groujis 
of industries — according to tlie returns was T.:}!!."),!!!!?. 
The annual charge per pei-son emi>loyed wor's nut for 
the dift'ereiit industi'ies as follows: Shipping. 1-ts. Md.: 
factories, 4s. 6.1.; docks. U Is. Od. ; nnues, £1 3s. 8d. : 
ipiarries, lOs. !td. : consti'uctional work. ]:!s. TkI. ; rail- 
ways. 7s. lid. For all the industries taken together the 
charge per person employed was 8s. .")d.. as compai-ed 
with 7s. 8d. in 1910. and 6s. lOd. in IttOi). The total 
charge for accident compensation on the seven indus- 
tries was. however, cou.siderably higher than the 
£:5.056.404 shown l)y the returns. Apart from conii)eu- 
satiou paid under eontraeting-out schemes, outstanding 
cases under the earlier Compensation Acts, and dam- 
ages recovered under the Employers' Liability Act. 
1880. or at common law, the total must have been largely 
increased by charges for law costs, administration ex- 
penses, etc. 

It is noteworthy that only a small proportion of the 
claims under the Act became the sul)ject of litigation; 
also that the larger proportion of the cases settled in 
court were in favor of the workmen, these being 78 per 
cent, of the whole. Since the first-named Act came into 
full operation, the number of cases under the Employ- 
ers' Liability Act has steadily diminished, and it looks 
as if this will eventually come into disuse. The amount of 
compensation granted in 1911 was £3.056.404, an in- 
crease of £356,079 over the year previous. This sum 
represented 4,021 deaths and 419.034 cases of disable- 
ment, the average payments being £154 and £5 16s. re- 

It may not be generally understood in Ontario that 
in Quebec Province a Workmen's Compensation Act. 
superseding the common law. has been in force since 
January, 1910, as explained by ^fr. Ross. K.C.. in last 
issue. The Civil Code made employers responsible for 
damage caused l)y the carelessness or lack of skill of 
employees and injured workmen could always recover 
damages from their employers. The latter, however, 
could easily raise the (piestion of "contributory negli- 
gence" or "inherent risk," and frequently defeated 
justice in this way. The recently enacted law adopted 
the main |)i-inciples of the liritish C:)m])ca-,ation Act, al- 
tliough it was modeled upon the French Workmen's 
Compensation Act which c-ame into force on -lidy 1. 189!). 


The Province of Quebec Running Waters Commis- 
sion has just issued a valuable report on water powei-s. 
It presents the result of a searching investigation into 
the best method for bringing the vaiious water powers 
of the j>rovince to good account for industi'ial pur- 

Quebec is ]>articularly advantageously situated from 
tlie point of view of water pov.'er. Figures obtained 
liy the Conservation Comndssion give the total avail- 
aiile at 0.000.000 horse-power. l)ut this estimate is be- 
lieved to l)e too low. The report says that the main 
object should not be the nieie eonsei'vation of these 
water j^oweis but the best means and methods by which 
they nuiy be turned to use. 

Several recommendations for obtaining the best pos- 
sible service from the streams and rivers are made by 
till' Commission, the substance being: that the flow in 
all the rivers and streams with the exception of the St. 
Lawrence is irregular, varying with the seasons; that 
the long cokl winters freeze the sources of vrater suppl.y 
and hold back the floAv; that the flow is lowest in the 
middle of winter; that there would be no suffering from 
this inconvenient fluctuation if a pai't of the flow" could 
lie hehl back and used later for the purpose of lu'eak- 
ing up the ice. 

There would seem to exist a natural remedy for this 
condition. All the rivers north of the St. Lawrence, 
and these are most important for industrial purposes, 
drain from lakes in the Laureiitian Mountains. The 
lakes have high banks, and the outlet through which 
the river passes is narrow and steep, affording excel- 
lent conditions for the stretching of a dam. AVork of 
a kind similar to that done on the upper Ottawa river 
where storage dams have been constructed below the 
lakes, is recommended as the best method for harness- 
ing Quebec's great water powers. It should be noted 
the water courses of the Province of Quebec, with few 
exceptions, lend themselves well to works of i-egulari- 
zation, assuring the stability and unifornnty of the flow 
throughout the vear. 


It is interesting to note the many uses to whieli wood 
l)y-products are now ]>id as a sul)stitute for materials 
foriiierly in use. Wood, wool or til/re, for instance, is 
now in use for packing all kinds of goods. It is also 
used as a sul)stitute for flocks in bedding, for upholster- 
ing, and also as a substitute for straw for stalile pur- 
poses. Wood flour, which is made chiefly from spruce 
or pine sawdust, is now used as an ingredient in the 
making of linoleum and explosives. There is also a 
certain demand for wood rope nrule from wood fibre, 
which is used by engineers and iron founders and also 
by fui'niture and other i)ackers. Supplies of the-e 
products are oblainable in England, and are imi)orted' 
from Norway, Sweden, Belgium and Germany. Prom 
inquiries made as to the prospect for Canadian manu- 
factures, some doul)t is expressed as to whether the 
cost of freight from Canada would not jn'ove an ob- 
stacle to the trade. — .7. M. Mussen, Canadian Trade 
Agent at Leeds, in report to Trade and Commerce De- 
partment. . , 

.T;iim;ii'\' T"). irtlll 



Specially Written for the Pulp and Paper Magazine, by Raleigh Raines 

At'cordiiiii: to the .Inpiinese writci's. tlierc aro at least 
nine ]"liiiit.s ri'oni wliicli i)ape)s arc made in .Japan, each 
siceie-; rnriiisliiiit; a (lifrei'cn' variety of product. Two 
ai'i- spccirs oT the jiapcr nmlhi-i-i'y (Broussonetia), and 
while thnc >peeies liavc lieeii (leseril)ed and defined. 
I hey may all he referi-ed to one, namely IJroussotietiii 
|j.ipyi-ifera. the ]>apei' mulhei'ry. One. the white nnil- 
lierry (Moi-us alba), another a speeies of Dai)hne mezer- 
eum, thi'ee are wild forms of a sm.ill tree (Wiekstrae- 
iiiia), and one. the l']dgworthia papyi'ifera. furnish''-! 
thr pidp for the mitsnmata paper of which we iin])oi-t 

Mitsumata Plant, and sheet ot paper made from its bark. Japan 

large ([uantitics ev<'ry year, especially for use as legal 
<locuments, diplomas, deeds, bonds, etc. For conveni- 
ence, each plant will be described in the order named, 
although oidy three of these plants are usually known 
to the commercial trade in Japan papers. The Brous- 
sonetia j>apyrifera, or paper mulberry, is a native of 
China, Japan, Siain, Polynesian Islands, and Burm.i, 
and has been introduced into other countries. In Japan 
it is called Kodzu and Kozo. but in other countries a 
different name attaches in each locality. It grows -wild 
in China and Japan and iu the Pacific Islands, where 
the natives manufacfiire a large part of their clothing 
from its bark. It forms a small tree attaining a height 
of from twenty to thirty feet, with a trunk seldom moi-e 
than a foot in diameter, and generally branches a shorl 
distance fi'om the ground. The young l)raiiclies ai:' 
covered with short soft hairs; the leaves are deciduous, 
varying much in shape, those of young trees being 
divided into three and five pointed lol)es. The Japanese 
cultivate this plant in very much the -same way that 
we grow oziers. Only the young shoots are used for 
the manufacture of paper; these are cut into convenient 
size pieces and boiled until the- bark separates readily 
from the wood when it is peeled off and dried for 
future use. In the wild state the plant or tree is usu- 
ally found on the hills and mountains facing southeast 
so as to receive the full sunlight and protection from 
winds. The ])roi>aga lion is eithei- done by planting 
divisions of old i-oo1s. layerings. cuttings, or seeds; but 
the most common method is the first mentioned. The 
young shoots with some rootlet.s are cut about a foot in 
lengtli and plauiied in rows 2i/l> feet wide, at intervals 

of three inches apart in the drill. After attaining the 
height of several feet the plants are stripped of the 
bark, which is carried through the process of soaking 
in water, drying, rubbing, beating, and, finally, becomes 
the pulp from which the fine paper is made. The pre- 
paration of the pulx) is quite an art, though simple in 
operation. The work of separating the outer bark 
from the fibre is aecompli.shed only after much labor, 
which is usually performed by women and girls who 
receive from 6c. to lOe. per day. After the pulp is 
washed, rinsed, and mixed in vats a mucilage made from 
the arrowroot is added to give adhesiveness, then the 
l>ulp is spread upon frames to dry, iu the end making 
a whitish bi-own paper, very strong, and in common use 
in Japan for wall pajjers, wrapping papers, and other 
u-r<. Instead of paj)er the natives of the South Sea 
Islands iiiaiuifacture an exceedingly tough cloth called 
ta|>a. or kajia, which they commonly use for clothing, 
ofteu d.yeing .same in many colors. By employing the 
nuicilage of tiie arrowroot th^ pieces of cloth are joined 
tiigether. and Admiral Sir Everard Home states that 
the King of Tonga taboo, iu the Friendly Islands, had 
one piece of cloth made which was two miles long and 
]2() feet wide. Of all the paper and fibre plants of the 
couutrii'S mentioned the Kodzu. or paper mulberry, is 
regarded as most useful to maidvind. furnishing as it 
does the clothing for millions of human beings. 

The Jforus Alba, or white mulberry, is a native of 
China and the north of India. Only small quantities 
of this ba-st is used for paper making in Japan, its 
manufacture being mostly confined to China, though it 
is sometimes mixed with the pulp of other bast. The 
tree which has been introduced into America grows 
forty to fifty feet in height and belongs to the mul- 
berries which are cultivated for the fruit. 

Daphne mezereum is a well-known thymelaceous 
genus of shrubs, the species of which are widely distri- 
buted, being found in the temperate and tropical parts 
of Europe. Asia. Australia, and Aiuei-ica. !' foi'ins a 
dwarf bush with erect bran^'iies. ,-uid is rema;'!\ab'( foi' 

Boards covered with drying sheets of Mitsumata paper 
in Japanese village 

the appearance of its fragrant ])iuk flowers in early 
siM-ing before the leaves exi)and. Several kinds of this 
species are cultivated in America. One of the sjiecies 
of this shrub D. cannabina, fui'iiisiies the famous Nepal 
paper much used in Japan and iu India for records and 



January 15, 1913 

deeds, the tilire lieiug very tough, will not break or 
craek wlicii fokled, and is extnaordinarily durabk^. 
Very litlh' of this paper finds its way to foreign mar- 
kets, though comparatively cheap in its native country, 
the price for sheets a yard square being about fifty 
cent-s per hundred sheets wholesale. 

The "gampi. or ganpi" belongs to the genus wik- 
stroemia, of which there are about twenty species, three 
of tliciii being used in .Japan for making the fine mom-y 

Mitsumata Plantation, near Giffo, Japan 
Showing how the plants are cultivated on the hillsides 

paper. This genus is distiiimted over the warmer parts 
of Asia. Australia, and the Pacific Islands, some of 
them being shrubs and others trees. This plant is rarely 
cultivated on account of the difficulty in propagation, 
and as a result the bark from which the fiber is madi- 
is gathered chiefly from the wild growth. While at- 
tempts have been made to grow the shrub, but little suc- 
cess has been the result, which renders the paper maim- 
factured from it scarce and high priced. The rocky 
hill sides and mountains furni.shes the best locality for 
its growth, and the difficulty attending its handling 
renders it unsatisfactory for harvesting. Very little 
of pure gampi paper is used for export owing to its 

The 'mitsumata" (Edgvvorthia papyrifera ) is per- 
haps the most widely used of all Japan papers men- 
tioned and is the chief paper of export. It belongs to 
the genus thymelacea and two of the species are used 
in the manufacture of the "mitsumata" paper of com- 
ineree. Its botanical name was given in honor of Mr. 
Edgworth. a noted Ixitanist of India, who first describ- 
ed its commercial i)ossibilities. This plant or shrub is 
extensively cultivated in Ja)>an for paper making, and 
its introduction into the I'niled States by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has shown that it can be as suc- 
cessfully cultivated in this co\nitry as in Japan. It 
thrives best on loamy .shady hill sides, in warm or tem- 

perate climates. The accompanj^ing illustration shows 
two shrubs in thriving health growing in North Caro- 
lina and in California. The word mitsumata means 
three pronged, as its forks are always composed of 
three branches instead of two, as is common with other 
shrubs. It is a pretty decorative shrub with its charac- 
teristic branching stems, broad light green leaves, and 
delicate yellow flowers which are borne in heads. It 
is sometimes grown in Japan for its decorative flowers 
alone. Scarcely over five feet high, it has as a result 
of its peculiar branching habit a characteristic vase 
form. The light brownish gray bark is thick and lace- 
like as a piece of tapa, and one can easily spread a liit 
of it out with the fingers into a web-like rough fabric. 
Small fruits are borne in clusters, and each fruit 
contains inside the layer of flesh a shiny black, sharp- 
pointed seed with a thin shell and milk white contents. 
In the Provinces of Shizuoka. Nogano. and Fattori are 
quite extensive plantations of mitsumata, and the areas 
under cultivation are rapidly increasing. As a rule 
the plantations occupy land which is not fit for rice- 
growing, such as hill sides too steep for terracing and 
valleys too narrow to make rice culture practicable. 
The harvesting is done any time in the winter and con- 
sists merely in cutting the plants to the ground, bind- 
ing them into btindles and transporting them to the 
farmhouse. From 600 to 2,000 pounds of raw bark is 
produced to the acre, and when made into pulp is 
worth in Japan 16 cents per pound in gold, which is 
four times what the wood-pulp from America sells for 
in Yokohama. In Japan small paper factories are scat- 
tered all over the central part of the country, along the 

Mitsumata Plant growing near Wilmington, North Carolina 

picturesque mountain streams, and the broad drying 
boards covered with sheets of fresh paper are common 
sights in many of the mountain villages. The Japan 
papers are in many respects the most remarkable in the 
world, and the papers employed by the common people 

January 15, 1913 



of that country are immeasurably more varied than 
with us. Thev form one of the important economies 
in the life of the peasant, and it is sueh iugenius uses 
of plant material as this cmitloyineiit nf the bark of a 
shrub that makes it possible foi' 42.000.000 Japanese 
to live on the production of a cultivated area about 
one-third the size of the State of Illinois. The walls of 
Japanese houses are wooden franu>s covered with thin 
paper, which keeps out the wind but lets in the light, 
and when one compares these paper-walled "doll 
houses" with the gloomy bamboo cabins of the Island 
of Java, or the small windowed huts of our forefathers, 
lie realizes that, without glass ami in a rainy climate, 
these ingenious people have solved in a remarkable way 
the problem of lighting their dwellings and at least, in 
a measure, of keeping out the cold. Their oiled papers 
are another important element in the peasant life of 
the Jai)anese. and are astonishingly cheap and durable. 
As cover for his load of tea when a rainstorm over- 
takes him, the Japanese farmer spreads over it a tough. 
l)lial)le cover of oiled paper, which is almost as imper- 
vious as tarpaulin and as light as gossamer. He has 
doubtless carried this cover for years, neatly packed 
away in his cart. The coolies in the large cities wear 
rain" mantles of this oiled paper, which cost less than 
18 cents and last for a year or more with constant use. 
An oiled tissue paper, which is as tough as writing 
paper, can be had at the stationers for wrapping up 
delicate articles. Every farm house has its stock of 
wi'apping paper, which has been in use for several years 
and appears as strong as ever. It has been tanned with 
the fermented juice of green persimmons and made 
into "shibugami," which is more impervioils to moist- 
ure than ordinary paper and much tougher. In the tea 
factories the piles of jiaper sacks tilled with tea are 
made of shibugami, and eight-year-old .s-acks covered 
with i)aper patches are a common sight. It is said that 
these tanned sacks keep the tea in better condition 
than any other sort, and that they last with careful use 
for many years. Grain and meal sacks are always made 
of this same paper in Japan, for it is not easily pene- 
trated by weevils and other insects. But perhaps the 

most remarkable of all the papers which find a common 
use in the .Japanese household are the leather papers 
of which tobacco pouches and pipe cases are made. 
They are almost a.s tough as French kid, so translu- 
cent" that one can see through them and as pliable and 
soft as calfskin. To the fact that the Japan papers are 
made from bark they owe their peculiar character. 
They arc as a rule softer, silkier, tougher, and lighter 
than our papers. Whether or not the methods employ- 
ed in their matnifacture ai'c responsible for the yellow 

IVlitsumata Plant blooming in the U. S. Experimental Gardens, 
Chico, California 

tinge which they always have is a ciue.stiou for investi- 
gation. It is probable that the Japanese acquired the 
art of paper making from the Chinese through K(n-e:i. 
The Chinese have made paper from the plants tleseribed 
herein for centuries, and there are in the Imperial Art 
Museums in Japan Chinese paintings on paper which 
date back as far as the seventh and eighth centuries. 
That there are possibilities in the cultivation of the 
mitsumata plant in the United States is evidenced by 
the success with which the plant has been grown in the 
Southern States, and in California. 


By Judson A. DeCew, Chem. Eng. 

There has been more or less written from time to 
time regarding the function of the chemist in the paper 
mill, and various points of view have been presented, 
chieflv those of the chemist. 

Naturally it is to be expected that the who 
has been able to accomplish something for his employ- 
ers will be willing to present occasionally some ana- 
lytical data, from Avhich ]iy proper interpretation, econ- 
omies or improvements have been effected. 

One hears expressed at meetings of manufacturers' 
organizations a desire on the part of managers for more 
technically trained men to take charge of their fac- 
tory operations. During the present industrial growth 
ancl especially in the paper trade, there is an unusual 
demand for men with engineering and chemical know- 
ledge, for which the universities can hardly provide. 

Naturally under these conditions, the young gradu- 
ate is soon" placed in a position of responsibility, per- 
haps before he has obtained sufficient experience in the 

industry to make his teelmieal knowledge really use- 

The best that the college can do for him is to instruct 
him in the general principles of the industry that he 
intends to follow, but in the transition period between 
the time of his entering the works and the point at 
which he will be competent to advise those men who 
have grown up in the business, a considerable amount 
of experience must be aci|uired in the api>lication of 
his special knowledge. 

In the introduction of the cliemist into the jiaper mill, 
difticulties have .sometimes arisen, which tend to retard 
the beneficial results that might be expected, and it is 
hoped that the pre.senta'tion of .some of the unfavorable 
conditions, may be of benefit to both employers and 

When a paper mill manager (U'cides to establish a 
chemical department he may lie iiitliieneed by either of 
two motives. Perhaps he desires to have a special 


PULP A X I) ]' A P K \{ ^\ A C, A Z T X K 

Jaiinarv ^'t, 101:1 

source of inforiiiatioii regarding the technical fcatui-cs 
of his whicli he wishes to use privately as a 
means of strciigtheninsr liis executive position. On the 
othei' liand, he may liave the idea that the light of reve- 
lation tlirown aipon the business, by speaking and 
tliinking of it in clicniieai teinis. will immediately re- 
sult in revolutionai-y diseovei-ies. and bring results that 
will greatly enlarge his dividends. 

Any such misconception of the true function of the 
chemist in the industry, and the method of apjilyiii" 
his knowledge. Avill result in mvich misunderstood and 
inetfective woi'k. In the first instance, the chemist is 
placed in the position of an expert I'eporter or inspec- 
toi-. who necessarily examines everything from a cri- 
tical poinr of view. He will be constantly looking for 
trouble which he can trace to the ignorance or i'nefli- 
eiency of someone in the oi-ganization. Under such 
conditions he must always observe things from a dis- 
tance, sohc his |;roblems entirely in the laboratory, 
and his isolared conclusions may be entiri'l\- at vai'i- 
ance with mill experience. 

In the text-books, chemical I'cactinns are always coin- 
l)lete. in analysis they are fairly so. and in mill work 
seldom. ^loreovei'. as the process teaching of chemical 
authorities is generally out of da.te. the working 
theories of the immature chemist, scholastically acquir- 
ed, are often despised by the mill superintendent. Let 
the chemical inspector once become discredited through 
impractical over-confidence, and his possible usefulness 
is forever gone. Again, when the young chemist comes 
to the industry with the idea that all of Nature's forces 
lie before him just awaiting his magic touch, he will 
soon learn fr(nn bitter experience that the greatest 
forces to be overcome in dealing with either matter or 
mind are those of inertia. In order to accomplish any- 
thing .against these inert forces, requires constant ef- 
fort, wisely directed and thoughtfully applied. So 
when the castles of discovery, founded upon simple 
but uncertain reactions, have vanished into an atmos- 
phere of disappointment, then the young idealist may 
take a new grip and start along the stiuiy path of real 

There is a simple way. however, in which a man with 
average chemical and engineering training c;in lie of 
great service in the paper industry. In every mill to- 
day there is a man who is making good paper from the 
material at his command, and who has never had the 
opportunity to acquire a special knowledge of chemical 
principles. He is anxious to under.stand the theory of 
his work and always willing to listen to reasonable and 
practical suggestions. 

Let us assume that he the co-operation of a ma:i 
who is trained in chemical principles, and that while 
respecting eacii other's special experience, they unite 
their efforts with a connnon end in view. Then when a 
ditHeulty arrives in their work they solve the problem 
togethei- and divide the credit obtained theiefi'om. As 
a result the superintendent l)eeouu's somewhat of a 
chemist, and the chemist becomes a practical scientist 
of recognized value, and if they outgrow their positions 
they will have no difficulty in finding better ones. 

It is unfortunate that we do not often find such ideal 
conditions and ;iny obsiMver must be aware of the enor- 
mous waste in training and experience that is con- 
.stantly taking i)lace through lack of co-operation. 

A valuable idea when isolated from its field of use- 
fulness has very little value, and its originator must 
generally rely upon the helpfulness of others to give it 
an established existence. An early recognition of this 
fact should be worth as mucii to the man desiring tech- 
nical progress as the technical ideas themselves. 


The ( 'oiiscrvation ( 'nniniission has done a pul)!ic ser- 
vice in publishing, with the permission of the Nova 
Scotian Government, a book b.y Dr. B. E. Fernow giv- 
ing the results of his recent investigation into the ex- 
tent and conditions of the Forest Resources of Nova 
Scotia. The object of the reconnaisance, which was 
c.ii-rietl out with the thoroughness and scientific atten- 
tion to detail for which Dr. Fernow is famous, was to 
substitute definite knowledge in place of general 
notions as to the conditions of timber supply and to 
accentuate the necessity for more conservative use, and 
for recu|)erative measures where necessary. It should 
be understood that ([uite two-thirds of the ai'ea of 
Nii\a Scotia comprises non-agricultural land covered 
with foi-est growth or unfit for other use, and this im- 
l)ortant asset, tliough it furnishes an annual revenue 
of four or five million dollai-s. is in danger of exhaxis- 
tioii within two decades unless preventative me.isures 
ai-e adopted. Incidentally a vast (juantity of valuable 
data are given respecting not only the actual forest 
conditions of the i>i-ovinee but in I'egai-d to the distri- 
bution and repi-oduction of the forest in relation to 
soils and underlying rocks, reproductinn on burned 
areas, etc. 


The National Paper Company, of Valleyfiield. Que., 
have just completed the installation of a third coating 
machine, and have closed a most prosperous year under 
the efficient management of the vice-president, llr. 

He came to Canada over a year ago from East Pep- 
prell, Mass.. where he acted as general superintendent 

Vice-President National Paper Co. 

for the repi>rell Card & Paper Company after tweut.v 
years' exi)i'rieuce in the coating business. 

Tees & Persee. with branches in all large western 
cities, have recently been appointed .sales agents for 
that territory, and we foresee for this young company 
a promising future. 

January 15, 1913 




By Otto Schutz. 

Nearly every boxhoaril mill has adopted liie 
above method of dyeing, liiit before deseribiiij,' the same 
I wish to say a few wor<ls regarding the iiiamifaeture 
of boxboard. 

Since the individual box packing of foods, especially 
cereal foods, has become a practice among the trade, 
the demaud for boxboard has increased in the past four 
years to so great an extent — pai'ticularly in the United 
States — that the increased output from old established 
mills has jiot lieen sufficient, and tlie denuuid has caused 
the erection of many new mills for the exclusive manu- 
facture of boxboard. 

This kind of board is made on a two, thi-ce or more cyl- 
inder machine, and consists of the filler and the liner. 

For the tiller, whicli is the cheaper part of the board, 
a cheap grade of waste paper is selected as raw ma- 
terial ; this material has to be trausfoi-med into pulp 
in the beater with the aid of steam. This pulp sup- 
])lies one of the two cylinders on a two cylinder ma- 
chine, or the inside cylinder on a three or more cylin- 
der machine, and is generally used without any colors; 
only in exceptional cases, for instance, for the so-called 
,)ute board, colors arc applied for tinting this stock in 
the beater. 

For the liner, that is. the outside sheet of the t)oard. 
as a rule a better material has to be chosen ; this is 
essential, not only to secvire a brighter shade but also 
a more uniform run. It is a well-known fact that waste 
paper does not come very uniform in color, and for this 
reason it is advantageous to use a more staple stock, 
such as a condiiuatiou of ground wood and sulphite 
and a certain percentage of broke. 

Mills which have not taken up this method of dyeing 
on the calender as yet apply the color in the beater for 
this stock, which supplies the other cylinder of a two 
cylinder machine, or the outside cylinders of a three or 
more cylinder machine. 

Filler and liner are pressed together in a wet state 
and form the boxboard. 

It is quite impossible even for the liest machine ten- 
der and under the most favorable conditions to keep 
the weight of liner and filler through one order or run 
absolutely uniform and the same proportion; a fluctu- 
ation in the thickness of liner and filler may on account 
of the different value of these two stocks lead to a loss, 
sometimes not considered in the calculation, and such 
a loss will be the greater the more the cost of color per 
beater of filler stock. Furthermore, the thinner the liner, 
the more transparent it will appear, and the uncolored 
filler will consequently show^ through and aft'ect the 
shade of the liner side — in many cases not to a great 
extent, but at least noticeable to a trained eye. 

For calender dyeing filler and liner are applied in 
the same way a.s described before; the only diit'erence 
is that the liner is not colored in the beater but on the 
calender stock by a water solution of aniline colors. 

Aniline colors dissolved in w^ater alone have not the 
covering power of a coating paste, consecpiently the 
brilliancy of the shade obtained on the calender de- 
pends also in this case upon the brightness of the stock 
and fluctuations caused by variations in the weight of 
the liner — or fluctuations cau.sed by variations in the 
weight of the filler — will in this case cause also a fluc- 
tuation in the shade, but not to such an extent as in 
the case of beater dyeings. 

Aniline colors applied on the calender show more 
brilliancy than when used in the beater; therefore, a 
somewhat duller liner stock dyed on the calender will 
]>roduce a shade just as bright as a brighter liner stock 
dyed in the pulp. 

The one great disadvantage pos.sessed by calender 
d.veing is that the colors so applied are not waterproof, 
which means that if the board comes in contact with 
water, the water will dissolve the color again and it 
will "bleed." This can be overcome by applying water- 
l)roofing substances. Beater dyed board will not bleed, 
because each individual fibre has plenty of time to 
absorb the color and the addition of alum or some other 
mordant to the stock into the beater forms a new water- 
insoluble product — a kind of a lake on the fibre. 

The costs of coloring the liner on the calender a)-c 
much lower, and the writer found by practical trials 
that in some cases the cost of the color per ton of box- 
board amounted only to $3 when calender d.veing was 
applied, whereas the color for beater dyeing for the 
same shade cost about $12 per ton of board. 

Besides the saving of color, there is another great 
advantage the. calender dyeing process offers. 

Every paper-maker is well aware of the fact that 
changing shades involves loss of time and loss of stock ; 
the cleaning of the beater, chests, felts and the machine 
has to be watched very carefully, especially after deep 
shades. Nothwithstanding all precautions, the return 
water from the previoas color has accumulated in the res- 
ervoir and will often aft'ect the new shade, unless the 
mill is equipped with a suitable arrangement to avoid 
this trouble. 

Changes from one shade to another can be done on 
calendar dyeings with scarcely any interruption, pro- 
vided the tanks and pipes are installed accordingly. 

The accompanying sketch demonstrates an arrange- 
ment which allows a tliick change in colors. 

Tank A is the dissolving tank, with a water j^ipe and 
an open steam pipe. The bottom of this tank has to be 
arranged as shown in the sketch, in sucli a way that in 
case of changing colors the old color can be drawn out 
entirel.y through pipe E. From tank A the color solu- 
tion flows through pipe F into the tank B, and from 
here the solution is drawn by the pump P into the color 
boxes. The overflow from the color boxes goes back 
into the tank B. A steam coil placed in tank B is essen- 
tial if basic colors should be applied, because the solu- 
tion of colors of this group has to be kept at a tempera- 
ture of about 90 degrees F. for the following reason. 

In order to obtain good results by calender dyeing, 
the colors have to be selected according to the require- 
ments and to the conditions. Basic colors may be used 
for this purpose, but in order to avoid brow'sy and daw- 
dy eft'ects, streaks and great variations of the shade, 
the solution should be kept at a temperature of about 
90 degrees F. Basic coloi's are cheaper to use than 
acid color.s or direct coloi's. but they are rather sensi- 
tive to light. 

For these reasons boxboard mills ]>refer to use on the 
calender acid coloi's and direct colors which can be used 
either alone or both in connection — certainly never in 
connection with basic coloi's — as the basic colors would 
preci])ifati» as well with the acid colors as with direct 
colors, and this precipitation would plug up the pipe 



January 15, 1913 

in a very short time ami the cdlor solution would hc- 
eome altogether useless. 

Acid colors and direct colors are more expensive to 
use. but the results are better in every respect, and some 
of these colors are of an exceptionally good fastiu-ss to 

There are a few eoloi's which can not be ai)plied for 
beatei' dyeings at all. as they have absolutely no affin- 
ity for the fitu'e, even when used with alum oi' other 
mordants, but as a calender dyestult' tiny produi'i' 
shades which in some cases resist the light during an 
exposure of weeks. 

In eases where fairly good fasfiiess at low cost is re- 
quired, it is advisable to dye the pulj) in the beater with 
basic colors about half the deiith of the -ample, and 
then to top it on the calenili-i- with acid colors m- diriM-t 

To-day. in many cases, silicate of soda is used in box 
factories for pasting the board, and as this chemical re- 
acts as an alkali, colors have to be selected accordingly, 
because some of the same will decompose or changi- 
shade as soon as brouijht in cont.ict with such chemi- 

For instance, for a sunjiroof \elIow. (ilieno yellow 
may be applied, which gives a non-fading bright fuil 
shade. The only disadvantage this color h:is is its ti'iid- 
encv to turn red as soon as brought in cont.ict with an 

Soluble blues or .'icid blues with an addition of acetic 
acid will gi\-e \-er\- bright blue shades of fairly good 
fastness to light, but they should not be selected for 
such l)0'ard as is to be treated afterwards with silicate 
of soda or a paste of an alkali reaction, as the colors of 
this group do not resist alkali. 

The eolor.s are usually applied in very strong solu- 
tions, which cause a bronzy effect; this can be over- 

come by the addition of some soda ash in the solution 
of the direct colors; for acid colors, acetic acid will do 
the trick. 

How and whei'e to ajijily the color solution on the 
calender is a matter over whii'li paper-makers do not 
always agree. 

It is advisable to use besides the color boxes also 
water boxes on the calender at the same time, whereby 
a more even dyeing will be produced. These boxes are 
arrangetl on the calenders according to the number of 
the calender stacks. 

In cases where there are three stacks, on the first 
one the water' boxes are adjusted, the color boxes on 
the second one. and third one gives the board the finish. 

By this arrangement the surface of (he board is at 
first nroistened uniformly all over before it comes in 
contact with the color solution, and the result is a uni- 
form even shade. ^Moreover, two color boxes can be 
used, both with a weaker solution than one color box 
would require. 

On machines with only two calerrder stacks it is ad- 
visable to adjust on the tiist I'aleuder stack one water 
and one color box. The water- will also in this ease 
open and prepare the sui'faee before the .sanre comes in 
cijutact with the color solution; the second calender 
stack will prodirce the finish. 

Good formation arrd an even surface of the sheet are 
necessary in order to obtain au even, smooth dyeing, 
a hard sized matei-ial will not take up the color as well 
as a boar'd with about 1 per- cent, size aiul 1 per cent, 
alum, because a hard sized paper has so little ab.sorb- 
ability that the color solution can not penetr-ate during 
the slror't nromeirt of contact. 

Hy comj)aring these foregoing observations, we are 
led to the conchrsion that calender dyeirrg offers gi'eater 
a(hantage than beater dyeing on boxboard and this 
explains the I'apidity with which it is being introduced. 


Iron Spots. 

Iron spots in papei'. may I'esult from various causes: 
fronr the equipment of the Ilollandei-. tVonr rust in pipe 
condiri'ts. buttons, hooks and buckles in the rags. etc. 
It is advisable to ecpiip every Hollander with a device 
tha/t will show numerically any dropping of the rolls. 
Rag siu-ting should receive the most careful attention 
and the half stuff, liberally diluted, should be carried 
over sand traps. Magiretic rakes are orrly effective when 
from forrr to six are huilt into the sand trap of the 
maehiire. so that the stuff' nrust circulate through thenr. 
In a fine paper mill, o r-akes [)icked 20 grains of iron 
]iartielcs fi'oni ten pounds of stuff'. 

Alum as a Cause of Turbidity. 

The sheet coi)per lining of .the Ih)llaiuler in a fiire 
pai)ei' mill, was blamed for causing turbidity in the stuff" 
when, hai'd sized paper was being nrade. the .stuff' in 
parts of the Hollander not lined with copper .show'r- 
less clorrdiness. The sheet copper presented a brigh: 
clean appear-ance. An excess of alum was regarded as 
the ciau*e of the dirty,, reddish color. In place of copper 
lining, a good coat of oil paint is recommended fi)r iron 
Hollanders. For fine papers, the coircrete Hollander 
that has been given a clean smooth cement coat or a tile 
lining is best. To be quite certain that the alum causes 
ro rust formatioir. it is customary, in scmie mills, only 
to aild it in the disti'ibuting box of the .stuff" vat. 

.raimary 15. 1913 




By Leo Schlick, M.E. i Special for the Pulp and Paper Magazine.' 

The folliiwing Hues are devoted to the foundation of 
one of the most rapitlly developing industries in the 
Dominion of Canada, namely, pulp and pajxT, and deal 
with, exclusivel}', the modem power transmission in 
direct transmission with heat transmission. 

Guided by a foreseeing government, oui' Doiriiii- 
i(in has conditions, which can be called very sound. The 
pulp wood is cheap, cheaper than elsewhere, and this 
fact enables [)resent mills to succeed. 

Natiirall.v this fact encourages the construction of 
new mills, and so we are standing before or better in 
the period of development of the Canadian paper in- 

Large mills will he Imilt in the near future, owing 
to a greater out])ut. which will naturally necessitate a 
decline in prices as competition grows greater. 

To stand a lower nuirket price without loss of profit 
the capacit.v of present mills has to be increased and 
expenses will have to be cut down, in improving the 
plant and in reclaiming waste heat and waste by-pro- 

Although it may take Several years to create men- 
tioned competition, it is always advisable to improve a 
plant in time, when the market is strong, of course with- 
out shutting down the mill or any part of it. 

There are two different opinions to-day. The one is 
to run a mill with full capacity during good times and 
impi-ove it during dull ]ieriods. The other and better 
one is to improve a plant as far as modern technie 

I shall be glad therefore if the readers of tiiis journal 
derive any benefit from this article. 

We will follow now the ct)nvertion of coal into heat, 
steam and power. Examples will prove how much can 
be saved and reclaimed. It is naturally not possible to 
give a complete treatise, as the sjiace allotted for this 
jirticle is limited. 

Transportation of Coal. 

Coal o\ight til arrivi'. if possible, in special railway 
cai-s. similar to the cut produced here- 
with in shape, allowing it to be 
'V^ emptied easily through openings in 

the bottom. 

Following this, it should be dumped into a large fun- 
nel, to be connected with a conveying s.vstem. convey- 
ing the coal to a storage. Store as much coal as needed 
for use during from 3 to 4 weeks and be siire to have a 
reserve in case of miner strikes or railwa.v accidents. 
Do not expose your coal to rain and snow, considering 
the fact that both absorl) oxygen in })assing thi-ough the 
air, as the so obtained additional oxygen will attack 
the coal, as tests have shown. 

Convey continuously the coal to small chutes of your 
automatic stokers. Though it is sometimes advisable 
to construct bunkers above the boilers, it is impossible 
to store in them a quantity large enough to feed the 
furnaces for a longer period. 

These bunkers have to be refilled and. therefore, it is 
preferable tn cnTivey directly and continuously in small 

chutes above the fui-naces. This system is especially 
used in lai'ge steam jilants. 

Quality of Coal. 

The trouble caused by some sorts of coal depends 
chiefly on its impurity, that is to say. one sort of coal 
contains better combustil)le matters than the same 
weight of another. 

Certain qualities of coal require through practical 
experiments and experience determines quantities of 
air to attain right combustion. Therefore the propor- 
tions of a grate has to be dimensioned accordingly. 

If it is desirable to test a coal of an unknown quality, 
mix it with your own in growing proportions and watch 
carefully grate, combustion, steam gauge and eflficiency 
of evaporation. 

If the coal burns satisfactorily, make a chemical 
test of it and ask your furnace people their opinion. 

It is not always said that a good coal gives the cheap- 
est steam, or vice versa. 

Supposing your furnace had iturnt 1.500 lbs. of coal 
an hour, and had evaporated 12.000 lbs. of water in the 
same time, i.e., had produced 12,000 lbs. of steam, the 
cipher of evaporation would be — 


If the price of the coal is. say. $3.00 a ton. then 1.000 
lbs. of steam would cost — 

!);3.00 x 1500 X 1000 

. =$0,187. 

12000 X 2000 

In this way comparisons have to be made and the 
cheapest coal has to be found in relation to the price 
per 1.000 lbs. of steam. 

Be careful in the choice of the size of the boiler fur- 
nace and note that the efficiency goes back, if nuu-e coal 
is burned in it. than it is constnicted and calculated for. 

Chiefl.v in the winter time and especially on Mondays 
a larger amount of steam is needed than usual. There- 
fore the size of the furnace ought to enclose a factor 
of safety. Control also the quality of the combustion 
regarding percentage of carbon dioxide (COo). Chemi- 
cal tests show clearly as to whether the coal is convert- 
ed into heat to its fullest extent, or if the bases receive 
too much or too little air. 

For a practical check of the combustion, the follow- 
ing fornuila has given satisfactory results to control 
the combustion of hard coal. This fornuda has to be 
used when chemical tests of the coal are not on hand. 

L = Loss of heat in % of all the calories contained 

in the coal. 
Te = 'Maximum temperature of the gases, taken 

behind the boiler, in degrees C. 

ta = Temperature of the air entering the furiuice 
(about 20-25 degrees C. 

Te — ta 

L = 


K ^ % of carl)on dioxide in the flue gases. 

The following exami>lc shows the use of this fornuila. 
l>'or itistance. the percentage of carbon dioxide is found 



Jainiary 15, 1013 

with au "Orsaf apparatus to be 8%: Te = 320° ; 

320 — 25 

'ta = 25°:L=: X 0.65 = 24%. C0„ has to be 

about 12/0 iu a well served and consti'uctcd furnace. 
320 -- 25 

With 12% CO... L would be >( 0.65 = 16'%. 


Difference between 24 and 16 equals 8%. 
When the efficiency of the boiler is noi-nially 72%,, so 

Consumption of Steam on Steam Engines with 

100 = 12.5'( of vour coal be wasted. 


If a mill has a daily consumption of 50 tons of coal, 
$3.00 per ton. f.o.h. mill, the loss will amount to — 

50 X 12.5 

$3.00 X X 3 = $5625 per year. 


This much about combusition. 

Ashes and Cinders. 

Wheelban'ows and shovels ought tn lie avoided, be- 
cause there is no reason why they should lie used. 

Continuously running chain or worm conveyors ought 
to transport the ashes from chutes underneath the 
furnaces directly into special ash carriages. 

Choice of Pressure and Superheating. 

Boiler steam pressures of 120 lbs. and a superheating 
to a total temperature of 180 to 200 ' (".. ecpial to 
356 to 400° Fahrenheit; also small lioiler types have 
lost their prestige. 

It is easily told why. 

The total loss of heat through radiation of the set- 
ting, etc., averages round 10%, and more; therefore, 
the reduction of loss has to be studied. 

It is easily understood that a boiler of 12.000 stpiare 
feet heating surface possesses less exposed surface to 
the air than two boilers each of 6,000 square feet heat- 
ing surface. 

Large boiler units reduce the nuiiilii'r of pipe eon- 
neotions, reduce space and simplify the service antl eon- 
Irol considerably. The steam and water quantity iu a 
larger unit also prevents to a certain degree the b.iih-rs 
from "boiling over" caused through a high standing 
of the feed water. 

The advantages of high grade snjierhi'ated «teani are 
as follows : — 

(1) Extension of the volume of the steam. The 
quantity obtained from a pound nf water is 

(2) Prevention of condensation in steam tur- 
bines and cylinder engines. 

(3) Its superior quality allows its use to steam 
for drying and cooking purposes, after hav- 
ing been expanded in power engines. 

Therefore, tlie use of superheated steam with a total 
temperature of 400 to 420° C. has to be recom- 

Saturated Steam 

Superheated Steam 





r- o 











3 S 





■J * 








A cu 



'C "■ 




S 3b 

S 0) 







9— lOJ 






















13 J % 














11.7 fc 




Highly superheated steam develops also the largest 
amount of power of a certain amount of coal and, as 
table proves, no hesitation whatever need be shown in 
adopting superheated steam of a total temperature of 
420 degrees C. and a total i^ressure of 230 lbs. 

In connection with high grade superheated steam, an 
elastic flange-packing has to be used. Valves have to 
be made from cast steel and filled with luckel seats and 
nickel discs. 

The pijjes ought to be carefully insulated. The drop 
of temperature amounts to one degree per 40 inches 
pipe length and drop of pressure to 15 lbs. per .50 yards 
pipe line, and therefore the pipe lines have to be kept 
as short as possible. 

The steam line ought to be inclined to the boilers, so 
that the condensed water nmy flow back when the mill 
is shut down. 


The flue gases leave the boiler with 250 to 300 de- 
grees v. and 200%, of this heat can be recovered 
with means of economizers when the draft is produced 
with a fan. 

Water entering the econonnzer has to have a temper- 
ature of 30 degrees C. in order to prevent rusting 
of the tubes. 


A boiler of 150 square meters, efpial to 5,250 square 
feet, heating surface and a pressure of 10 atmospheres 
o)' 150 lbs, gauge. 

It is to calculate how nuich could be saved with means 

(1 ) Of chimney draft and economizer; 

(2) Pan draft and economizer, 

(1) Temperature of the flue gases before the econo- 
ndzer Te = 300° C. The feed water of 30° C, 
initial-temperature has to be raised to 90° C, 

The capacity of the boiler is. say, 2700 kg, = 5900 
lbs, of steam. The raise of one degree of the feedwater 
causes a drop of two degrees of the flue gases. The 
total raise of temperature of the feedwater iu our ease 
amounts to 90° — 30° = 30°. 

The flue gases leave above-mentioned economizer with 
Ta = 300 — 2 X 60 = 180° C, 

To develop 1 leg, of steam with 150 lbs. gauge pres- 
sure from 1 kg, of feedwater with 30° C. ; 632.3 calories 

.Tnniiarv 15, 1913 



are required and the savint!: of the new installed ocono- 
niizer will amount to 

E = X 100 = 9.489; of coal. 

(2) The boiler diinen.sion.s as before: 
Raise of feedwater to be 100 degrees C. The 
flue ijases leave the economizer with 
Ta = 300 — 2 X 100 == 100° C. 
To develop 1 kg. of steam with 150 lbs. gauge pres- 
sure of feedwater with 30° C.. 632.3 calories are neces- 
sary and the saving of the eeouoini/.ei- with fan draft 
will be — 


E = X 100 = 15.8'; of the coal. 

Calculation of EfRcieiicy of Boiler Plants. 
Eflieieney of a boiler is the percentage of the tutal 
heat generated by the combustion of the fuel, which is 
utilized in heating the water and raising steam. 
Efficiency of boiler = n. 
Efficiency of furnace = n,. 
Efficiency of heating surface = n.,. 
Efficiency of the boilei' is equal to efficiency of fur- 
nace multijilied by efficiency of heating surface, 
n = Uj X n,. 
n, ranges between 0.80 and 0.90. 

Example : 

A boiler generates 4000 kg., equal 8800 lbs. of steam 
of 12 atmospheres eqiial 180 lbs. gauge pressure. 
Total temperature of steam. 300° C. 
Feedwater temperature ^ 40° C. 

Efficiency of boiler, 
637 X x„ 

n = — . 

b = calories of the coal = 7500 in our case. 
x:= cipher of evaporation, equal to water evaporated 

divided by coal used, both per hour. 
Saturated steam to be generated under above circum- 
L = (606.5 + 0.305 X t) — 40. 

= (606.5 + 0.305 X 190.5) —40. 
L = 624.6 calories. 

Superheated steam of 300° ('., total temperature 
L = 624.6 + 0.579 (300 — 190.5) 
= 688 calories. 
7 X688 

x„ = = 7.8. 

637 X 7.8 

n = = 70<^. 

The efficienev of good boilers averages round 
70 — 74^^ . 

The saturated steam required 624.6 calories, the sup- 
erheated calories and it can be easil.v noted, how little 
heat will be used to generate high grade steam, and how 
much profit can be obtained in its use. 

Later on we will calculate the advantages of either 
steam turbines or steam engines in paper and pulp 
mills, and how each t.ype has to be used, to give the 
best returns on heat. 


Of Interest to Those Engaged in 
the Pulp and Paper Industries 

An Artistic Surface on Paper. 

Messrs. Knowlton Bros., of Watertown, N.Y., have 
been granted an patent covering an invention 
for the production of an artistic si;rface on paper 
l)oard. etc. 

To impart mottled appearance to the paper or paper 
l)oard, the web or layer of pulp is spra.ved with a liquid 
with sufficient force to cause the pulp to be displaced to 
form crater-like depressions, with or without perfora- 
tion of the pulp, while the piilp is moist or at a stage in 
the manufacture of the material that the displacements 
i-emain. By using sprayed liquid the material is spread 
to give a soft and tluft'y effect which imparts an en- 
hanced ai-tistic appearance. 

To obtain a color effect the aforesaid spraying may 
be effected with a liquid having colored material there- 
in, either in solution or in suspension ; or in forming 
the paper, paper board or like material from a plurality 
of webs, a color effect may be obtained by providing 
the web next to the top web, of a different color or 
shade of color to that of the top web. 

A suitable device for carrying this invention into 
effect consists of a perforated pipe, connected to a 
source of liquid inider sufficient pressure, arranged 
transversely of the web. and preferabl.v provided with 
a reciprocating motion the extent of which may, if de- 
sired, be adjustable. 

Fig. 1 is an outline top plan view of apparatus which 
the patentees have found ma.y be conveniently em- 
ployed in earying out the invention : Pig. 2 is a side 
elevation of the same; Fig. 3 is a detailed end view of 
a spraying apparatus; Fig. 4 is a vertical section taken 
on the line IV. — IV. in Fig. 3 ; Fig. 5 is a plan view illus- 
trating the mottled surface of the improved material; 
Fig. 6 is a cross section of the same taken on the line 
VI.— VI. of Fig. 5. 

Referring to Figs. 1 and 2. 1 indicates a Fourdrinier 
machine which produces a web 2 sustained upon endless 
wire 3. A c.vlinder machine indicated at 5 is arranged 
rear the machine 1 and is provided with a vat 6 having 
therein a cylinder 7. Cylinder 7 delivers its web 9 to 
the felt 10. The felt 10 extends over suitable support- 
ing rolls 11 and is then passed between the first press 
rolls 12 and is then extended into suitable supporting 
rolls back to the cylinder machine, the felt being, of 
course, continuous. The web 2 of the Fourdrinier ma- 
chine 1 passes between press rcdls 13 and then the web 
2 leaves the wire 3 and passes between the rolls 12 and 
is united with the web 9, whence the two are carried 
along together b.v the felt 10. The two webs thus 
joined after passing the supi)orting roll 8 leave the felt 
10 and jtass upwardl.v about supporting rolls and be- 
tween the second press rolls 14. The usual felt 15 is 
jirovided adjacent the rolls 14 for removing a certain 



January 15, 11)1 -i 

(luaiitity ol" nioisturc I'imiii the paper. The two com- 
bined wells are (hen passed over suitable supporting 
rolls 17 to the third press rolls 16, where the web is 
subjected to the drying by pressure. After passing the 
roll's 16 the web is passed over drying rolls 18 heated 

tides thereof in an irregular manner forming in most 
cases irregular and uneven crater-like depressions of 
various depths in the web at such stage in the forma- 
tion of the web that the depressions will not refill, so 
that the web varies in transluceney and thickness, al- 






Ariisttc Surface on Paper. 

by steam and during the;-^e operations the two webs be- 
come firmly united. 

Suitably placed above the web 2 is a spraying pipe 
19 pivotaily mounted upon two links 20 and 21 (see also 
Pigs. 3 and 4). The links 20 and 21 are pivotaily 
mounted to some fixed meml)er. as a beam 22. One end 
of the spraying pipe 19 is closed while a rubber tiibe 
23 connects the other end of the spraying pipe 19 with 
a supply pipe 24, which feeds the spraying pipe 19 
with a liquid under pressure. For the purpose of spray- 
ing, the pipe 19 is provided with apertures on its un- 
derside, through which the spray is emitted. 

The spray or shower from the pipe 19 is directed 
upon the upper outside surface of the web 2. and in 
order to cause the same to be properly and irregularly 
distributed thereover the pipe 19 is given a back and 
forth motion by means of a rotating disc 25 which 
reciprocates a link 26 pivotaily connected to a lug 27 
on the pipe 19. In order to vary the throw of the pipe 
19 the link 26 is pivotaily mounted to the disc 25 at 28, 
and the pivotal point 28 is arranged to ])e adjiisted at 
various distances from the axis of the disc 25 by means 
of a screw 29. The disc 25 may be driven in any suit- 
able manner, as by a shaft 30 driven from gear 31 of 
the main machine. 

The operation relating to the separate formation of 
the two webs by the cylinder and Fourdrinier machines 
is well understood, and, therefore, need not be de- 
scribed. While the web 2 is on the wire of the Four- 
drinier machine, it is spra.yed or showered from the 
pipe 19 with water or other suitable fluid, the drops or 
streams of water dis{)lacing the pulp of the web or par- 

though the under side of the w eb will remain compara- 
tively smooth. That is, the pulp is displaced by the 
spraying at such a stage that the displacement for the 
most part remains. This gives the sprayed surface of 
the web a "wild" appearance, caused by the .spraying, 
so that a "wild" sheet is produced, with its cloudiness 
appearing on the face of the sheet. The web 2 is then 
united with the web 9 in the well-known manner, and 
since the web 2 is formed with uneven depressions and 
varying thickness and transluceney, the resulting paper, 
paper board, or like material, has a mottled appearance, 
which Fig. 5 is intended to represent. The uneven and 
irregular depressions may perhaps be more clearly 
understood from the cress section s'hown in Fig. 6. The 
webs 2 and 9 may be made of different shades or colors 
of pulp in which case the mottled appearance is much 
more apparent since the color of the web 9 may be seen 
througli the thinner portions of the web 2. It may hap- 
pen in some instances that the drops or spray may 
entirely form a complete aperture in the web 2. as 
shown at 32, in which case the under web would be 
clearly visible therethrough. To further increase the 
effect the spraying may be produced with water hav- 
ing therein colored material either in solution or sus- 

The resulting product has a peculiar and distinctive 
artistic appearance which make it especiall.v advantage- 
ous for decorative purposes such as for wall-papers oi- 
coverings, panels and the like, for the purposes of bind- 
ing as for example, catalogue covers, for mounting and 
many other purposes, to which paper, paper board, or 
the like readilv lend themselves. 

-I;iliii;irv 1."), 1111: 

P U L P A X I ) PAP K i; M A ( i A Z I N E 



Chfii-lcs F. Powers, iif 'I'hcnrisoii, N.'S'.. has been grant- 
ed (1^ S.) pafHiif Xo. l,04(i.lOS ()u a machine for thick- 
ening papiT pul]). 

A machine for thickening pulp can hi- nsid ad- 
vantageously after sci'eening to thicken the stock be- 
fore it goes 1(1 the lieateis. and is well adapted to re- 
cover the stock jiresent in the white water, that is, the 
water- from which the stock has been separated, hnt in 


Machine for Thickening Pulp. 

wliicli, iie\'ertheless. a (iuantit.\' of tine fibre is suspeiiil- 
cd. the hiss of which in the long run is considerable. 

In accordance with the invention there is provided 
a rotatahle conical stock collector comprising a screen 
the truncated upper end of which is occupied by a cir- 
cular ve.ssel into which the white water or thin pulp is 
dii'ected from a pipe, and over the brim of which it 
flows onto and down the screen while the screen is ro- 
tated. The water falls through the screen, and the fibre 
accumulates u[)on and flows down and off its surface. 
The meshes of the screen are kept clean by a station- 
ary spray directed upwardly through the screen upon 
a radial line from top to bottom. The fibre, relieved 
from most of the water by the screen, finds* its way into 
a stock receptacle, which is preferably a pump well. 

Fig. 1 is a section on line 1, 1. of Fig. 2. which is a 

The machine is shown mounte<l upon a pum]i well A 
into which the thickened pulp is allowed to fall and 
from which it may be pumped to a container or to ajv 
paratus in which it is next to be treated or manipulated. 
The ba«e H of the machine proper which rests upon the 
well A is i)rovided with an upturned peripheral curb a 
from which arms b extend inwardly bridging an anini- 
lar orifice c thi'ough which the thickened pulj) is To flow 

into the well A. The arms b support a central circular 
trough d which is to receive the water removed from 
the mixtuie and a drain pipe e afifords means of escape 
at all times for the water collected in the trough d. 

A step bearing f is provided in the centre of the bot- 
tom of the trough d for a vertical shaft g, a .second 
liearing h for said shaft g being located in an arched 
support i which is secured to and extends upwardlv 
from the floor of the tiough d. A circular vessel C is 
concentrically mounied fast on the shaft g above the 
bearing h and forms the hub of a conical screen frame 
which further comprises radially and downwardly ex- 
tended spokes j and a peripheral ring k. A conical 
screen I) is supported upon the screen frame extending 
from the brim of the ve.ssel C to the peripheral ring k 
overhanging the annual orifice c in such a way that 
material sliding or flowing down the screen will fall 
through the orifice c into the well A, the curb a pre- 
venting its passage over the edge and outside the walls 
of the v/e;i. The white water or thin pulp is led into 
the ve.ssel (' through a pipe 1 and its rate of flow is gov- 
erned by a valve m in pipe 1. A driving pulley u is 
mounted upon the upper end of the shaft g and "a belt 
passing around this pulley imparts rotation to said 
shaft and the vessel C and screen D carried thereby. 

A stationary spray pipe o extends upwardly through 
the trough d and extends radially across the screen D 
lying close to its inner surface. This pipe o is perfor- 
ated to project jets of water outwardly through the 
screen to keep the wire faces of the screen clean and 
prevent them from becoming clogged. A valve p is 
placed in the pipe o and serves as a means for govern- 
ing the spray therefrom. 

The operation of the device is as follows: The screen 
is slowly rotated we will say at a speed of from six to 
twelve revolutions per minute with a machine of the 
size given above, and a regular flow of the white water 
is established through the pipe 1 into the vessel C. The 
white water flows quietly over the biim of the ves.sel C 
onto the screen D gratlually percolating through the 
screen in its passage downwardly and leaving the 
fibres, which were in suspension, in a thickened pulp 
which flows down and ofif the surface of the screen. 
The water which passes through the screen and which 
is freed of fibre collects in the trough d eventually 
draining off' through the pipe e. The fibres are usuall.v 
so fine that the oi'diuary passing of the white water 
through a fine screen is insutificient to separate them 
from the liquid, as the rush of the water through the 
meshes will carry the fibres through even with extreme- 
ly fine mesh screens. Therefore, in addition to the 
(piiet overflow feed, I make use of the centrifugal ac- 
tion of the rotating screen to counteract in a measure 
the action of gravity upon the liquid, so that its normal 
tendency to rush through the screen apertures is cor- 
respondingly diminished. This permits the fine fibre 
to remain aliove the surface of the screen. The film of 
liquid (piietly o\erflowing the biim of the vessel (" in a 
thin sheet is constantly distributetl over a wider area 
as it flows down the conical surface of the screen D. 
The flow over the surface decreases, and the weight of 
the water is counteracted to a constantly increasing ex- 
tent as the lower edge of the screen is approached, and 
it is readily feasible to so regulate the speed and flow 
that practically all of the useful fibre is recovered in 
the form of a thicker ]iuli) available to be added to the 
main body of pulp in the stock chest, while the waste 
water passing through the sci'een D is substantially 



January 15, 1913 



Abstract Translatioji for the Pulp and Paper ^Magazine 
from "La Papeterie." by C. E. Bandelin. 

The author of this article first states that it is not 
liis intentioji to give any long theories on vegetable 
sizing with rosin and sulphate of aluminum, but only 
to indicate hoT\- to handle the sizing process in order to 
ol)tain the best results. He then asks and answers the 
following questions: (1) Can the sizing be done with- 
out rosin? No. (2) Can the sizing be done without 
sulphate of aluminum or some other chemical for the 
same purpose? No. (3) Are both used for the sizing? 
Yes. Is the sizing always equall.y good? No. Wlien 
do variations occur? Depending upon the quality of 
the water used, either for preparing the rosin soap and 
the soap milk or for "filling the beatei's. 

He then comments on the very great affinity which 
vegetable fibres have for salts of aluminum, and points 
out that the free rosin and the sulphate of aluminiuii 
form an insoluble precipitate of rosin and aluminum, in 
the same manner that aluminum reacts with coloring 
matters, forming an insoluble lake on the surface of 
the fibre and thus fi.xing the colors in the interior of 
the sheet. It is then easy to understand the changes 
which ha^e taken place and whj-, under the same con- 
ditions, a colored paper is better sided than a white. 
From this it results that, in order to use a minimum 
quantity if rosin and eiTect the sizing in the best eco- 
nomical way, the rosin must be as finely distributed as 
possible. The whole question thus depends upon an in- 
telligent preparation of the rosin soap. 

The rosin soap has usually been prepared with soda, 
either crystallized carbonate of .sodium or more fre- 
-luently anhydrous, powdered carbonate, which is 
cheaper. The results have always caused the same 
troubles on account of these products seeming to bring 
the molecules of the rosin closer together, which is a 
fact, because soda is used in the soap-making for hand 
soaps and potash for soft soaps, which are mildei' and 
generally su[)erior. It is usually overlooked that the 
rosin acts during the saponification nearly in the same 
manner as the oils for the soaps, but with the dififer- 
enee that a hard rosin soap ha never been obtained and 
that resinic acid is not precipitated by chloride of 
sodium, which is used in considerable quantities in the 
soap-making in order to obtain fatty acids softer than 
obtainable M'ith acids. 

The reason for a ]>oor sizing has not always been 
found, as it has not been taken into consideration that 
the resinic acid forms all kinds of resinates with a sur- 
prising facility, and it is here that the question of the 
water used comes in, which can cause a poor result, 
especially when it contains lime. In the following are 
given two striking instances, which will be easily 
understood: (1) Dissolve rosin soap in water, hot or 
cold and containing lime, and a sandy, insoluble pre- 
cipitate will be obtained, representing the best part of 
the sizing qualities of the rosin. (2) Make a soap with 
very pure water, dissolve it and add a few drops of 
lime water, and the .same result will be obtained. Con- 
sequently the quality of tlic water is very important; 
the formation of this resinafe of lime nuistbe prevented 
both in the preparing of the so.sp and of the milk, and 
in the charging of the l)eaters in order to obtain a good 

From what now has been stated it is ebident that 
in order to obtain a perfect and advantageous sizing, a 
rosin soap must be used, which can give a perfect 
resinate of aluminum, with exceedingly finely distri- 
buted molecules and as little susceptible as possible to 
form a resinate of lime with the water. The potash is 
then quite indicated for this purpose, as the rosin mole- 
cules will be much more finely distriliuted than with 
carbonate of sodium, which necessarily means a saving 
of rosin. Besides, when potash is used, there is less 
resinate of lime precipitated, and this resinate is abso- 
lutely insoluble. Everybody knows that a small quan- 
tity of sulphuric acid added counteracts the influence 
of the lime, but this operation must be done intelli- 
gently, and it is best to charge the beaters with the 
waste water from the wire-cloth, which, besides, has 
the advantage of reclaiming some fibres and part of the 
loading materials, which otherwise often are lost. 

A good soap ought to contain 60 to 70 per cent, of 
fatty acids, resinic acid in our case; it .should be vis- 
cous, transparent and absolutely free from lye. Such 
results are, however, sometimes difficult to obtain in 
the mills, even if one and the same labor is eselusivelj- 
occupied with the preparation of soap, as the composi- 
tion of the water may vary without knowing it. Be- 
sides, it could not be corrected because the potash lyes 
at his disposition give ditferent results; if too concen- 
trated they will burn; if too weak they give just as 
bad a result ; if fresh or old they also give different 
results. Consequently, in order to obtain a soap per- 
fect in all respects, it is advisable to consult a specialist. 
The author, therefore, is strongly in favor of using a 
ready-made soap, manufactured according to the indi- 
cations given, a soap Avhich it is not neees.sary to dis- 
solve to milk, l)ut which can be put directly in the 
beater, which means a saving of labor and steam and 
prevention of losses; iiesides. this soap also forms less 
foam, which sometimes is a eaues of resinous incon- 

Finally the author gives the following advice in 
order to obtain a satisfactory sizing: Fill the beater 
with clear water, add a few cubic inches of sulphuric 
acid, until blue litmus paper turns faintly violet; mix 
then in the pulp after having made sure that there is 
no lime present, especially in bleached and insufficiently 
washed rag pulp; add the .solution of sulphate of alu- 
minum after the fibres have been well dissociated and 
do not lower the roll for some time, until all has been 
thoroughly mixed; afterwards pour in the soap solu- 
tion slowly behind the roll, and continue the beating 
for some time and finally add the loading materials. 
As to coloring, it must fii-st be found out what kind of 
color is to be vised, in order to see if it should be added 
before or afterwards 


The 36th annual meeting of the American Paper and 
Pulp Association will take place at the Waldorf- 
Astoria Hotel, New York, on February 19th and 20th. 
The day will be devoted to meetings of the several 
divisions of the paper trade, with a view to ratifying 
any changes or suggestions at the general meeting on 
the following day. The usual banquet will be held on 
the evening of the 20th. tickets for which will be .$10 

.raimary 15, 1913 




Such paper must \w well sized, or it will absorb too 
iiiueh of the paste applied to stick it on the wall, and 
colors applied to it are apt to run. The surf'ace and 
tcxtui'e must be uniform for the same reason. The 
{jrinding of the pulj) is a matter of great importance. 
If it lias been left coarse and iong-fibrcd. no amount of 
sizing will make (he papei- suitable foi' the ()urpose 
intended, whereas finer gi'ound stulV cun be made to 
give a perfectly unifoi-m ])aiier by means of a com- 
paivntively small quantity of size. 

A more or less pareiiment-like ai)i)earance should he 
aimed at. The pulp must flow unifoi-irdy on to the wire. 
and the paper must not be made at too high a rate of 
speed. It mnsi lia\e lime to close while still on the 
wire. The web presses must act very thoroughly so 
that the drying cylinders have but little to do. The 
move water is ])ressed out of the weh hy the felts the 
loser and firmei' it will be made. The tirst drying 
cylinder must heat the web only slightly as it comes 
fi-om the wet press, but the second should be the hottest 
of the series, and from it the ])a|>er should get cooler 
and cooler as its drying is completed as it ]insses from 
cylinder to cylinder. For art printing it is finally 
necessar\' to smooth the surface of the papei- with sonu' 
enamel-HK'e coating which will level u]i the sanu' 
irregularities- unavoidable in even the fine-^t and best 
sized paper. . The final surface thus obtained m\ist not 
only be ohsolntely smooth and level, but mjist be fairly 
hard, and at the same time elastic. Otherwise it can- 
not take the details of the black properly. 

It must also take a good jjolish in the calender. De- 
ficiencv in hardness and elasticity may cause the paper 
to stick to the block or to smudge. The surface must, 
nevertheless, not he so hard that it will not absorh any 
ink. The ink must iu)t be merely superficially imposed 
upon the paper. 

The final satinising aftei- printing does away with 
a)iy irregularities eansed by the process. 


The accompanying illustration is a portrait of Mr. 
S. J. B. Holland, who was recently appointed president 
of the Rollaud Paper Company, Montreal, in succession 
to his lamented brother, the late Hon. J. D. Rolland. 


The into edition of the above well-known work has 
reached this ofifiee. It forms the usual well-known 
epitome of useful information to piilp and paper mills 
and to all those interested in any hranch of the paper 
and allied trades. The fidlnwing list of chief contents 
will indicate the seo[)<' of the work : Pulp and Pulpwood 
Statistics; Sizes of Paper and Their Names; Indexes to 
Mills and Jlill Officers; Buyer's Guide to First Hands; 
Paper ]\rills in United States and Canada; Ground 
Wood and Chemical i\Iills in United States and Can- 
ada; also the same classified; Dealers and Jobbing 
Houses in Paper in Ignited States and Canada; Paper 
Stock and Rag Dealers; Paiier Box ^Manufacturers, and 
of Folding and Corrugated Boxes; Paper Bag Jlann- 
faeturers in United States and Canada; Glazed and 
Coated Paper Waxed and Vegetable Parchment ^lan- 
nfacturers; Cardboard iManufaeturers; Envelope ^Vlan- 
nfacturers; Gummed Paper Manufaeturei's ; Water- 
marks: Ti.ide Associations; Projected Mills; be«ide< a 
i|uaiitity of valuable miscellaneous informiatiini. The 
book is clearly printed and well bound and is publish- 
ed by L. D. Post. Tribune Bldg., New York Citv. Price. 
$2.00. ■ 

President Rolland P-iper Co. 

He is well known junong the ijajier trade, both in con- 
nection with the St. Jerome mills and with the reorgani- 
zation of the St. Adele mill. 


A very disagreeable occurrence when lining gootl 
straw board, and also when lining both sheets of paper 
and rolls, is the formation of t"olds in the gummed 
paper. When lining rolls care must be taken that the 
apparatus for unwinding and guiding the gTimmed 
paper is in a perfect condition, in order that the web 
of paper may run perfectly smoothly and have the 
proper tension. 

The guide roll arranged directly at the rear of the 
paper roll to be unwound must be located so that the 
web of paper is shai-ply bent at this place, even when 
the paper roll gradually becomes smaller and smaller. 
The web of gummed paper is greatly aided in lying fiat, 
both when it is wet and when it is dry, by employing 
a few guide rolls having spirals of wire soldered on, 
running from the middle to the outside. The brake 
at the unwinding rod nuist be sufficiently powerful in 
order that the papei- is always tensioned uniformly. 
All the rollers must be exactly i>arallel with the un- 
winding rod, sufficiently stable and exactly round. 

Under certain circumstances it may ha|i|ieii that the 
cylindrical shape is deformed by dii-l. If the web is 
tensioned too little at one or both sides this can be 
remedied by enlarging the periphery of the rollers at 
the ends of the paper web by letting stri])s of paper i un 
on them. For ])reveiiting folds it has been found i)i'e- 
ferable to drive the ])ai)ei- guitle rolls separately, their 
speed being somewhat higher than that oi' the [)aper. 
The driving gear of thes(> guide i-olls must lie cjipable 
of being connected and disconiieeted separately, and of 
course, is employed only in the event of its being neces- 
saiy, owing to the formation of folds. 



Jauuarv 15. 1913 


By Pauli. 

K.spi'ci.-illy 'I'laiis. for Pul[) and Paiicr .Magazine. 

One of tliu miisauces tliat can happen to a 
printer i.s wlien there is sand iu his paper. Carefully 
prepaied plates have Iieen spoiled for many printers 
by small but numerous particles of sand. It may. there- 
fore, be advisable to try to find out the causes for the 
occuirence of sand in paper and to point out how tiiis 
nuisance may be prevented, or. at least, how its conse- 
(luenccs may be to a considerable degree remedied. 

Wood cellulose, ground wood pulp and refuse paper 
are the most important raw materials in the manufac- 
ture of printing paper. Wood cellulose can always be 
regardeil as fi'ee from sand, as no rea.soii for its occur- 
rence is at hand during the manufacture. On the con- 
trary, tlu' sharpening of the grindstones iu the ground 
wood pulp mills is a source of sand, and it is often un- 
avoidable, that small particles of sand for this reason 
arrive in the pulp. The occurrence of sand in pulp 
from old papers is also usual, as it can come both from 
the edge-runner and through careless storage and pack- 
ing. It is easy to become convinced of the last-named 
fact, if, for in.stance, white bookbinder cuttings are 
taken on the assorting table. It is astonishing what a 
(piantity of sand will be found under the taljle. 

By none of the I'aw mateiials named, however, can so 
much sand be introduced into the paper as by the use 
of inferior grades of fillers. In many kaolins it cannot 
be noticed how much .sand they really contain. If such 
inferior clay is stirred up in water and passed through 
a sieve, so can an idea be obtained, how much cautious- 
ness mu«t be used, in buying and using loading ma- 
terials for printing papers. 

In the following will be mentioned some papers in 
the manufacture of which the absence of sand is of 
special value. 

Sand in the paper is very disagreeable for jirinting 
j)aper in rolls, but still worse in book paper and jiaper 
for lithographic and autotypic impressions. The use of 
an unsuitable paper is especially for the last-named 
printing method, a source of many difficulties. 

Of most imjjortance in the use of a paper for sensi- 
tive plates and cuts is the quality of the s\irface, and, 
besides, also softness and suppleness. In order to obtain 
an especially even and easily printed surface, the paper 
is often given a white coating. In this way all rough 
places on the surface, all splinters and particles and 
knots in the j-aw paper are covered with an exceedingly 
easily printable layer, which reproduces all the fineness 
of the print and protects the plates from being hurt. 
But if an inferior paper is used for sensitive prints on 
account of ignorance or economy, so will the cause of 
the lack of success often be ascribed to the papermaker. 
White paper with only one side smooth is, for instance, 
used for lithographic prints, posters, etc. The high 
finish on one side permits the print to dome out very 
sharp and gives it a brilliant appearance; the other 
side often contains much sand, which has not been made 
harmless as in the calendered or coated papers, but 
which would soon, if used for printing, cause d.images 
to plates and types. 

If a one-sided finished paper must be used for same 
special i)urpose. it must first be passed through a cal- 
ender after having left tlu' drying cylinders. The sand 
is then either pressed into the papi"r, so that it becomes 

harmless, or the particles are squeezed to pieces and the 
resulting .small holes are closed on account of the pres- 
sure of the calender. Paper treated in this manner is 
easily sold and has got an always increasing demand. 

The paper would, however, obtain another less dtsir- 
able character if the sand was to be made harmless on 
a super-calender: the rough .-ide would then become 
too smooth. 

The occurrence of sand can eau-e considerable diffi- 
culties, also in cheajier grades of paper, as, for instance, 
in bag paper. These grades are mostly cut in the mills 
in smaller rolls in order to fit in the bag machines. 
Many manufacturers have complained, when using such 
papers, of the occurrence of longitudinal cracks or slots. 
which look as if having been cut with a knife. This 
occurs especially in one-sided smooth papers and de- 
pends only upon the presence of sand in the paper, 
which has stuck to the rolls of the rolling machine and 
caused the slots in the paper. A treatment with a cal- 
ender is very suitable also for such paper and would 
certainly prevent complaints from the bag manufac- 
turers over cracks and slots. 

The work of the riftler on the paper machine must, of 
course, be given s})ecial attention, when raw materials, 
rich in sand, are being used, such as old papers, refuse, 

A sufficient dilution of the pulp, big enough riftiers 
and an effective construction of the sand catchers are 
here of most importance for a geod result. — Papier Zei- 


The Pulp and Paper ilagazine believes so firmly in 
the great future ahead for specialties, novelties and 
new general uses for paper products that no apology is 
needed for reprinting the following admirable article 
on the subject by ('. J. Morri.S'On, iu Paper: — 

The problems of manufacturers of paper products 
liegin. he says, where those of the paper-makers end. 
Nevei'theless, they meet many of the same troubles, 
such as difficulty of maintaining proper tension on the 
paper, cracks, tears, stretch, changes in humidity of 
the atmosphere, etc. 

The manufacturers of paper products have before 
them the great problem of extending the uses of paper. 
In this work they should be as.sisted by the paper- 
nuikers, as the returns would be of mutual benefit. 
Rapid strides iu development have been made, but 
there are many fields unexplored and others that are 
only partly developed. 

Paper seems to be regarded at present as the one 
sanitary container. Paper drinking cups are coming 
into very common use. but even this field is only 
slightly developed and the cups are not on sale gener- 
ally. Moreover, they have only been exploited for use 
at public fountains, while there is no reason why they 
should not be in general use in the household. Res- 
taurants vshould serve water and milk, and. with proper 
development of the paper, all other beverages, only in 
sanitary paper containers. Bars should have no other 
kind of vessels. In fact, the po.ssible development in 
this field is tremendous. 

Butter has been protected by paper for several years. 
Jlilk, oysters, meats, bread, etc., should be similarly 
protected. The butcher should no longer cut off a 
piece of meat and roll it in a piece of paper so that 
both ends are exposed. He should place it in a sanitary 
container and seal it. 

•lanuarv l-'i, l!)l:i 



A coinmou oxperiinent of high school hoys in the 
|)hy.sical laboratory is to boil water in a pai)er bag, yet 
it is only reeenifly that iia])er containers have been used 
for cooking. They are ideal utensils for cooking many 
dishes and tlie field can unduulitetlly be greatly ex- 

Till' writei- has been waiting for years to see paper 
come into coniiiKiii u>c for clothing, but little develoj)- 
iiient seems to be made in that direction. 

This, in s])ite of i!he fact that i)api'r is to-day the best 
]piissible clothing. It is light, warm, sanitary, and can 
lie made waterpioof and fireproof. At present 
we wear our germ-laden clothes day aftei' day. One 
shudders to think of the disease germs which must be 
held by the cbitiies after a day s|)en1 among the mixed 
crowds on thi' streets and in the tnilley ears. I'a[)er 
clothes would be discarded each evening and fresh ones 
donned foi- the protection of the home. 

In Older to make these great extensions of the pajxu- 
business it will be necessary to conduct a eompreheir- 
sive campaign of education. It may even be necessary 
til make house-to-house denion.strations, as was done in 
the ease of baking-pow del-, i'^very ki'tcheu to-day uses 
baking-powder, and e\'er.\one should nudvc a more ex- 
lensi\e use of paper. Only a few of the ])ossiIile uses 
have been mentioned. In fact, some of the po.s'sible 
uses have probably not even yet been tlu)ught of. There 
is little danger that such an extended use woidd exceed 
the sui)ply of i)aper, as new sources of pulp are being 
continually discovered or develojx'd. 

]n this country, we ai'e apt to ciinsider these sug- 
gested uses for j)aper protlucts as idyllic dreams, such 
as those indulged in by the author of "Lottking Back- 
ward," or of some other such impracticable author who 
is dealing with conjectural conditions of an imaginary 
world. \ 

At the present time I'^in'opraii manufacturers are far 
ahead of paper manufacturers in the States in the uses 
to which they are i>utting j)aper products. Paj)er 
di-inking cujis (not paraffin) have been in use in (jcr- 
many for years. 

The use of paper as the l)asis in the manufacture of 
bags, towels, cloths, carpets and other textile fabrics 
has not only been theoretically demonsti'ated, but has 
been developed as a very profitable line of business in 
certain P]uropean countries. 

The preferred process for manufacture in this class 
of goods is by treating sheets of paper of various col- 
ors and quality, depending upon the use to which it 
is to be j)ut, with an adhesive substance to which is 
api>lied cotiton. wool or flax fibres. The paper is then 
cut into strips of about one-half inch in width, which 
is twisted into a thi-ead. The strength of fabrics woven 
from threads of this construction is amazing. With 
a fabric of which !)0 per cent, is paper demonstrations 
h.ive been nuule, in many cases proving a greater ten- 
sile strength in these fabrics than in the pure cotton 
fabrics costing from two to three times as much. 
Although these goods are being used, even in cases 
where particularly hard sti-ain is to be put upon the 
goods, such as with denims, etc.. very .satis fa ctoi-y re- 
sults have been obtained. 

Five years hence fabrics having a paper basis are 
going to have an enormous demand and consvun])tion 
in the Eurojiean counti'ies, and the American paper 
nmufaeturers will alone be to blame if they neglect 
the opportunity to di'velop this untouched and highly 
lucrative field. 

In many etder])i'ises were the held for development is 
great there is usually little attention given to economy 
of pi'oduction. This is largely for the reasons that all 

the product can be readily marke/ted. and the con- 
sumer.s have no ba.sis upon which to compare prices. 
The bicycle and automobile industries are typical ex- 
amples of this condition. In the early days almost any 
price could l)e olitained for a very inferior article, but 
each yeai- sees a decided decrease in price and an im- 
provement in tlie article. To-day a better bicycle can 
be i)urchased for ^2r) than was sold a few vear.s ago for 

In the paper indusltry the conditions are somewhat 
ditT'erent. Here the consumer is offered an article to 
rei)lace an article that he is accustomed to use. Not 
only that, but the paper aiMicle is siipjiosed to be used 
and discarded, while the old article was used over and 
over. Consequently i;lie jvajjcr articles must compare 
favorably in price with the burden charges on the other 
ai'ticles. For instance, in the case of paper containers 
for milk, their cost for a year's supply to a dairy must 
be comparable with the expenses of maintaining the 
glass bottles, such as interest on investment, replace- 
ments, collections and washing. In this particular in- 
.staiice the paper lias to meet exceedingly keen compe- 
tition, but in other cases the competition is nowhere 
nearly as keen. However, in general, the competition 
is such that the manufacturers of paper articles must 
exercise the most rigid economy. 

The fii-st and })ossibly the simplest economy is in the 
use of raw material. The articles must be .so de.signed 
and so laid out that the least possible scrap or waste 
will be made. This statement is so obvious that it 
almo.sif seems as though there was no necessity for mak- 
ing it, but cases have been noted where the principle 
was utterly disregarded. In one specific instance a 
slighit change in design, which in no way affected the 
finished article, reduced the amount of scrap 50 per 
cent. In another case a change in the method of lay- 
ing out the article made it possible to a comnuui 
stock size of paper instead of a .special product. This 
not only reduced the cost, but eliminated exasperating 
delays waiting for stock. 

Careful studies should be made of the specifications 
for stock material and every effort made to discover 
cheaper material which possesses the necessary phj'si- 
cal and chemical (pialities. There is always- a greait 
tendency to a.ssiinie that an article must always be 
made from a certain stock because it has been made 
from that stock for a mumber of years. Such a frame 
of mind is a bar to progress. Only recently a manufac- 
turer was asked why he used a certain expensive stock 
and replied. "Oh, we have always used that! Nothing 
else will do." Persistent repetitions of Why? only 
tended to make him angry and brought no additional 
informations .vet a very little independent experiment- 
ing showed that the article could be made fnun a much 
cheaper base. 

In the manufactui-e of jiaper products the ehemical 
and physical projierties of the ])ai)er are of great im- 
portance and must be very carefully woi'ked out. The 
tensile strength, bending properties, thickne.'-is, weight, 
etc., are important. The leading ipialities possess three 
typical characteristics — ability to resist bending, abil- 
ity to bend without cracking and .sta.y bent, and ability 
to bend and return to former .state without [)ermaneut 
deformation. The chemical properties will differ 
ereatly with the different uses for which the paper is 
intended. It is the problem for the manufacturers to 
secure that delicate balance among the various proper- 
ties that will give the article its exact requirements. 

Other s.ub.stan<>es besides paper must be carefully 
studied. One of the most inqiortanl of these is glue. 
Many paper products require a glue which is easy to 



January 15, 1913 

haudlo. will dry quickly, is strong and will not cause 
the i^apcr to pucker. The quickness wiith which the 
glue will dry is extremely important, as a few seconds 
lost waiting for the glue on each article to dry amounts 
to a great loss in the course of a day. At one plant a 
change iii' glue increased the output 40 per cent. 

In order to get the best returns from the waste it 
must he kept clean, free from all foreign matters, and 
the different grades must be kept separate. It is usu- 
all.y advisable to compress the waste into bales. 

Although it is important to so care for the waste that 
it will bring the highest price, it is far more important 
to care for it so that there is no interference with the 
operations of the plant. The waste must n'ot be allowed 
to accumulate in such quantities as to interfere with 
the work, nor must the removal of it block operations. 
One dejiartment of a certain well-known plant was 
formerly shut down for half an hour each afternoon 
while waste was removed. Not only was there this 
great loss of productive time, but for a couple of hours 
before removal the large accumulation of waste greatly 
restricted production. A slight rearrangement of ma- 
chines, an equipment of boxes on wheels and a pro- 
vision for the eontinuiuis collection of waste solveil 
the problem. In passing it might 1)6 well to note that 
the rearrangement gave better light and better power 

Scarcely enough attention is given to the manufac- 
ture of papier-mache. Many useful articles can be 
made of this material, which should be a by-product of 
any plant which manufactures paper articles on a large 
scale. A campaign of advertising and education would 
greatly increase the use of papier-mache. 

In the perfect plant everything assists in production. 
There is no waste. With this idea in mind the least 
important employe must be made to contribute his 
quota. The human element must be carefully studied 
and ways and means devised to secure both the eouti- 
dence and co-operation of every employe. Each one 
must be encouraged to make suggestions for improve- 
ments and some recognition must be given to each sug- 
gestion. If a suggestion cannot be used, the employe 
making the suggestion must be shown the reason, and 
when a suggestion is used proper payment must be 
made for it. A fatal mi.sitake is to have a fixed price 
for suggestions. In one large plant each suggestion, 
whether used or not. was acknowledged by a not signed 
by the president of the company. This policy pleased 
the employes immensely and the very fact of the presi- 
dent's attention put a stop to trivial suggestions. 


Last year Canada sent wall paper to the value of $li),- 
555 to New Zealand, as compared with a value of $2,340 
in 1910 and $905 in 1909, and this year the total will 
be nmch higher than last according to a report of Mr. 
W. A. Beddoe, the Canadian Trade Commissioner at 
Aucldand, to the Trade and Connnerce Department. jMr. 
Beddoe sa.ys : — 

"During the .season of 1910 a direct representative of 
a Canadian wall paper tirm visited New Zealand and 
I)ersonaIly called upon the importers. The designs and 
materials were favoral)ly received, and a good business 
resulted. The same representative repeated his vi.sit last 
year with even more satisfactory results. The results 
illustrate the advantage of sending direct representa- 
tives to New Zealand. Canada is each ye>u- securing' a 
larger proportion of the wall paper trade." 


The aiiuual general meeting of tiie German Verein 
der Zellstoff und Papier Chemiker was held in Berlin 
at the Papier haus. on December 2nd and 3rd. General 
business of the society was followed by the reading of 
technical qxiestions raised by members with replies and 
discussion. I\Ir. Curt Zorn exhibited and described 
various chemical novelties in connection with cellulose 
and paper. Short papers were also read, including items 
by Professor Klason on "Rosin." Messrs. Beadle and 
Stevens on "Detection of Manilla hemp," Dr. Max 
Muller on "Colored paper-machine backwaters," and 
others. The programme comprised, among other items, 
I^apers liy R. Eichmann on "Cost Calculation of Rag 
Half-Stuff's." K. Hartung on "Heating and Ventilation 
of JIachine Rooms." Dr. E. Ileuser on "The Rosin Siz- 
ing Process," Dr. Mysz on "Steam Turbines." Dr. Max 
Muller on "Problems of the Soda Pulp Industry," and 
several others. 


The 3Sth edition (1913) of Lockwood's Directory of 
the Paper, Stationery and Allied Trades, comes to hand 
as complete and satisfactory as ever, and with the ad- 
ditional advantage of some new features. The chief of 
these is a department of paper specialties, showing 
under classified headings the names and addresses of 
firms that convert paper to special uses such as manu- 
faoturers of paper drinking cups, paper towels, and 
numy other comparative novelties. There is also a de- 
partment of statistical information, inserted in order 
to iiK'orporate particulars of the 1910 census. Another 
feature is a new classification of paper box manufac- 
turers, whereby those making stiff, folding or corru- 
gated boxes are properly indicated. These additions, 
however, in no wise detract from the size and complete- 
ness of the usual lists of pulp and paper mills, manufac- 
turers of various kinds of paper, stationers, envelope 
makers, trade associations, watermarks and brands, 
etc., etc. which make this book so invaluable to all 
branches of the trade. It is published by the Lockwood 
Trade Journal Co., 150 Nassau Street. New York. Price 

JIany cotton fabrics undergo a special chemical 
treatment with strong caustic soda. Such "mercerised" 
cottons are readily distingui.shed by the silky lustre 
which the caustic soda treatment produces. Dr. Carl 
G. Schwalbe suggests +hat for certain purposes, paper- 
makers would do well to have the mercerized cottons 
sorted out and used separatelj'. These mercerized rags 
should possess particular advamtages for the manufac- 
ture of blotting papers, since the caustic treatment re- 
moves the waxy skin of the fibre and increases its 
absorbency in a high degi'ee, as compared with the 
ordinarv cotton fibre. 

T. J. ^lai-shall & Co., London, have brought out an- 
other of their famous miniature machines, suitable for 
experimental work in pulp and paper. This time it is a 
model edge runner, particularly adaptable for ascer- 
taining the eft'ect of incomplel:e boiling, and we under- 
stand that one ha.s been .supplied to the Forest Service 
Branch of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Other 
miniature machines made by this firm were their fam- 
ous 4-inch paper making machine, mechanical wood 
pulp grinder, model beaters, etc. 

January 15, 1913 





\ laiM'o if luvt the largest, part of all paper produced 
is used^for printing of daily newspapers and cheap 
periodicals, circulars, etc.. and is thereby converted 
into waste almost before the ink of the printing has 
dried thereon. The very large demand for these grades 
of paper, and the growing scarcity of wood, press the 
necessity to recover the pulp from such waste papers 
in a condition suitable for using it for the manufacture 
of the same grade of print papers. This could not be 
done heretofore, owing to the circumstance that the 
solvent agents, specified in the vai'ious processes here- 
tofore known for the recovery of i)ulp from waste 
papers, produce a marked discoloration of the fibres 
of the "mechanical" wood pulp (ground wood) which 
is quite largely used as a substitute for the chemical 
pulp in the manufacture of so-called newsprint and of 
other cheap grades of i)rint paper: these processes and 
the sohcnts specified therein cannot be used for the re- 
covery of pulp from such waste newsprint papers and 
other" grades of paper containing a proportion of such 
mechanical wood pulp. 

There are, however, some kinds or makes of such 
new.sprint and of other similar grades of paper, requir- 
ing to be boiled in the solvent solution or subjected to 
its'' action under a high temperature, to dissolve the 
sizing or to effect a complete dissociation of the pulp 
fibres therefrom : such a treatment of the wa.ste papers 
is also sometimes required to completely dissolve the 
adhesive ingredients of the printers' ink, and to enable 
the carbon or other pigment to be separated from the 
pulp fibres and to be removed by washing. 

J. M. Burby, of Astoria, N.Y.. has invented a process 
for the recovery of pulp fibres from waste papers con- 
taining a proportion of mechanical wood pulp (ground 
wood; in which process such waste papers may be boil- 
ed in the solvent solution or .subjected to its action at 
a high temperature, withiuit producing the discoloring 
and othe- detrimental ett'ects upon the fibres of this 
mechanical wood pulp. This object is attained, 
he claims, by employing for the treatment of such waste 
papers a solution of borax, and the process is based 
upon his discovery that boras is a solution that does 
not produce a discoloration of the fibres of the mechani- 
cal wood pulp, and does not perceptibly affect then- 
other physical properties, when such waste papers are 
subjected to its action at high temperatures, or are 
Iwiled therein, or even if the borax solution be stronger 
than required to dissolve or saponify the adhesive in- 
gredients of printers' ink and the cohesive ingredients 
of the sizing employed in the manufacture of such 

He says his experiments have demonstrated tliat it 
.such waste newsprint papers are boiled in. or subjected 
under a correspondingly high temperature to the action 
of. a .solution containing approximately two pounds 
of borax in one thousand pounds of water, the ody and 
resinous ingredients of the printers' ink, and the cohe- 
sive ingredients of the sizing, are liquefied and saponi- 
fied .sufficiently to cnalile the fibres of the pulp to be 
separated therefrom, and that even a more concen- 
trated solution of borax may be used in this way, with- 
out producing the discoloring, or any other detrimental 
eft'ect upon the fibres of the mechanical wood pulp con- 

tamed m the waste papers thus treated. The waste 
papers may be thus treated before being P^'IH^cI o 
after having been pulped; the most practical method 
is however, to use the borax solution m the beating 

If the waste papers are to be treated with the oorax 
solution after having been pulped in the beating engine 
the quantity of water contained in the pulped material 
must be taken in consideration in determining the 
quantity and the initial strength of the borax solution 
to be added thereto. . 

The most practical way of conducting the process 
of recovering pulp from waste newsprint and trom 
other grades of paper containing mechanical wood pulp, 
according to Jlr. Burby, is as follows: 

A quantity of the borax solution, heated to near its 
boiling point, is filled into the tank of the beating en- 
gine, the beating engine is started, and the waste pap- 
ers after having been dusted and roughly separated, 
are successively thrown in. A further supply ot the 
borax solution and of the waste papers are successively 
added until the tank is filled to the full eapaci y of the 
beating engine. To secure the best results about lo,- 

000 pounds of the solution should be used tor. ey^ery 

1 000 pounds of dry weight of the waste papers to be 
pulped in the beating engine and the initial strength o 

he solution should be somewhat in excess ot the stalled 
standard (two pounds of dry weight of borax to 1 000 
pounds of water) because the borax contained hei en 
is quite rapidly being consumed in saponifying the oily 
ingredients of the ink. which are fii;st acted upon by 
the solution. The action upon the cohesive ingredien s 
of the sizing takes place later, that is, when the waste 
papers having become thoroughly permeated by the 
solution The initial consumption ot borax amounts 
to about eleven per cent., and is greater, it less than 
15 000 pounds of the solution is used tor each .000 
pounds of the dry weight of the waste paper stock. 

By the time when the wa-ste papers are thoroughly 
pulped, all cohesive ingredients of the printers ink 
and of the sizing are dissolved or li.iuefied and the in- 
soluble impurities, like the pigments of the ink. claj 
or other filler and the like, are commingled with the 
pulp fibres. The pulped material is then discharged 
from the beating engine into a chest, the liquid drained 
oft- as far as is practicable to be done without pres.sing, 
and the pulped material wa.shed with fresh wa er. This 
wa hing can be done in the chest, if the che.s is pi-o- 
vided with some mechanical device for agitating the 
pulped material and disposes of the borax sol^'t^- '1»<^, 
of the sizing remaining in the pulped material attei 
draiuin.^ It is preferable to employ a mechanical agi- 
a or in the chest to .save the handling of the material. 
The washed material is then conveyed upon screens, 
or other suitable apparatus, where the insoluble im- 
purities, like printers' ink. clay, filler, etc., are separat- 
ed from the pulp fibres and the latter collected. 

Instead of pulping the waste papers in the borax 
solution they may be subjected to its action alter hav- 
ing been pulped in the beating engine. In such a case 
the pulped material is conveyed from the beating en- 
gine into a chest, provided with a mechanical agitator 
fhe solution, in .juantity and strength to be determined 
upon consideration of the quantity of water contained 
in the pulped material, is added thereto, and the me- 



January 1.1, 1913 

chanical agitator set iu action. The chest should he 
provided with means for heating the solucion and the 
pulped material, and the heating and agitating of it 
should be continued for about one hour or less. Then 
the liquid is drained off, as much a.s it can be, the 
pulped material washed with fresh water and convey- 
ed upon screens, where it is treated in the same way as 
explained above to separate the pulp fibres from the 

If the waste pa[)ers are to be treated with the burax 
solution before pulping them, they must V)e first duv.ed, 
and rooghly separated. bet\>re being charged into a 
boilen'or other suitable apparatus, filled with the borax 
solution. Approximately the same proportionate quan- 
tity of 'the borax solution should be employed. The 
boiler' should be provided with means for heating the 
solution and it is desirable to provide some means 
for agitating the papers while they are being acted upun 
by the heated solution. This treatment should be con- 
tinued for not more than an hour and then the liquor 
is drained off, the waste papers discharged into a chest 
and after being washed in fresh water are conveyed 
into the beating engine. The pulped material is pump- 
ed upon screens and there treated with streams of water 
to separate the pulp filnes from the insoluble impuri 
ties, and the clean pulp collected. The pulp recovered 
by either way of condvicting the process does not re- 
quire any further treatment and may be conveyed to 
the paper-making machine, or stored for future use. 

Ajiother method is the subject of a patent is.sued 
to ('. K. Hahnle. of Reutlingen, Germany. It is said 
to avoid the drawliaeks of the old processes, and by ii 
an economical cleaning of the old paper is rendered 
possible. This eft'ect can be attained only in case the 
method is carried out exactly as explained and the fol- 
lowing point of views are considered. 

First of all. the connection between color or ink and 
paper must be so much loosened as to render possible 
a complete washing out of the impurities in the subse- 
quent process. In order to cheapen as much as pos- 
sible the whole the diluted solution of alkali 
employed requires to be recovered after its use and t" 
be repeatedly used over and over again in the following 
operations, so that always only the (juantity of alkali 
lost or consumed in the previous process need be com- 
pensated for. 

It is for this reason that at the moment that the 
alkali is about to be recovered, the papei- re(|uires to 
have essentially maintained its structure, in other 
words it should at this moment not yet have been turn- 
ed into a pulpy mass, since otherwise the recovery of 
the alkali would be {)ractically impossilile. The old 
paper so preliminarily treated then requires to undergo 
a most extensive mechanical disintegration, whereupon 
the washing of the finely divided material on sieves by 
means of sprinklers is effected. 

A further essential feature of the new method con- 
sists in that during the disintegration subsequent to the 
treatment with alkali evei-y objectionable pressing 
eft'ect is avoided. The new method is as follows: 

The old raw materials are first soaked with a diluted 
lye, until the connection between the paper and the 
color or ink is sufficiently loosened, then subjected to a 
light pressure for squeezing out the liquid. This is 
best effected by means of an endless sieve, which re- 
ceives the niatirial and conveys it between several con- 
secutive pairs of lightly loaded squeezing i-olls. where- 
by the excessive ciuantity of lye is squeezed mit. The 
liquid flowing oft' is i-eturned to a reservoir in order 
to be afterwards I'estored to its initial state. 

The transmission of the material and the removal 
of the lye may, however, also be effected by means of a 
tapering conveyor or any similar device. 

The material thus preliminarily treated is then put 
in a vessel and a convenient (luantity of water is intro- 
duced, whereupon the material is reduced to fibres by 
means of twirls or agitators, s> that the printers' ink 
and similar inks gradually separate from the fibres. 
Care should be taken to protect the mass from pressing 
eft'ects. Agitating apparatus of any improved con- 
struction may be employed, which are capable of finely 
dividing the material by means of rotary agitators or 
twir-ls. The apparatus known in Germany as "Glock- 
enzerfaserer" are particulai'ly suitable for this pur- 
pose. In order to free the fibrous mass from the loosen- 
ed impurities, it is now placed on en endless belt of fine 
wire gauze and passed therewith l)eneath sprinklers, 
so that the sprays can carry oft' the impurities. At the 
delivery end of the sieve the completely cleaned fib- 
rous mass can be taken oft'. 

The process can be carried out continuously, even 
for the largest (luantities, and re<(i;ires but small quan- 
tities of chemicals and small outlays for wages and 
driving power, so that it can lu- employed most advan- 
tageously for all sorts of old n.ip' i>. also for papers of 
the lowest <|uality. 


By Charles M. Bullard. 

In the year 1884, at Rumford. R.I.. the first sulphite 
mill in America was built and operated by the Rich- 
mond Paper- Company. Since that time the:e have been 
built 102 sulphite mills in America of approximately 
O.200 tons daily capacity in bleached sulphite fibre. 

To i)roduce this enormous amount of fibre, it is safe 
to say that approximately 12.000 cords of wood. 1.500.- 
000 iks. of sulphur and " 1.200.000 lbs. of lime and its 
equivalent in limestone is used per 24 hours, or an av- 
erage of 21/4 cords of unpeeled wood, 280 lbs. of sul- 
phur, and 285 lbs. of lime per ton of product. 

In discussing the various phases of sulphite manu- 
facture, this paper will deal with tlie unblcacheil pro- 
duct only, and to determine the amounts of raw ma- 
terials used on a bleached basis it is safe to add 10 per 
cent, to any figures given. 

Tlu' expensive raw material entering into the 
manufacture of sulphite pulp is wood. Its price varies 
greatly in dift'erent localities and under varying condi- 
tions and is steadily advancing from year to year. It 
is safe to say. however, that it will not average less 
than ^8 per cord, and that an average of 21,4 cords is 
used per ton of sulphite produced. Figuring on this 
basis the total amount of wood used is costing the mills 
appi-oximately !)i96.000 per 24 hours of $18 per ton of 

The next expensive raw material is sulphur. It« 
pi'ice varies but slightly for dift'erent localities and 
averages .'fs2.'^ per ton, therefore the mills will spend 
about .^18.000 per 24 hours for this material, or on a 
tonnage basis tlieir suljihur is costing them -iiU.ei per 
ton of sulphite. 

Lime is the cheapest material used and its average 
cost is 30c. per hundred. The average amount used is 
235 lbs. per ton. therefore this material is costing the 
mills !{;3.600 pei- 24 hours or about 71c. per ton of pi-o- 

*Read at the Eighth International Congress of Ap- 
jilied Chemistry. New York. 

J;imi;ir\' ]'). IIU:* 

ij' A XI) patM':r magazine 


Till' nsci-s ol' sulphite to-day are deiuaiiding more aiul 
iimrr ,is legards .strength, color and cleanliness, and to 
iiK'ct this demand anti still make a fair margin of pro- 
tit the manufacltirci's must necessarily reduce the cost 
of production in evcr>- possible way, as their profit does 
iKif so much depend on the market price, which is fairly 
statile. as on the cost of production. 

The manuf.icturers do not appreciate the countless 
ways where scientific control of every stage of the sul- 
phite process will surely aid them to reduce this cost, 
and still maintain or improve the (piality of pi-oduc- 
tion, and the sooner they realize that the old "rule of 
tliumh method" so much in vogue in the past should lie 
supplemented by the latest and most improved methods, 
the soonei- they will be enabled to pay greater divi- 
dends and still eompeJe with Euroj)ean manufacturers, 
where the cost of lalior and raw material is much lower 
than in America, and especially in the I'nited States. 

The lack of scientific control and failure to make use 
of scientific methods in the average mill is the direct 
cause for the needless expenditure of large sums of 
money during the process, for such results as they arc 
getting, both as to cost of production and quality of 
I>i-oduct, and vi"ere they to skillfully compare their oper- 
ations in every stage of the process and the results 
therefrom with those of the few who have applied scien- 
tific methods and given them a fair trial, they would 
at once appreciate the value of these methods. 

A very few have made use of these methods and con- 
trol in their lumbering operations and by so doing have 
demonstraled their \-alue. In the majority of ea-^es, how- 
ever, these opei'ations ai'c costing the manufacturers 
or operators excessively in labor, but' what is of c(|u d 
or more importance is the question of wood waste. 

The writer has seen many instances where this waste 
was enormous. Large ([uantities of .available and valu- 
able wood in the form of stops and large limbs are left 
scattered broadcast, which are a menace to standing 
timber fi'om fire. Another large loss is due to not cut- 
ting close enough to the ground and many tons are nn- 
skillfully felled in inaccessible places where they are 
left to decay. These lo.sses are mainly due to the lack 
of uppreciation of what could be saved were these oper- 
ations scientifically controlled. 

In the handling, storage, and d.divery of wood to 
and thr.uigh the wood room, it is remarkable what can 
be done in many mills by carefully studying their in- 
dividual needs and conditions. In one instance out of 
many, the wood room cost $l.o7 per ton. Their needs 
and conditions were carefully studied and various 
changes made in apparatus and methods, with the re- 
sult that more wood is being handled with less labor 
and waste, at a cost of 61c. jicr ton. and there is still 
room for improvement. 

A good deal of argument has come up from time to 
time as to which was the more economical method for 
barking wood, to peel it in the woods during the peel- 
ing season or at the mill by the usual mechanical meth- 
od. It would seem that the former method was to be 
generally favored as the loss is about i) per cent, as 
against an average of 25 per cent, by mechanical bark- 
ing, and in many instances will run much higher. 

The former method will certainly allow much mote 
thorough and uniform drying or seasoning, which is 
highly important, and when the wood is delivered to 
the mills l)y rail and the freight charged by weight as 
is usual, we sliould expect a very large saving in the 
first cost of wood. 

Wlii'rever Avood is being barked at the mill by the 
usual meeh.iiiiejil method I bv tlii' use of the ordinary 

disc barker) the use of scientific methods will show 
very large savings in wood wastes and increa.sed capa- 
city of wood room. Many careful tests made by weight 
have shown the loss during this operation to run as 
high as 30 per cent., when under proper conditions this 
shoiUd not run 21 per cent., and in some instances even 
less. Such conditions actually exist, and the savings 
which it is possible to make are therefore very appar- 

A very recent instance of what can be done in this 
direction will serve to illustrate the value -of ■^iro.per 
control of the barking operations. A mill was Uaj-king 
approximately 200 coi-ds of wood per day. Careful 
tests made by weight showed a loss of 18'/. per cent, 
during this operation. Various inexpensive changes 
were matle, principally by changing the speed at w-hich 
the stick was turned while in contact with the Itarker 
disc, increasing the speed of the disc, decreasing the set 
of the barker knives, and then tests made shov.-ed the 
loss to be reduced to 22 per cent., or a saving of &Y2 
per cent., ecpiivalent to 13 cords saved per 24 hours. 

The yield per cord and quality of fibre is very largely 
conti oiled l)y the uniformity of chips produced, and 
this uniformit.v. as well as the amount of sawdust and 
sulphite screenings (which are a direct loss) are direct- 
ly controlled by the conditions of the chipper, its speed 
and the mannei' of supplying the wood to it. The aver- 
age amount of sawdust which is a clear loss is not less 
than 5 j)er cent, of all wood chipped, while the sulphite 
screenings will not average less than 5 per cent. In 
the majority of cases these two losses can be reduced 
40 per cent, by scientifically controlling the chipping 
oj>eration. which when done represents an enormous 
saving to the manufacturers. 

Very recently a mill was chippiner wood for 50 tons 
production. Careful and exhaustive tests were made 
to determine the unifornrity of chips produced, and the 
amount of sawdust was found to be averaging between 
6 and 7 per cent, and a slightly larger amount of coarse 
chips, slivers and large pieces of uncut wood were 
formed, which on entering the digesters with the good 
chips were scarcely if any atfecfed by the acid during 
the cooking operation, and eventually were lost as 

Careful attention was given to the condition of t!ie 
chipper as regards grinding and setting of the cutting 
knives, face plates and lied knife. The speed was then 
changed and the men attending the chipper instructed 
as to the best method of delivering the wood to it. Af- 
ter these changes were made, other careful tests showed 
the loss in sawdust to be reduced 51 per cent, and the 
large chips and uncut wood, which eventually turned 
up as screenings, were reduced 46 per cent. This re))- 
resents a very large saving in wood and increased yield 
per cord. 

The acid plant is the heart and nerve centre of a 
sulphite mill, and is usually the most neglected depart- 
ment. At no stage of the whole suliihife pi-ocess v.ill 
scientific methods and control show greater return 
than here. 

JIany manufacturers seem to think that any one who 
can shovel sulphur into a burner at his own discretion 
is fully capable of handling this very important ojiera- 
tion econoinically and etficicnily. They apparently do 
n Jt apjireciate the supi'riority of (iiie tyjie of burner 
over an-^ther, the requisite e(!onomy, the most ctificient 
draft to carry on them under varying conditions, and 
the best method foi- supplying oi- feeding sulphur to 
them. Man.v. and I may sa.\- the majorily. do not seem 



January 15, 1913 

to i-palize that without proper air and temperature i-on- 
trol in the l)uriii'rs, from 5 to 10 per cent, of sulphur 
burned may be oxidized to SO, (nor make any attempt 
to detei'iuiiie this), wliich in itself is a direct loss, but 
later in the ojiei-ation Avill cause still more loss in lime 
from the formation of calcium sulphate. This in turn 
causes another loss in labor, production and innumer- 
al)le troubles by the plugging up of pipes, bottoms of 
digesters and blow-pits, and eventually shows up in 
the finished product. 

The streugth and purity of gas pi'oduced on tMitering 
the acid systems is not given the attention which it de- 
mands for the best results and the majority of mills do 
not even make analysis to determine this. If every 
manufacturer realized the importance of eliminating 
every air leak throughout the entire acid making sys- 
tem, properly controlled the temperatures during the 
various stages of the process, doubled and in many in- 
stances trebled the lime slacking capacity, properly in- 
troduced and distributed the digester relief in the acid 
storage and reclaiming tanks, with proper temperature 
control, they would be astonished at the great improve- 
ments in efficiency and economy during the acid mak- 
ing process, as well as the decrease in the consump- 
ti(ni of sulphur and lime ])er thousand gallons of acid 

It is remarkable how lit lie it takes to demoralize the 
acid making process which will cause the cost to go up 
with leaps and bounds, and still how simply and econ- 
omically this proces scan be handled by applying scien- 
tific methods. 

The cooking of wood requires the most cai'eful and 
uniform control if the best results as regards maximum 
yield, strength and color are obtained. These results 
are directly controlled by pressures and temperatures 
cai'ried in the digesters and manner of relief during 
this opei-ition, and were the manufactiu'ers to realize 
this and carry on this cooking operation on a scientitic 
basis, very greatly improved results would be obtained. 

Many do not seem to appreciate the ill effects of high 
temperatures, especially during the first part of the 
cook, and this being controlled l:)y the relief, directly 
influences the retention of acid strength during the cook 
so necessary for the best results. 

It is quite impossible to make any set rule as to the 
exact manner in which every digester should be 
handled, as conditions vary so widely in different nulls, 
and it is therefore necessary to scientifically study 
their conditions and needs in order to determine what 
method should be followed to produce the best results. 
When this is done, and these methods enforced, the de- 
sired results are siire to follow. 

In many mills the great variation in (juality is the 
cause for wonder, worry and poor results. On the other 
hand, it is possible to remove or prevent the troubles 
due to this variation by applying and adhering to im- 
proved methods during the cooking process, as there 
is always a reason for every result obtained whether 
it be good or poor. The washing, handling and scour- 
ing of sulj^hite is usually considered a purely mechani- 
cal proposition and in a large measure this is true, but 
even here the scientific study of conditions and needs 
and application of improved methods will almost in- 
variably demonstrate their value in the .savings in 
power, labor and increased efficiency, and its general 
adoption will be the means, and I ma.y say is the only 
means of successfull.y solving the many perplexing 
problems which are constantly coming up during the 
douljle process of the manufacture of suljihite pulj). 


The T'nited States Government has I'eceived from its 
Consuls located at various points in Scandinavia some 
interesting particulars of the pulp stones in general 
use in Norway and Sweden. From their reports the 
following abstract is made: 

The size of the stone most used in modern Norwegian 
pulp mills is 27 inches in thickness and 56 inches in 
diametei-. with a 9-inch hole in the centre. These stones 
are generally imported from Great JJritain, being made 
of English sandstone. Suitable material for grind- 
stones and for millstones is found in different parts of 
Norway. Init it is not gritty enough for pulp stones. 

The average life of a pulp stone, as above described, 
is five to ten months, and the price $63 c. i. f. nearest 
seaport. Three hundred horse-power is required per 
stone, aiul the pressure on the grinder cylinders is about 
45 pounds per square inch. Three cylinders are used 
on each stone ; each cylinder has one pocket with an 
inside diameter of 14 inches. The speed of the line 
shaft is 200 revolutions per minute. 

Adequate direct steamship facilities between this part 
of Norway and the United States are provided by the 
Sca.ndinavian-American Line, running regiilarl.y be- 
tween ('hristiania and New York, Boston, I'hiladelphia 
and Baltimore, and the Noi'way-]\Iexico Gulf Line be- 
tween Christiania and Newport News, Galveston and 
New Orleans. 

Pulp stones used in Sweden for grinding mechanical 
wood pulp are nearly always 27 inches thick and 54 
inches in diameter. They are, for the greater part, im- 
ported from Enghind, but some are also bought from 
(iermany, the jirice being about 68 cents per cubic foot. 
The avei'age life of a stone may be said to be one and 
one-half years, but sometimes stones may be fit for 
three or four years. There is always a great risk of 
breakage, especially when delivered in the winter 
through the freezing of the moistui-e in the stones. In 
order to avoid this the stones are often kept for one or 
two years in a dry place so as to be perfectly dry be- 
fore being used. The horse-power used per stone 
ranges between 300 and 500, and the water pressure on 
the grinders is 60 to 90 poiuids. The diameter of the 
cylinders is 10, 12 or 14 inches, each cylinder having 
three pockets. The line shaft is run at a speed of 220 
to 230 revolutions per minute. 

There are no direct steamship lines between the 
United States and Sweden. The best freight facilities 
are offered by the Scandinavian-American Line via Co- 
penhagen. There is some talk of establishing direct 
communications between Gottenborg and New York, 
Invt as yet nothing has been done in the matter. Steam- 
ers also ply between Gottenborg and Newport New^s. 

At a mill near Bergen the stones used for grinding 
the pulp are 32'^4 inches thick and 55 inches in diame- 
ter. They are imported from England and (jermany. 
the prices paid being identical. The English 
stones cost $84.40 e. i. f. Bergen, the German $84.40 to 
$85.75. The average horse-power required per stone is 
275, the water pressure on the grinder cylinders is 40 
to 50 pounds, and the speed of the line shaft is 180 revo- 
lutions per minute. The cylinders are 12 inches, and 
have three pockets. 

In I'eply to an inquiry as to a possible nmrket here 
for American grind.stones, the manager of the ,Seva- 
reid Karton and Papfabrik stated that the attention of 
mill owners at the present time was directed to an arti- 
ficial grindstone invented in Germany, which promised 
to be much superior to those now in iise. The alleged 
advantages possessed by the new invention are that it 

.I,inu:irv 1."), IHI:! 



is evenly tiMu|)( re<l tln-oiiirlioiit. thai it wears and grinds 
evenly and unil'orndy. and that it is practically un- 

The hard. eo;iise gi-indstoiies used in the nianufae- 
ture id' nieehaiiieal wood ]>idp in the Gotteuijorg con- 
sular district are of two classes, so far as dimensions 
are concei-ned. Those use<l in the older mills are gen- 
erally 72 (English) inches in diame:er and 22 or 26 
inches in thickness; those employed by the newer plants 
are 54 inches in diameter and 27 to -1:5 inches thick. 
The most common size in the is 22 x 72 inches 
and in the second class 27 x 54 inches. The 48 x 54 
inch size is rare in this part of Sweden. 

There is a small jiroduction of such stones in Sweden, 
liut the supply conn's almosr entirely from Saxony and 
England. Stones of the sizes useti hy the older type of 
mills sell for $67 to .^^IJ-'ISO; stones 27 x 54 inches cost 
$67; those 43 x 54 bring $160.80 to $187.60. All of 
these prices are duty paid and f. o. h. Gottenborg. The 
stones used by thi' older type of mills eight to ten 
months: the latter txpe have a life of eight to twelve 

The horse-power per stone of 72 inches diameter is 
150 if 22 inches thick and 350 if 26 inches thick: 400 
horse-power is the figure for stones 27 x 54 and 800 to 
1.000 for those 43 x 54. The water pressure t)n the 
grinder cylinders in both classes of mills will run from 
60 to 100 pounds per square inch. The cylinders in the 
older type of mill are 6 to 8 inches in diameter and 
those in the newer type are 12 to 14 inches. The older 
type of mill ordinarily has eight pockets to each pulp 
grinder, the newer type two or three.- The line shaft 
speed in the older plants is 120 to 150 rev(dutions per 
minute, in the new ]ilants 200 to 250. 

"As to opportunities for trade in these grindstones, 
there are about 160 wood pulp establishments (chemi- 
cal and mechanical) in Sweden, employing 12.000 men 
and with an annual production aggregating $20,000,- 
000. Of these eighty-four plants, employing over 5.000 
men and with an annual output valued at $4,500,000. 
are in the Gottenborg consular district, which, roughly 
speaking, includes the whole of southwestern Sweden. 

The production of mechanical pulp, with which we 
are must concerned in connection with the grindstone 
business, constitutes in quantity about 38 per cent, and 
in value about 20 per cent, of the total production of 
the whole of Sweden. In this consular district the pro- 
portion of mechanical pulp is considerably higher. In 
1909 there were 350 pulp grinding mills in Sweden, as 
compared with 336 in the preceding year. The pro- 
ducing of mechanical wood pulp in 1909 (latest avail- 
able official figures) was 50,713 tons of dry pulp and 
314.515 tons of wet, as compared with 54,470 tons and 
140.602 tons, respectively, in 1900. The share of this 
consular district in the production for 1909 was 26.766 
tons of dry and 146.494 tons of wet. Eighty per cent, 
of the dry and 60 per cent, of the wet pulp from this 
district were produced in one county of Varmland. 

While the production of wood pulp in general is mov- 
ing northward, to be nearer the supi)lies of raw ma- 
terial, the production of wet mechanical pulp, on ac- 
count of the cost of transportation of the fini.shed pro- 
duct, continues to centre more in the south. As will 
be seen from the figures given above, the production 
of dry mechanical ]))dp is of comparatively small im- 
portance. Vai-mbii'd County produces more dry me- 
chanical i)ulp than any other single county in Sweden, 
4() per cent, of the country's total, and the same is true 
of the production of wet nieclianical. of which 21 per 
cent, comes from Varndaiid. Alfsborg County, also in 

this district, is next in importance so far as mechani- 
cal pulp is concerned. 


If sulphite waste lye be treated with milk of lye until 
neutralized, a precipitate is formed containing calcium 
sulphate, calcium sulphite and calcium salts of organic 
acids. If more lime be added, the precipitate is increas- 
ed and the liquid assumes a yellowish color. On filter- 
ing the liquid and adding a further quantity of lime, it 
is foimd that a considerable portion of the latter is dis- 
solved. If the yellow be then heated, or if more milk of 
lime be added, a large quantity of a yellow precipitate 
is suddenly produced and the entire mass forms a thick 
paste. The liquid portion can be separated by filtration 
and the precipitate then appears to be composed of 
very small crystals of the calcium salts or salts of one 
or several very similar organic compoxinds. The moist 
precipitate readily dissolves when acidified with sul- 
phuric acid ; when it is decomposed, calcium sulphate 
separates out and a yellow or brown solution remains. 
If this be poured slowly into sulphuric acid of 30 de- 
grees Be., while stirring, each drop congeals at once 
to a flaky gray mass, so that a large quantity of an or- 
ganic substance is obtained, which can be filtered off 
from the excess of acid. This organic substance when 
oxidized by nitric acid yields quantities of crystals of 
oxalic acid. 


Wilhelm Hellwig. a German paper maker, and F. Her- 
mann, manufacturer, have been granted a patent (G. B.) 
for an approved process for rendering peat, wood 
waste and other vegetable substances suitable for manu- 
facturing paper pulp. The material is placed in a warm 
solution of chloride of lime, dilute hydrochloric acid, 
and potash or soda, and allowed to remain for some 
time. After this the mass is boiled in lime water. One 
example is: 10 kilograms of 90 per cent, calcined soda 
dissolved in 100 litres boiling water, is boiled for a time, 
stirring at intervals. Two kilograms of chloride of lime 
are added in the form of paste. When the mixture is 
cool there is added 3 kilograms of hydrochloride acid 
of about 20 degrees Be. JIaterial placed in this li(iuor 
is left for twenty-four hours (the liquor being, ]u-efer- 
ably, warmed'). The material is then removed and put 
into boiling water into which has been introduced 5 per 
cent, of burned lime. In this the material is boiled for 
about: two hours, after which it is removed, and wa.shed 
in clean cold water. The resulting mass is ready for 
further treatment in the ordinary way. 


Grind into pulp. wi;li the aid of a cheap grinder, or 
the installation of a grinding box. as near as possilde 
to the upper edge of the stone, which can be filled with 
the waste. The so-called ••.sauer-kraut" can be reduc- 
ed in a suitable fibre machine to coarse wood pulp, 
which after passing through the refiner can be used for 
making paper and pasteboard. The ".sauer-kraut" can 
also be reduced to fibi-e in the edge mill, but the result 
is disproportionately small, compared with the expen- 
diture of power and time. In warm weather, with suit- 
able wind, the refuse may be dried for use as fuel un- 
der the boilers, and must be spread about to insure the 
p7-oj)er drying. 


P r I. P AND PAP E R .M A G A Z I N E 

•TnniKifv 1 .' 




By Jas. Lawlur, .Seey. ol' ('aiiadi;iu Furcstry Ass'ii. 

Forestry may be described as the art of growing trees 
for the use of man. In every country large areas will 
grow nothing else, profitably, but trees, and the aim of 
the forest engineer is to have those areas so liandled as 
to perpetually produce ei'ops of the timber most usefid 
to man. He does not ask or expect one acre of ai-able 

Forestry is imi^ortant to ('anaila. Tiie DnminiDn For- 
estry Branch estimates the value of our annual forest 
production at .$166,000,000. In the first forty years of 
Confederation the value of our exports of forest jiro- 
duets was one-third greater than the value of our ex- 
|)orts of farm products. Two-thirds of Canada is fit 
only to grow trees — trees producing the finest struc- 
tural timber in the world. The keeping of these forest 
areas covered with tree growth will not only mean a 
constant and increasing revenue from timber, but will 
protect our rivers, waterpowers and navigation, and 
maintain a game and health resort of the finest kind. 
Maine gets iflSiOOOjOOO per year from the tourists who 
come to her from other States, and her forests are in- 
significant in comparison with those of Canada. 

What is Canada doing to secure advantages? 
Absolutely, very little; relatively, comi)ared with a 
few years ago, very much. As eminent men have point- 
ed out most of the work in forestry on this continent 
has been done in very recent years. 

Look back a few years in Canada. Conservation was 
an unknown word. There was no idea of its need or 
l)Ossibility. The public conscience was not aroused as 
to the criminality of carelessness in handling fire in the 
woods. Fines or imprisonment for such acts were not 
to be thought of. Settlement was allowed, even en- 
couraged, in districts wholly unsuited to farming, as 
witness hundreds of abandoned farms all over Eastern 
Canada, and thousands more that will eventually be 
returned to timber. The idea that the sawmill and the 
lumberman should forever be factors in Canada's life, 
not a iia.ssing phase, had not yet dawned. 

Contrast that with the present state of things in 
1912. The Governments of Canada, Federal and Pro- 
vincial spent about one million dollar-s on the forests, 
chiefly for fire protection, and the lumbermen and the 
railway.s — popularly supposed to be the forest's pi-ime 
evils — about half a million dollars more. During the 
past season between 1,800 and 2,000 fire rangers have 
been patrolling our forests, and this number will be 
greatly increased in 191.3. In addition to what Govern- 
ments are doing timber-owners are cutting trails and 
erecting telephone lines through their limits. Some 
are experimenting in reforestation. The Dominion 
Forestry Branch in one part of its work, has in the 
past ten years given out twent.y million trees to prairie 
settlers. The Governments of Ontario and Quebec have 
begun the reforesting of abandoned farms. The Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway has converted all its locomotives 
from Field to Vancouver to oil-burners to protect the 
forest. This company has planted, for various pur- 
poses, millions of trees itself and is now oft'ering t(!2.400 
to encourage prairie farmers to do so. A number of 
forest engineers have been sent out by the Ihiiversity 
of Toronto and other universities. This ineans that 
technical men are now available and also that the pro- 

fession will soon be as well recognized as that of civil 
or mining engineer. Above all, public opinion, as evi- 
denced by discussion in the press and in Parliament, 
and by the work of organizations like the Commission 
of Conservation and the Canadian Forestry As.sociation, 
is being aroused. 

This seems a long list and yet we have only begun. 
As indica.ted. nearly every dollar is being spent for pro- 
tection of the old crop, scarcely anything for develoj)- 
ing the young growth. This is not a simple que.stion. 
If involves forest land tenure, forest policy, the separ- 
ation of arable from forest land by accurate surveys 
and the keeping of squatters or settlers out of the lat- 
ter, aiul above all the investment of large sums of 
money for long periods in order to grow these long- 
time crops and bring them to market with ever-increas- 
ing profit. Canada's expenditure on forest develop- 
ment is less than half a cent per acre. In British India 
it is 6 cents, in France 9 cents, and in Prussia $1.90 per 
acre. And these countries, where money is as "tight"' 
as it is in Canada, are making money from their forests 
in ]H-oportion to their investments. 

We need badly a forest i)roducts laboratory to tesit 
our different woods, point out their uses, methods of 
handling, and how they may be treated to last longer 
in use, and to give this information to home and foreign 

Canada, in fo!-esti"y, is a giant waking, but not yet 


In ll)0(i, K. A. Zavitz ln'gan a foreslry cami>aign in 
Ontario. His work consisted of an educational pr.:- 
paganda with a view of arousing interest in reatforest- 
ing and in getting small demonstration plots of trees 
set out on waste land thi'oughout the Province. The 
first plantings were made in Durham and Noi-folk coun- 
ties and some of the fii'es then set out ai'e man-high 

Since then the work has steadily expanded until last 
yeai' when some ;:!75,000 trees — mostly Scotch and white 
pine — were planted in various parts of the Province. 
All told, something like a million and a half trees have 
been started growing in the six years, the work cover- 
ing nearly 30 counties extending from Cornwall in the 
east to Essex in the west and to Manitoulin in the 

The trees for planting are supplied free of cost from 
the Provincial nursery in Norfolk. Am- farmer who 
will undertake to set out a l)lock according to direc- 
tions may secure a supply. There are comparatively 
few farms on which there is not a-t least a little broken 
land which is better adapted to the growing of timber 
than anything else. There are thousands of farms on 
which the growth of timber is a vital neces.sity. either 
for the holding of sand hills or the protection of 
streams. It would be an excellent thing if a thousand 
farmers, possessing such locations, could be induced to 
start a plantation next spring. It would be still better 
if township councils could be induced to take the ^vork 
up in a systematic way and to secure such areas as the 
sand plains north of Barrie for the growth of municipal 
forests. The work of planting is not arduous. If fur- 
rows are fii-st run a man and two snnu't lads can plant 
at the rate of 200 trees per hour. 

15. 1013 


A X 1 > f A P E R :\r A G A Z I X E 



Momn-al, .lau. Htli. 11113. 

The one topic of eouver.satiou amoug pulp and papei" 
men in this province is iu connection with the latest 
action of Sir Lomer Gouiu in removing the embargo 
from paper manufactured from pulp wood cut from 
Crown lauds. Like all acts by a Government, this lat- 
est act is alternately praised and condemned by paper 
men. The parties who have l)een tlirectly atTect(>d by the 
Government's change of policy are loutl iu tiieir praises 
of Sir Lonier (Jouin, and declare that the province will 
greatly benefit from his action. However, many pulp 
and paper men criticize the Government, and declare 
that the four companies which have received these spe- 
cial favors are no more entitled to special legislation 
than are the rest of them. In brief, the paper men in 
tlie province are divided into two (tamps over the mat- 

In conversation with a number of paper men, the fol- 
lowing views were expressed. One prominent manu- 
facturer, who is in close toucn with the iudustr\- both 
in Canada and the United States, said: 

"It is not very clear what Sir Lomer Gouin intends 
doing about the other interested parties, aiul until he 
nu)kes some announcement, it would be unfair to cri- 
ticize. 1 might say. however, that I am at a loss to un- 
derstand why he did this, as it is contrary to the pro- 
gramme which he mapped out some two or three years 
ago. You will also remember that at the time the reci- 
procity negotiations were pending, he refused to open 
up the que.stion or be a party to any reciprocal meas- 
ures iu so far a.s this province was concerned. It has 
been said that he was influenced by the action of the 
British Columbia Government, which granted special 
favoi-s to the Powell River Pulp & Lumber Company, 
l)ut this example has been before him for some time, 
and it is inconceivable to think that he was suddenly 
influenced by the action uf the British Columbia Gov- 
ernment. The legislation is bound to cause a good deal 
of jealousy and ill-feeling among paper-makers, as it 
discriminates against some of the United States hold- 
ers of limits. While it is believed that Sir Lomer Gouin 
only gave this concession to companies making paper 
in the province, there are a number of other companies 
which in a sense should be included in this special legis- 
lation. Some of the four companies make other pro- 
ducts besides paper, and yet companies such as the 
Union Bag, International Paper Company, etc., who 
make ground wood and kraft paper, are not included 
in the favored list. I do not see how the Government 
can make "flesh of one and fish of another' and avoid 
criticism. I am under the impression, however, that 
if others ajjpeal for it. they may have similar conces- 
sions gi-anted to them. 

"Sir Lomer Gouin has been extremely fair to the 
business interests of this province, and has acted 
throughout witii the very l)est judgment, and undoubt- 
edly has had some good reasons for doing what he has 
clone. One point I do not like is that it will be hailed 
l)y the Americans as a sign of weakness, and will lead 
to similar agitations in Ontario. New Brunswick and 
other places. Another point is that this action was 
taken at a time when the Democratic party were mak- 
ing alterations in the tarift". To me it would have looked 
the part of wisdom to have waited and seen what ac- 
tion the United States Government would take before 
doing anything ourselves. As it is now, there will 
probably he a revision of schedule 2. In brief, it looks 
as if the Government's action was the result of pressure 
brought to beai- upon them l)y interests who considered 
their owii personal gains and did not fully consider the 

interests of the whole province, I am also firmlj' con- 
vinced that a good deal of jealousy and bitterness will 
be felt l)y companies which have not been so fav- 
ored. As long as every company was treated alike, 
none of them could complain. Now that four have re- 
ceived special favors, the remainder are likely to com- 
plain bitterly. However, Sir Lomer Gouin maj^ have 
explanations which will clear up the situation some- 
what. Until these are made, it is only fair that severe 
criticism be withheld." 

Mr. J. N. Greenshields, head of the Wayagamack 
Company, one of those favored by the special legislation, 
is stronglj^ of the opinion that the change of policy 
will immeasurably benefit the paper manufacturers in 
this province. "It means that we will get our paper 
iuto the United States duty free, and by avoiding this 
handicap of $5.75 per ton there will be just that much 
more profit. It will Ije a great stimulus to the indus- 

Mr. "William Price, head of Price Bros., Limited, an- 
other of the favored companies, is of the opinion that 
it will increase the amount of money left in the pro- 
vince by paper men by at least $1,000,000 per year. 
"The removal of the duty will prove a big factor in the 
manufacture of paper. The companies affected by the 
legislation will greatly benefit, and the result will be 
that the industry will make great strides." 

Sir William Van Home's Grand Falls Company, in 
New Bi'unswick, will commence the erection of their 
pulp and paper mills in the early spring. The cost of 
erecting these plants and also the power plant, which 
the company are planning to install, will cost in the 
neighborhood of $3,000,000. The pulp and paper plant 
will be built in two unit.s, and when completed will 
give employment to 2.500 men. The last formalities 
in connection with the deposit of $60,000 with the Pro 
vincial Government for the site have just been completed 
and the agreement signed, the plans approved of and 
everything made ready for the commencement of the 
work in the early spring. 

The Laurentide Company recently purchased valu- 
able water rights on the St. Maurice river from the 
Canada Iron Corporation. These water powers will 
enable the Laurentide Company to develop 80.000 h.p.. 
sufficient to enable them to dispose of a large amount 
for commercial purposes. 

Mr. A. Lamont, of the Transportation Building, 
Montreal, has sold 116 square miles of spruce forest 
suitable for pulp wood on the southwest coast of Lab- 
rador to a syndicate of London, England, capitalists. 
The amount involved in the tran.saction. it is under- 
stood, was between $200,000 and $300,000. 

The Honorable S. N. Parent. Chairman of the Quebec 
Waterways Commission, which ha,s recently had its 
name changed to the Quebec Streams Commission, and 
has been invested with the powers of a corporation, in 
order to carry out its scheme of constructing a large 
storage reservoir on the upper St. Maurice, for the pur- 
pose of regulating the flow of that river for generating 
electricity, is in Quebec in connection with this work. 
The area of the proposed reservoir will be more than 
300 square miles, and the amount of water to be stored 
will be about 160 billion cubic feet. It will drain a 
basin of more than sixteen thousand .square miles in 
area, and give a regular flow of 18.000 cubic feet per 
second in Shawinigan and other places. 

Lumbermen throughout the province are anxious for 
snow and cold weather. Up to the present time the 
winter has been so mild and the snowfalls so slight, 
that lumbering operations have been seriously delayed. 
Unless colder weather sets iu and more snow falls, the 



January 15, 1913 

cut of luinher this ywir will be c-onsiderably less than 
if was a year ago. 

The South Shore Paper Company, of .Montreal, re- 
cently incorporated with a capital of $4,000,000. will, 
it is 'said shortly be eoiuraencing building operations 
at Drui.imondville. Que. It is said that Mr. O'Brien, 
the Cobalt millionaire, is behind this company, and that 
they will develop water power at Drumniondville and 
establish a ground wood pulp mill. They claim 
to have an abundant supply of water and sufficient 
wood to keep them going for a great many years. 

J. C. R. 


Ottawa. (»nt.. Janiniry 14. 

The recent snowfall, coming after a month of unsea- 
soiiablv mild weather, was hailed with joy by lumber- 
men in the Ottawa Valley. On account of the absence 
of snow and ice on the ground, the logs could not be got 
out of the woods and were piled in heaps all over the 
limits awaiting hauling to the rivers. As a result, a 
number of firms cutting pulp wood and other varieties 
of lumber have been losing money. A .scarcity of 
horses, too, is somewhat retarding work in the limits, 
lumbermen's agents reporting that in many cases they 
have been able to fill only half of their orders. 

The Dominion Railway Coinmi.s..sion has entered into 
a co-operative arrangement with Quebec Province with 
regard t(> the prevention of tire along railway lines. 
Such arrangements exist between the Commission and 
the Western Provinces, and will shortly be extended to 
Ontario, it is understood. For the control of the fire 
situation along lines having Dominion charters, the new 
agreement provides for the establishment of special 
patrols by the railway companies Ahe reporting and ex- 
tinguishing of fires by railway employees and the regu- 
lation of the burning of inflammable material along 
rights-of-way during the fire season. 

Of great interest to inili) and ])aper men is a report 
on two of the great northern rivers of Canada just 
made to the Conservation Comnii.ssion by its hydro- 
electric engineer, Mr. L. 6. Dennis, who will shortly 
issue a report on the Western Water Powers of Canada. 
Mr. Dennis states that the raw material for the pulp 
and lumber industries lies so close at hand to the Slave 
and Peace Rivers, the two of which he speaks, as to 
make the development of their power of great import- 
ance. The volume of water in the Fort Smith rapids of 
the Slave River is so great as to afford a total power 
available during the navigation season. May to Novem- 
ber, of 1,000.000 horse power. The total minimum power 
available during the open sea.son from the Peace River 
Mr. Dennis estimates at 400,000 H. P. Its development 
for water power purposes, he states, would involve some 
intricaite proMeiiLS, but to compensate for this its sit- 
uation near the raw material for pulp and lumber in- 
dustries must be considei'ed. 

Among the trade inquiries in the latest bulletin of the 
Trade and Commerce r)ef)artment is one from an United 
States firm which desires to obtain supplies of wrap- 
ping, bag. news, writing and toilet paper, and is willing 
to place large contracts. Another is from a Bavbadoes 
commission merchant, who invites correspondence from 
Canadian paper manufacturers. 

Prominent pulp and paper men of Ottawa have fig- 
ured largely in the recent municipal election campaign 
as a result of which Mr. J. A. Ellis, M.L.A., formerly 

Secretary of the Municipal Electric Department, has 
been elected :\Iavor of Ottawa. It was through the 
suggestion of Mr. J. R. Booth that Mr. Ellis was per- 
suaded to come out into the field for the Mayoralty. 
Mr. Booth, with whom was associated Senator W. C. 
Edwards, of the lumber company of that name, claimed 
that Mr. Ellis was the man who was needed to 
straighten out civic affairs from the mess they had re- 
solved themselves into, and as the largest ratepayer in 
the city his opinion naturally had a good deal of 

An order issued recently by the Department of Cus- 
toms forbade the importation from the New England 
States ofall kinds of trees with the bark on. The object of 
the prohibition is to prevent the spreading into this coun- 
try of the gypsy moth. If an order from the New Eng- 
land forestry authorities is attached to the trees stat- 
ing there is no danger of moths, however, they will be 
allowed in. 

The Beaver Board Co., recently established at Beaver- 
dale, outside of Hull, Que., expects to commence opera- 
tions, it is announced, in March. 

The saw mills and timber and pulp wood limits at 
Opeongo. Ont., formerly owned by Cameron & Co., of 
Ottawa, have been bought by the Dennis Canadian Co., 
of Whitney. Out. 

Of great interest to shippers of pulj) and paper was 
a statement put in at the re-opening of the Western 
freight rates inquiry before the Dominion Railway 
Commis.sion last week in regard to the discrimination 
which exi.sts in railway rates on news print to Wes*^ern 
points as compared with those nearer east. At a former 
session of the inquiry the C.P.R. put in exhibits to prove 
that among other commodities, rates en pulp and paper 
were lower on Canadian railroads than on United 
States lines for the same disitances. and especially with 
regard to longer distances. 

At this latest session, however, 'Mr. il. K. Cowan, 
K.C., counsel for Saskatchewan and Alberta, tiled an 
exhibit which showed the rates of the C.P.R. on news 
print, carloads, all rail, from Shawinigan Falls, Que., to 
various (J.P.R. stations west of Port Ai-thur. It indi- 
cated that whereas the rate per ton per mile i the aver- 
age rate) from Shawinigan Falls to Winnipeg, was only 
.794. the rate to Edmonton. Alta.. almost twice the dis- 
tance, was 1.024. According to the usual principles of 
ra.te making, the longer the shipment tlie lower the 
mileage rate, or otherwise long shipi-ents would be 
prohibitive. With regard to news prirt moving West, 
however, this jirinciple does not oTitain; in other wirds, 
discrimination exisits points west of Winnipeg, 
as compared with poin.ts east of it. as regards shipments 
from eastern centres. 

This incongruity was explained by the C.P.R. to be 
due to the fact that the rate to Winnipeg had been 
lowered to meet Wisconsin competition. Mv. Cowan's 
exhibit showed the following rates per ton per mile 
from Shawinigan Falls to dift'erent Western points: 
To Winnipeg. .794 cents; to Regina, Sask., 1.016; to 
^loose Jaw. Sask., 1.074: to Saskatoon. Sask.. 1.101; to 
Medicine Hat. Alta.. 1.121; to Lcthbridge. Alta.. 1.115; 
to Calgary. Alta.. 1.112; to Edmonton. Alta., 1.024. 
From this it will be seen that Jledieine Hat, Alta.. al- 
though 2.193 miles from Shawinigan Falls, as compared 
with Winnipeg's 1.536. or Regina 's 1.894, has to pay a 
greater niileaare rate. 


Jauuai-y 15, 1913 PULP AN D P A P E R JI A G A Z I N E 81 


1>.\ I . K I )in^haus. gy bleaching mechauieal wood pulp, not ouly is the 

Si)(H-ially Translated fur Pulp and Pa[)cr :Magazint'. whiteness of the pnlp improved, but the formation of 

fungi during storage is prevented. As a bleaching 

Bulky paper in considerable quantities is used especi- ,,^ent onlv sodium liisulphite has proved satisfactory, 

ally for the printing of engravings. Tn the following 'pji^ pulp'saturated with it becomes whiter for about 

are given .some technical indications as to the manu- a fortnight, then retains its degree of whiteness for a 

facture of those thick and light papers, generally time and afterwards becomes slowly somewhat greyer, 

known as "featherweight" papers. The principal pro- when the demand is small it suffices to brush each 

perties of these papers are. as indicated by their name, hoai-j uniformly with a brush dipped into bisulphite 

their thickness and lightness, and. besides, they must solution, to tie "them together and to pile the packets 

of course easily take the ink. thus obtained in heaps. 

Tliere are two main kinds of luilky papers: one made 'phe workman must so regulate the quantity of the 

from rag.s, and one from cellulose. For the tirst grade bisulphite by trial that he uses two and a half gallons 

the following mixture may be used: ^ of l)isulphite per ton of pulp. When the demand for 

I'ercent. |)leached pulp is larger a wooden box lined with sheet 

Light bleached cotton rags, digested with lime for |,.;,(1 is arranged over the board-macliine. the lead lin- 

6 hours, under a pressure of 4.") lbs .■)(! j^g hanging over on one side. A strip of felt 16 inches 

Bleached cotton waste spinnings, digested with 20 broad is placed in the channel ; the one the longitudinal 

per cent, of lime and 1 per cent, of caustic soda gi^e of the strip of felt is cut notched and this side is 

for 10 hours, under a pressure of 7.") lb 20 allowed to hang about 4 inches over the lip of lead. 

White paper refuse without ground wood pulp, r.- Xow. if bisuplhite solution diluted in the ratio 1.3 is 

fined in a Funster apparatus 20 poured into the tank the solution drops uniformly on to 

Refuse, size. No fillers 10 the wood pulp. The size rolls of the board machine 

Indanthren Patent in paste, and red for cotton from f ^""1*1 "O^ be of iron but of wood or copper. In order 

Badische. Anilin & Sodafabrik are used to obtain the \^ increase the quantity ot the bisulphite which is to 

rio-ht t'nee drop, the strip of felt may be allowed to hang rather 

The beater knives ought to be sharp. Speed of the further out of the tank, or a second or third strip may 

cylinder 120 r.p.m. The beating and washing should ^'^ employed, or the bisulphite solution may be u«ed 

not be hastened^ A size, rich in free rosin, preferably ^°Jf j;/^; to accelerate bleaching, liehind the tank 

prepared with Arledters emulsiher should he used. . ^ , ., , , , i i -^i, „ii„„,„ 

The kind of featherweight paper most called for is JUst described a second may be arranged which allocs 

made from cellulose. Tlie best gi-ade is composed thus : dilute sulphuric acid to drop on to the P'^^- J^e con- 

^ ^ sumption ot sulphuric acid must be so regulated that 4» 

lercent. ^^^ ^^ q^ ^.^^ (concentrated) are used per ton wet 

Light, lileached cotton rags, as above 20 „ieehanical wood pulp. Bleached pulp is then obtained 

Poplar, bleached by electricity 30 .^jter two days- it is disadvantageous that an annoying 

Pine cellulose, Ritter-Kellner, bleached by electric- ^ ^^^^^. ^f sulphurous acid is produced, that the process is 

'*>' "^ rather expensive, and that sulphui-ic acid must be 

Bleached alpha 20 jjaudied carefully. Sulphuric acid is, therefore, em- 
Refuse, size. No mineral loading 10 pioyed only when it is wished to obtain bleached pulp 

ro'ors: ("yananthrol RB Patent; Bordeaux im>w P; very cpiiekiy. — La Papeterie. 
from Badische Co. 

The cotton rags are -Vi ground ami tlien added to the 

cellulose. The alpha is often substituted by refuse 

paper, free from ground wood pulp. YIELD OF PULP FROM PINE. 
The following remarks refer to the treatment in the 

ami on the paper machine and apply to both The question w:is asked in the ZentiMlhlatf as to how 

grade>;: much dry pulp ought to be yielded by a cubic metre of 

Refining.— The refiner (Uight to have rather sharp pine wood. H. Po.stl, of Nurnberg, says that the cubic 

knives, preferably of bronze. Since .some time, how- metre weighs on the average 862 kg. fresh cut. and 469 

ever, a combination of steel and bronze is used. The kg. quite dry, and should give 340 kg ot white or SW 

outside knives in ea.^h group are of steel and the other kg. of brown pulp. Jenensus puts the yield at trom 

of bronze, both the rotary and the stationary. 300 to 350 kg. Still higher figures. 400 kg. and up- 

It is. however, better to have all knives of bronze, but ward, are given by E. N. and Sehleiterei praxis; tmt it 

the outside knives must then be double as thick as the is clear that much must depend on the nature ot the 

inside ones. This saves the fibres and the knives them- wood and whether it is ground coarse or fine, i.e., what 

selves. The quality will be improved, if the pulp is amount of wa.ste in grinding. Nevertheles-s, the above 

passed tbrnugh a conical refiner. data may perhaps be u.seful. They show at least that 

Tj TUT u- ij. ■ r. ,, ^ - -^ , the absolutely dry wood contains an overwhelming per- 

Paper Machine. — It is verv favorable to use agitators ^"^ " '"" "'^ • ,•' 

before the pulp arrives on tlie wires, especially of spiral centage ot cellulose, 
form. The suction boxes should only have a weak 
suction. l)ut there should be many of them. ]Millspaugh's 
suetimi boxes are not s\iitable for this specialty. The 

wet-presses and couch rolls should give as little pres- Special attention is called U> the advertisement ()n 

sure as po.ssible, and the first dryers should not be very page 73 of pulpwood limits for sale in the Province 

warm. The .shaking of the wire should be verv strong of Quebec. Large tracts in good accessible localities 

and the wii-e horizontal with preferably a small inclina- are rare nowadays, and tins one may appeal to one or 

tion towards the A light dandy-roll should another of our large pulp and paper nianiila.-turum enn- 

be used and the machine run slowly. cerns. 



January ]5. IDl^ 


The Biordoii Pajier I'o. .Iccbircd :i (|ii:irtcrl.v •liviilciicl of 1-, 
jior cent, on its prpferrcd stuck. 

The New Ontario Colonization Co. will erect a grouml wooil 
mill in northern Ontario next siinnner. 

.T. Hanbnry & Co. have recently incorporated in A^anconvcr, 
B.C., with $1,200,000 capital to erect a jiaper mill. 

The bnsiness of the Tnllan P;tper Stock Co., in Winnipcj;, 
will in future be carrieil on in tlie name of .1. I'ullan. 

The Holland Taper Co. has purchased premises on St. I'aul 
Street, Montreal, on wliich they Jiropose to erect a new ware- 

The Northern Island Pulp Wood Co. is nefjotiating with Port 
Arthur City Council for the establishment of a pulji and jiaper 
mill to cost $750,0110. 

Large quantities of ]iulp wood are being shipped from 
Anticosti Island. The steamer "Thyra Menier" recently took 
805 cords for the International Paper Co. The "Norhilda" also 
took a loail of over 700 cords to Portlaml, ile. 

Mr. .1. K. Brist(d, late Dominion apjjraiser at Ottawa, has 
been appointed manager of the tariff branch of the Canadian 
Manufacturers' Association, in succession to Mr. E. W. Bread- 
ner, who has re-entered the Customs Department. 

The Peale-Coryell Lumber Co., 200 Fifth Avenue, New York, 
have recently purchased the P.aton hnnber limits on the Gaspe 
coast. During next summer a large sulphite plant will be 
erecteil; meantime they are in the market to sell rossed woods. 

Mr. John E. Barber, the veteran paper manufacturer, has, 
we are glad to hear, improved considerably in health during the 
last month. His son, Capt. E. E., late manager of the Canada 
Coating Mills, Georgetown, has gone on a prolonged trip to 
Southern Europe. 

The Bainy Lake Pulp Wood Co. has been organized at Fort 
Frances, Ont., for the purpose of buying Jiulp wood ami timber 
of all kinds direct from the settlers. 

Two large 186-inch paper niaidiines are now lieing built by 
the Bagley Sewall Com]iany, of Watertown, N.Y., for the Fort 
Frances Paper Companj', Fort Frances. 

According to latest report, the first pulp mill to be ojieraterl 
in Canada by natural gas will be at Athabasca Landing. The 
country is said to be well stocked with pulp wood. 

Mr. Sweezey, Forest Engineer, Queliec, has recently returned 
from an extended tour in the West, where his investigations 
brought him as far north as th Peace Elver and other jiarts of 

The Valley Ijumber Co., Bed Deer, Alt:»., has been reorgan- 
ized with Hon. W. ir. Cushing, M.P., as president. Valuable 
timVier liiriits, largely spruce, have been acquired, ami .a new 
mill will be built. 

The question whether certain European nations under the 
favored nations treaties are eiititleil to free entry into the 
Puited States for their pul]i and paper came uji for argument 
beginning 13th inst. 

The Alberta and Saskatchewan Straw Paper Products, Ltd., 
are building plants at Calgary, Moose Jaw, and Medicine Hat. 
These are the interests of Mr. J. A. Barton and C. F. Schaus, 
referred to in last issue. 

Mr. M. J. O'Brien, Benfrew, Out., who has recently been 
considering building a new mill in Haileybury, Ont., is now in 
the market to sell his timber and pulp limits in that vicinity 
rather than to build a mill. 

The Abitibi Pulp & Paper Mills, Ltd.. expcds to 1 
100-ton ground wood mill in operation at Iroquois Falls 
within a year. The proposed newsprint mill, however, is sc 
likely to be built for some years. 

, Ont., 


The Cedar Bapiils Power (_'o., Montreal, lias been granted 
authority to increase its capital from $10,000,000 to $15,000,000. 
The step is regarded as having some connection with the talked- 
of closer union of interests between Montreal Power, Shawini- 
gan and the first-named company. 

It is said th;»t the Ontario Paper Co., Thorold, has contracted 
for a supply of pulp wood for the next two years from Henri 
Menier, of Anticosti Island. The company 's newsprint mill is 
expected to begin operations next May. Warren Curtis, Jr., is 
superintending erection of machinery. 

The Stadacona Hydraulic Co. exjiects to have the develop- 
ment of Seven Falls, near Quebec City, completed ready for 
suppily of power hj July next. The 70 ft. dam is already com- 
plete. We understand that the Bayless Pulp & Paper Co. will 
take 4,000 h.p., and the remaining 5,000 h.p. will be taken br- 
other enterprises. 

We understand that Mr. A. E. Millington, former!}- general 
manager of the Spanish Biver Pulp & Paper Co., has been made 
Western manager of the Ocean Falls, B.C., lumber and pulp 
mills. This compiany is to be reorganized. Mr. A. B. Martin, 
the resident manager, will retain that position. Mr. Hamilton 
Benn. of London, Eng., is at the head of'a syndicate which is 
taking the enterprise over. 

The Beaver Board Co. 's large new factory near Ottawa is 
approaching completion, and manufacturing is expected to begin 
early in March. The factory is 70 by 500 ft. with a jiower 
house 40 by 80 ft. The output contemplated is 250,000 square ft. 
of beaver board dailj'. A model settlement will be built up for 
the company's workmen. The company has been for the past 
few months carrying on operations at J. E. Booth's mill. 

We are glad to be informed by the Dryden Timber iSc Power 
Co., litd., Dryden, Out., that the recent fire at their premises 
w.-is not nearly so serious as at first reported. In fact, it was 
confined to some wooden form work erected for the construction 
of reinforced concrete work in connection with the power house, 
and the entire loss was only about $2,000. The fire did not 
seriously delay the company, who expect to begin operations at 
the new inill early next nu)ntli. 

•Janu.irv 1"), lOlo 

r AND I'Al'KK :\IA(iAZI.\E 


Mr. J. A. De <Jew, ehemit-al engineer of Montreal, has just 
heen appointed consulting chemist for the Lake Superior Paper 
Co., Sault Ste. Marie. We congratulate this company on its 
broa<l policy of mill operation ou a scientific basis, which cannot 
hut give enormous financial results in the operations of any 
|il:int. The Lake Superior Paper Co. has always been among 
the foremost in this regard. Their third machine ran on an 
-Xmas present sheet. The fourth lS6inch machine will operate 
ihiring this month. 

The News Pulp & Paper Co., of St. Eaymond, Que., has com- 
pleted a very prosperous season, in spite of the spring loss of 
.$10,000 worth of logs. They are seriously thinking of further 
extensions to their plant. 

as foresters, dealers in and manufacturers of wood pulp, paper, 
card board, mill board, etc. 

The Brantford Courier, Ltd., Brantford, Out.; capital 
$100,000. To take over the printing and pviblishing business 
of Eeville Bros., in Brantford, and to acquire and publish 
newspapers, do business as printers, lithographers, engravers, 

R. .L Dowd Knife Works, Beloit, Wis., is licensed to carry 
on business in British Columbia; capital $50,000. They are 
manufacturers of all kinds of machine knives, tools, etc. Mac- 
kenzie Matheson, barrister, Vancouver, is the company's 

We regret to learn of the death of Dr. .\iU)lph I'liarr, the 
organizer and head of the paper makers' department of the 
Techuische Hochschule at Darmstailt. Germany. On December 
nth, which was his 61st birthday, he lectured and attended to 
his usual duties, but during the following night was seized with 
heart failure resulting in his unexpected and lamented death. 
Dr. Pharr was well known among the paper makers of Germany 
.ind was a valued contributor to trade journals. He was also 
the author of a standard work on turbine water wheels. 

The East Canada Power anil I'ulp Co., Murray Bay, t^ue., 
now in liquidation, showed total liabilities in its first annual 
statement to be $.3,18.5,057, of which $;<,000,OOU were capital 
stock and bonds. Current liabilities included accounts payable, 
$78,664; bills payable, $30,662; accrued wages, $4,778, bond inter- 
est outstanding, $652; bond interest accrued on $1,500,000 for 4 
months at 6 per cent., $30,000; bank loan,_ $45,299, making a 
total of $185,057 current liabilities. Assets totalled $3,271,439, 
including $3,002,751 for timber limits, river improvements, etc., 
and stock and bonds in other companies $78,053, making a total 
of $3,080,804. Current assets totalling $-190,634 included bills 
receivable, .$35,096; cash, $85,013; .stock, logs and pulp wood, 
$66,228. The profit and loss account showed a surplus of $86,- 
382, niaile from operations on lumber. It had been calculated 
to turn out 120 tons of pulp per day, but diflieulties with the 
w.iter supply prevented this, and profits were consequently 
much smaller than anticipated with the result that the bond 
interest coubl not be met. 


Crossing Lumber Co., Miuaki, Out.; capital iJ<2l)O,000. To 
manufacture lumber and pulp. A. Stewart, H. R. Patriarche, 
D. H. I'ooper, all of Winnipeg. 

Middle West Lumber Co., Ltd., A'ancouvcr; capital $100,000. 
To do business as foresters, timber merchants, manufacturers of 
wood pulp, make and deal in paper and products of the same. 

Trent Mfg. Co., Trenton, Ont.: capital $40,000. To manufac- 
ture egg fillers, egg cartons, milk bottles, drinking cups and 
pails, etc. It will take over the plant of the Trent Mfg. Co. 

Abitibi Pulp iSc Paper Co., Ltd., incorporated nnrlcr Dominion 
laws, has been authorized to do business in the Province of 
Ontario, jiroviiled it does not use a sum larger than $1,750,000. 

Garnet Creek and Seymour River Lumber Co., Toronto; 
capital $250,000. To purchase timber limits, deal in all kinds of 
wood, buy and sell pulp and paper, eti-. IT. L. Symes, C. .1. 
Ballautine, Toronto. 

Canadian Barker Co., Ltd., Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.; capital 
$40,000. To manufacture and sell wood working, paper making 
and other machinery. |)articularly pulp wood barkers on the line 
of the inventions of Alex. Roberts, A. Libert, and F. Libert. 
Provisional directors, E. H. Manger, H. B. Cleereman, and S. H. 
Cady, of Green Bay, Wis. 


A ver\' iuterestiiig question iu regard to tlie relative 
value of forests and sheep grazing was raised in the evi- 
dence taken a few .vears ago by a committee of the Board of Agriculture to inquire into British 
forestry. The in population makes the ques- 
tion of its future support one of vital importance, and 
the relative value of the ditt'erent uses of land in their 
ability to support population is a valuable index as to 
the direction in which development of the use of land 
should be directed. 

From the evidence of several witnesses and that ob- 
tained at previous investigations it was determined 
that it took from one to six acres of the land usually 
employed for sheep grazing in Scotland to support one 
sheep and the committee was of opinion that five acres 
would be about the average. The land used for sheep 
grazing is high, broken land and some of it is swampy 
and unproductive of feed. The number of sheep which 
one shepherd could look after was considered as about 
500. so that for the stock necessary to the support of 
one shepherd and his family 2,500 acres would be re- 

On the other hand, the evidence brought out in re- 
gard to the number of people supported by a forest on 
such lands showed that 100 acres of forest would be 
the average per man emplo.ved, so that the 2.500 acres 
required to .support one shepherd and his fainil.v would 
support 25 woodmen and their families. 

This is a comparison of the two uses of the land in a 
coinitr.v where each is most highly developed, and 
shows tluur final relative possibilities as supporters of 
population on lands that are rough and elevated. 

Quatsino Timbi 
To purchase timbe 

r Co., Ltd., Victoria, B.C.. capital $75,000. 
licenses, build saw mills, carrv on business 


The annual business meeting of the Canadian Fores- 
ti-y Association will be held at the Board of Trade 
7-oonis. Ottawa, ou February 5th at 11 a.m. It will be 
devoted to a re\'iew of the business of the past year, 
arranging for the work of the coming year, passing 
of accoiuits. election of officers, etc. Mr. Thos. South- 
worth will move that the publication of the Canadian 
Forestry Journal be discontiniunl. and that the money 
now spent on that be sjient extending the issuing of 
bulletins to newspapers and other forms of publicity. 



January 15, 1013 


A NEW STEEL BELT CONVEYOR. .jiialitics wliifh the belts more <;eiier:!lly in use, namely (balata, 

cotton or rubber) do not have, more especially when handling 

Various inipriivements in ini'ehaiiical devii-es for handling rouj.'h iiiati'rials. Tlie belts are made of the finest grade Swed- 

all kinds of materials ha\o been niaile from time to time, but ish ste(d rolled into a thin hard flexible band, having a thii-k- 

n(jne of tliem possess the extreme simplicity and durability of ness of -II or 21 wire irauf^e. They are made in lengths of 830 

the steel belts recently |jut on the market by the Canadian feet and in wiilths id' from S-inch to 16-ineh. They can be 

Cut No. 1— Shows ;i steel belt whicli is 16 inches wide, 270 feet 
long, 20 wire gauge at the Saudviken Works. 

Boving Comi)any, Limited, H;4 Bay Street, Toronto. Where rcMlily rivetted together so as to give any required length, 
regular hydraulic transportation is required endless chains or Where a greater capacity is required than that given by one 
belts have usually been employed. They, however, possess dis- Itidnch belt, two can be placed side by side. Steel belts are 
advantages owing to their great weight and their inability to siiecially ailajdeil for various kinds of conveyors in pulp mills, 

and they have the following advantages: 
Cheapness — The belt are considerably cheaper than cotton 

Durability — The belts will last for several years without wear- 
ing out. 

Cut No. 2 — Shows a 

ir for coal with a scraping off de- gut No. 3— Shows>|.orting and unloading of sacks. 

discharge material at any }ioiut of the track, besides requiring Small Power Consumption — Take much less power than any 

con.siderable more power t ■ o|>er;ite. The sleel belts eliminate other form of belt. 

all these disadvantages, and, :it the same time, possess wearing The Belts Can Be Loaded— Nearer to the edge than cotton belts. 

Jamiarv 15. 1913 



In Sandviken, Sweden, where the steel belts are manufac- 
tured, there has been installed a complete testing station for 
testing the belts and the various types of materials whieh can 
be transported. 

They are especially suit."jl)le for wood logs, planks, wood 
chips, sand and iron ore, coal, charcoal, etc., etc. The design 
of the conveyor is somewhat different from the design of the 
ordinar}' cotton belt type, and each case has to be carefully 
studied on the spot. 

Pulp mills, which often have large repairing shops, can 

Cut No. i — Shows transporting sand at an angle of 2.'? degrees. 

usually manufacture all the parts required for the conveyors 
themselves, and tlie following general description gives the 
main details: 

The end pulleys arc made with cast iron centres covered 
with wood and a thin sheet of rubber. The diameter of these 
pulleys should not be less than 40-inch, preferably 48-inch, and 
the width a little greater than the width of the belt. One of 
these end pulleys should be provided with a tigntcning device 
for adjusting the tension on the steel belt. 

The bearing pulleys are made of woodof about 12 inches in 

The speed of the belt can be adjusted so as to sui'; existing 
requirements. As high a speed as 10 ft. per second has beeu 
used, V)ut a higher speed will very seldom be of any use owing 
to the difficulty of loading the material on to the belt at this 
high speed. 

One would imagine owing to the surface of the steel 
belt being so smooth that materials would slip and the conveyor 
capacity would be very small. This, however, is not the case, 

which is proved by the fact that sand is transported at an 
angle of 23 degrees. 

They are unaffected by rust, which is clearly demonstrated by 
the fact that many of them have been working in the open 
without any protection for a considerable number of years and 
are to-day running as good as when installed. 



^A Ik. a^ 

fZ^^wf"!^^^- ^ 

Cut No. 6— Shows a view of the Swedish iron works wJiere the belts are manufactured. 


A large dam, perhaps the largest in the world, is likely to 
be erected across the upper portion of the St. Maurice River, 
Quebec, in accordance with the recommendations of the Water- 
ways Commission, of which Hon. T. X. Parent is chairman. 
Thousands of dollars have been annually lost by pajier and lum- 
ber companies on account of low water or of unevenness in its 
flow. A dam and storage reservoirs, such as are proposed, 
woulil do much to relieve this state of things. Records made at 
Shawinignn indicate a fluctuation in the flow of the river from 
0,00U to 200,000 cubic feet per second, so it is evident what an 
.iniount of equalization would be in order. The Commission pro- 
poses the damming of the St. Maurice at La Loutre Rapids, 

which, it is claimed, would provide an equable flow throughout 
the year of 18,000 cubic feet per second. The estimated cost is 

Erratum. — Tn the editorial in last issue on "Technical Edu- 
cation in the Paper Mill," the name of the gentleman who has 
been prominent in bringing paper mill education before the 
Royal Commission should have been given as Mr. T. Linsey 
Crossley, of Montreal, who has spent considerable time and 
energy in trying to bring this matter to a head. 



M A (J A Z I N I'] 

J;iiiu;ir\' I-"). ^'^]'^ 


'l'..r,iiit,., .human- ]',. liU:!. 

While the nut|.ut nf m'wsiiririt liiis 1 ii vfra.lily iiicrpasiiiji, 

Iho |iro(liii-t sii far lias ajiparently Ih'cm alili'. witlidut serious 
(lillic-ulty, to obtain n footing tlirougli tlir imrra-cl ili'iiian.l 
from thp West and from the TTuited States. 'I'liere was a slif^ht 
easing oft' of prices late last year, liut this now seems to have 
disappeared. Many id' the mills have orders on hand for the 
entire year for a large proportion of their (nit|iut. 

Book and writing papers are in aeti\e drn]aiid .and ruinnrs 
.are heard of eoniing advances, though nothing ollici.-tl hceu 
announced. .Manilas are in somewhat better demand. Bags 
.are holding their position fairly well. In the ground wood 
market there is little (diaiige and not mncdi doing. 

High w.atir conditions in the Plasterii States 

prevented the usual heavy demand from that 

((uarter, .and. as a result, Canailian mills have piled heavily and 
now have large stocks on hand. There has been no actual slump 
in prices, however, .is it is believeil the demand will yet improxe. 
Sulphite is stronger and higher in price than ever, the explosion 
i.t the Laurentide mill having interfered with the usual supply 
from that quarter, the demand being very heavy in any case. 

Quotations (f.o.b., Toronto), for ]>.aper, jnilp and paper stock 
are as follows: 


News (rolls) ^42 to i|i4.5, ai-.-ording to .piantity. 

News (sheet) $4.") to ^'iU. a. 'cording to (piatitity. 

Book papers (carload) No. :i, 4i-_.c. to 4''|C. 

Book paper (broken lots) No. o, 4i-jc. to 4-'ic. 

Book papers (carload) No. 2, 4'-:ic. 

Book papers (broken lots) No. 2, 'i'-_.r. to o-i^e. 

Book papers (carload) No. 1, ^'wc. to (^\ic. 

Book papers (broken lots) No. 1, ri'V4c. '> 

Writings 4%c. to TVoc. 

Bonds, 8c. to 18c. 

Fibre, 3%e. to 4c. 

Manilla B., 3c. to .■M-jc 

Manilla No. 2, HVi.i 
Manilla No. 1, S'ric 
Kraft, 4c. to 4%c. 

to a%c 
to 414 c 


lill), .$15 to ^]ll 

({round wood (at 

Sulphite (unbleached), $4.5 to .+47, delivered 
Sulphite (unbleaeherl), $47 to $49, delivered in 
Sulphite (bleached), $()0, delivered in Canaila. 
Sulphite (bleached), $62, delivered in Tnitcl 

Paper Stock. 
"Waste paper, $9 to -tin. 
No. 1 hard shavings, .$i.S.5. 
No. 1 soft white shavings, $1..SU to $1.S.5. 
Mixed shavings, 60c. 
White blanks, $1.00. 
Ledger, $1.1.5 to $1.20. 
No. 1 book stock, s.5i-. to 9l)c. 
No. 2 book stO(dv, Sfjc. 

No. 1 manilla envelope cuttings, $1,10 to $1.1.5 
No. 1 print manillas, (iOc. 
Folded news, .5.5c. 
Over issues, $14. 
Over issues (foldeil), $|;5. 
No. 1 clean mixed paper, 42i/{;c. to 47%c. 
Old white cotton, $2. .50 to $2.7.5. 
Thirds and blues, $1.40 to $1.50. 
No. 1 white shirt cuttings, $5.50 to $5.75, 
Fancy shirt cuttings, $4.10. 
Blue overall cuttings, $:!.50 to $3.62i/o. 
Black overall cuttings, $1.65 to $1.75. 
Black linings, $1.65 to $1.75. 
New light flannelettes, $4.60. 
Ordinary satinets, 8yc. to 90c. 

n ( 'anada. 

n United State 

). rices. 

Montreal. January 14, 191.S. 
lie |iulp .■Mid ]iaper market remain satisfactory, 
ase in |iroduction and the somewhat lower 
ed States. As a matter of fact, all the Cana- 
ning to capacity and are finding an outlet for 
iiljdiiti-. The reduction in the United States 
he Canailian ni.irket. Previously, prices were 
I' dollars higher on the American side of the 
were in (j'anada, and the recent reduction 
■s down to a level W'ith those prevailing in 

■s ileli\ereil in the United States runs from $42 to $44 
, while in Canada it runs from about $41 to $45. .\o. 1 
hi'd suliiliite varies from $46 to $47 delivered in the 
States and $41 to $45 delixere.l in Canada. Other 
with the exception of ground wood, remain satisfactory. 
I'oHiiwiiig prices .are for p.apcr, jnilp and ]i.a]ier stock 


IS in tl 

despite the 

i lie re; 

prices i„ th. 

■ Unit! 

dian mills a: 

re rum 

their paper 

and s 

has not aire 

cted tl 

sonic two 01 

■ thrn 

border tliaii 


brings thoM 

• pnc, 


revised to date: 

F. 0. B. .Montreal. 


News, .$42 to $44, delivered in United Stati's. 
Ne-p-s, $41 to $45, deli\ered in Eastern Canada. 
Newsprint, sheets, $2.25 at mill. 
Bonk papers, I'arload lots. No. ;;, 4'^c. to 4'}4c. 
Book papers, broken lots. No. .;, 4'^.c. to 4')4c. 

Carload lots. No. 2, 4v'ic. 
Manilla B., H\i.r. 
Broken lots, No. 2, 5h.c, +0 5%c. 
Carload lots. No. 1, 5i^c. to 6%e. 
Broken lots, No, 1, Oc to 674c. 


Manilla B., 3Hc. to ;i%c. 

Fibre, 3%c. to 4c. 

No. 2 niauilla, SV^c 

No. 1 manilla, 3';4c. to 4V4C. 

Kr:ift, 4i/4c. to 4%c. 

Paper Stock. 

No. 1 hard shavings, $1.65 to $1.75. 

No. 1 soft ndiite shavings, $1.60. 
No. 2 soft white shavings, $1.15. 
Mixed sihavings, 50c. to 55c. 
White blanks, 80c. 
Ledger, $1.15 ±0 $1.20. 
No. 1 book stock, 90c. 
No. 2 book stock, 45c. 
Manilla envelope cuttings, $1.05. 
White envelope cuttings, ^;■1.75. 
No. 1 print Manillas, 65c. 
Folded news, 50c. 
Crushed news, 45c. 
Good mixed paper, 4Uc. to 45c. 
Kags, old and new, per 100 lbs., f,o,b, .Montre:il: 
Old white cotton, $2.50. 
Mixed cottons, $1.75 to $1.90. 
Light cottons, $1.90. 

No. 1 white shirt cuttings, $5.00 to $5.50. 
I>ight print cuttings, $4.00 to $4.50. 
Fancy shirt cuttings, $1.75 to $2.00. 
Blue overall cuttings, $3.40 to $.'{..50. 
Brown overall cuttings, $2.25 to $2.50. 
Black overall cuttings, $1.50 to $1.70. 
Linings, $1.50 to $1.75. 
New unbleached cotton, $4.50 to $5.00. 
Bleached and unbleached cotton, $4.50 to $5.00. 
Bleached and unbleached shoe clips, $4.00 to $4.25. 
New light flannelettes, $3.75 to $4.00. 

P U L P A N D P A P E R M A (i A Z I N E. ^ 61 









i -■i._.-,-«-«»«rfBW»s— •■:- ■ 


■f : 

-. Jf|« 


ry^ TfEs... 


'•4 "' "^ 

. , ^ 

■i- ■ ' 


P"i^:il!^^'3B 1 

L .3=: 





2 Siemens 320 H. P., 750 R. P. M., 3-Phase, 3000 Volt Slipring type induction Motors 
driving air compressors at the Acadia Coal Company, Nova Scotia. 

We suiiplii-d the above company with 27 moton^ raiigiuf; from 430 H.P. downwanls, to>:ether witli 1"> panel hiirh 
tension switchboard and several miles of cable, etc. 

We undertake the coini>lete electrical equipment of pulp and paper mills, i-ollieries, steel works, rolling mills, 
cotton mills, woollen mills and electrical plants of every descripticiri. 

Siemens Company of Canada Limited 










January 15, 1913 

Flock satinets riiofing stock, $90f. to $1.00. 
Ordinary satiuet.-;, iJOc. to 75e. 
Tailors' sweepiufis. 65c. to 70e. 


Ground wood (at iiiill), $14.50 to $15. 

Sulphite, No. 1 mibleaclicd, $46 to $47, delivered in U.S. 

Sulphite, $41 to $45, delivered in C;(nada. 

Sulphite (bleached), .$51 to $5.S. 

Otta\v:i, January l.",, 1912. 
A firm pulp wood market and a rather weak one for wood 
pulp are features of the local trade situation. There has l>ee)i 
no movement in prices (huint; the last three weeks in paper, 
though the demand for newsprint kee|)s uji and other lines have 
no trouble in findini; a nuirket. The suli)hite market is very 
lirm, arounil $45. The weakness of the wood pulp market is 
attributed here to some extent to the large production of 
United States mills. 


Conditions in the paper trade of Great Britain continue 
good. The market for ground wiood is fairly firm, while chemi- 
cal pulp is also S'trong. Eags and paper stock are in good re- 
((uest. Oliemicals show liut little change. 


According to a recent nport from ( '. K. Sontum, (.'auailian 
trade agent at Christiania, "the value of mechanical wood 

pulp has gradually hardened and is to-day nearer $9.87 than 
$9.67 f.o.b. both for prompt and for delivery over next year, 
and we understand that a fair proportion of next year's output 
in Norway has already been disposed of . Cellulose is also 
steadily advancing; for .strong sulphate $37.87 has been ob- 
tained, and makers are holding out for $40 for strong sulphite, 
while easy bleaching sulphite is tending toward $42.67 f.o.b. 
This would be good news for sharehoUlers in Norwegian cellu- 
lose mills after several years of unprofitable trading if the cost 
of production did not tend to advance quite as rapidly as selling 
prices. The |pulp market in Sweden is very firm for all kinds, 
as the mills now have xery nearly disposed of their entire pro- 
duction for 1913. In Kugland the consumers seem to be well 
supplied^ but from the I'nited States there is a very lively 
inquiry and from that country it has even been tried to contract 
for 1914 and 1915. The Sweilish quota-tions are at present per 
ton net, f.o.b.: 


Stocks of newsprint paper, November .'iO, 1912, according to 
reports of the American Paper and I'ulp Association to the 
Commissioner of Corporations, Washington, were 4.3,504 tons, a 
decrease of 3,007 tons from October. Stocks November 30, 1911, 
were 38,650 tons. The decrease was largely due to heavy ship- 
ments during November, these being 109,801 tons. Production 
was 106,715 tons, a decrease of 2,249 tons. The iiroduction was 
94 per cent, of the computed normal, against 97 per cent, in 
November, 1911. The average actual daily output was 4,104 
tons, against a computed normal of -4,366 tons. For the eleven 
months ended with November the production was 95 per cent, 
of the computed normal, as compared with 93 per cent, in each 
of the full calendar years, 1909, 1910, an<l 1911. 





Beating and Washing 

Paper Mill Machinery 




Lawrence Centrifugal Pumps 


Pulp and Paper Magazine 


A Semi-Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Science and Practice of the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing 
Industry with an Up-to-date Review of Conditions in the Allied Trades. 

Published by The Industrial and Educational Press, Limited 

243-4-5. ConfodtTatioii l.ifr r.uilclinir, ((iurcii St. Entrance), ToionKi, Ont., Telephone Main fi:V77. 
:]-\n. Board ol'Trade Kld.u^, .Montreal, tine., Telephone Main 2662. 

A'<so( . KniToK, F. Taiuc Wit.sox 

EiuroK. A. C 

M(lMvr;K. I'..A. 

Published on the 1st and 15th of each month. Changes in advertisements should be in publishers' hands ten days before date of 
issue. The editor cordially invites readers to submit articles of practical interest, which, on publication, will be paid for. 

SUBSCRIPTION to any address in Canada, $2.00.-Elsewhere $2.50 (10 Shillings.) Single copies, 20c. 



No. 3 


When an iuduslry grows to a point when its execu- 
tive start's numher up into the hundreds and its em- 
ployees into the thousands, when the various mills 
which carry it on are located in widely distant places 
under varying conditions throughout a wide stretch 
of territory, when that industry is divisible into com- 
ponent branches dependent on and yet to some slight 
deg'-ee antagonistic to one another, the day has arrived 
for the establishment of a good strong live association 
among all those identified with it. 

The Pulp and Paper Magazine believes that there is 
emphatic need for a Canadian pulp and paper asso- 
ciaticui to foster the interests of the whole industry 
from one end of the Dominion to the other. In the 
United States there is the American Paper and Pulp 
Association, which, under the leadership of Mr. Hast- 
ings has done such splendid work against almost un- 
in-eeedented difficulties. In the United Kingdom there 
is the Papermaker.s' Association of Great Britain and 
Ireland (Inc.). and also another dealing with pulp; 
while in Germany and Scandinavia there are organi- 
zations of a .similar character. 

The ob,jects of such an association as we have in mind 
would interfere in no wise with any existing body, such 
as the Canadian Manufacturers' Association; they 
would only be broader, but at the same time more con- 
centrated and to this extent more productive of lasting 
good. It would incline in function to the work of the 
various mining institutes, engineering societies, etc., 
which are largely of an cdncitional character. 

Price-making would have no place in the field of 
its usefulness. We do not believe either that an in- 
dustry or the individual firms of whom it is composed 
ultimately benefit by having the prices of the produeis 
which are manufactured, formulated by an association 
or committee of the same. 

On the other hand, we believe that through the better 
luiderstanding of the conditions confronting each in- 
dividual member of an industry which comes about 
through frequent intercourse, such a wide mastery 
of the general needs of the business is attained, that 
ruinous competition— which generally speaking means 
ignorance of true cost of production— will largely be 
done away with. We believe that competition is good, 
that over-competition and cut prices mean disorgani- 
zation as bad for consumer as producer, and that the 
best basis for any line of manufacture is a live rivalry 
between all its representatives when they are wide 
awake and know its possibilities and its limitations. 
And this is the best argument for a Canadian Pulp 
and Paper Asociation; for it is just this knowledge 
which it would be its main purpose to acquire and to 
disseminate among its members. 

Such an organization would be in a position to estab- 
lish and to perfect machinery for the gathering of re- 
liable statistics as to production and markets, ex]>ert 
evidence as to future requirements, and so forth, which 
would be invaluable. Latest information as to tlic 
doings of competitors abroad, new inventions they 
miirht be experimenting with, new sources of siipi)ly 


Febniarv 1. 1913. 

iif raw material, would speedily tind a way into its 
drag-uet. lu the event of legislation being proposed 
of either a friendly or an unfavorable character, the 
association could set exjiert enquirers at work to look 
into it from the point of view of the entire industry, 
and it eonld bring considerable influence to bear on the 
powers that be, either for the purpose of resisting oi' 
supporting it. 

A case in point is illustrated liy what has recently 
occurred in Quebec Province. In this connection we are 
neither praising nor condemning the action of Premier 
(iduin in lifting the embargo on pulpwooil export. 
Hut it is evident, from the remarks on another page 
liy our Montreal correspondent, that opinions of the 
various paper manufacturers in that province are 
sharply divided as to the \visdoni and justice of the 
step. Had tlie matter been discussed in association 
licfoi-ehaiid by a large proportion of those directly 
roneei'ned. as well as by those who conceivably might 
be aft'ected by iiuitative legislation in other provinces, 
it is altogether probable that there would have been 
a greater degree of satisfaction at this stage. 

Another point on which unanimity of feeling among 
manufacturers is most essential is in the matter of 
trade customs. Provided a usage is soundly liased on 
correct principles, all members of a trade ought to 
conform to it. An association would greatly help, not 
only in laying down sound principles, but in enforcing 
the practice. 

Educationally, sucli an assoeiatimi wnuld be of un- 
told benefit — and to the whole counti-y, not only to in- 
dividual members. Its object would be to encourage 
the l)est practical education nf ('ini>liiyees, and the best 
organization, the most economical processes and so 
forth on the part of executives for the purjwse of 
gaining the best possible results. 

One i^ossible objection, namely that this ])articular 
industry is made up of so many different branches that 
a general association would be unable to cope with the 
many diverse problems confronted, may be disposed 
of by pointing to the sister organization in the United 
States, in which the different branches of the trade, 
book paper, writings, newsprint, etc.. have each their 
respective committees, which discuss and deal with 
their own individual concerns separatrly and thcji 
report to the main l)ody. 

Socially, too. tlie meetings of the association wnub! 
be of great value. This part of the subject is really 
bound up with the educational features before i-eferred 
to. The educational aspect has largely to do with 
technical papers, industrial statistics, etc.; but almost 
as much good would accrue from social intercourse 
and the play of mind on mind. 

The Pulp and Paper Magazine would like to learn 
the views of every man interested in the industry as 
to the prospects for forming an association of the above 
character, and invites correspondence. 


As announced in anothci- column, the United States 
Government has refused to take down the bars against 
free entry of paper made from pulpwood grown on 
Urown lands from which the Quebec Legislature re- 
cently removed the embargo. The reason alleged for 
such denial on the part of Washington is that Quebec's 
action amounts to a discrimination against American 
holders of Crown lands, and that it defeats the intent 
of the wood pulp and paper clauses of the U. S. Cus- 
toms Act. Apparently the feeling in the Ignited States 
is quite general that Quebec is trying to obtain free 
paper by a trick in removing restrictions from export 
of pulpwood when theie is a clear understanding that 
the wood A\ill not be exported in any case, but only 
jiroducts thereof. The declaration of the U. S. Gov- 
ernment, however, is only looked upon as having a tem- 
porary character, and made only in order to allow 
them to look more thoroughly into the matter. 

Probably, the ultimate decision on the vexed (juestion 
(if entry into the United States for Canadian paper will 
lie 'vith the result of the hotly fought battle between 
the newspaper ])ublishers and the newspi'int manufac- 
turers, which is being waged before the Ways and 
ileans Committee of the House of Congress. This is 
one reason why a good many people feel sorry that 
Quebec gave away one of Canada's chief card.s, espe- 
cially at a time when the incoming of the Democrats 
mighl help win our battle. 

()ii the other hand, in fairness to Premier Gouin, one 
nuist not lose sight of such announcements as that in 
another column referring to the plans of the St. Law- 
rence Pulp & Lumber Corporation to build large mills 
in the province, largely as a direct result of the new 

The latest, development is that pi'essui-e has I)een 
bi-ought to bear upon the authorities in Ontario and 
New Brunswick to induce those promoters to follow 
Quebec's lead. New Brunswick, we understand, has 
definitely refused, while the Ontario Government, it is 
said, is standing aloof watching developments in Wash- 


The policy of the Pro\ince of New Brunswick as ex- 
liicssi'd by Mr. R. G. Loggie in an interview with the 
Pulp and Paper IMagazine is decidedly averse to the 
cutting of pulp wood under any conditions. It is the 
tii'm belief of the Government that the cutting of pulp 
wood is detrimentiil to the lumber industry in general, 
which is the pride of this province, as well as antagonis- 
tic to the principles of good forestry, in which the local 
authorities have inaugurated a most modern and scien- 
tific policy, greatly enlarging and strengthening that 
department. As a general princii)le and in much of 
the present practice this policy cannot be decried even 
liy interests so intinuitely associated with pulji and 

February 1, 1913. 


paper developuieiit as ourselves. More so since the 
avowed aims of this journal are to promote the prin- 
ciples of conservation and economic utilization of our 
natural resources. Indeed, we are heartily pleased to 
see the executive of any province so anxious regarding 
the resources niulei- their administration. 

The situation in New Brunswick has heccune aggra- 
vated chiefly on account of the nature of the provincial 
regulations, which have l)een more honored in the 
breaking than the ob.servaiiee. 

The province has seven and a half million acres of 
Crown Land, five million of what is termed settlement 
land, and almost five million acres of private timber 
land. The present regulations state that nothing less 
than what will make a 16 foot log 9 inches on the top 
can be cut on Crown land. Probably 25 per cent, of 
the annual timber cut, however, is below this standard. 

A more difficult situation to regulate, however, has 
arisen along the railroads, rivers and near the main 
boundary. Land is allotted to applicants for settlement 
even when timber licenses have been issued, and on 
each such allotment they are allowed to clear ten acres. 
The result has been that a man took up this and cut 
his ten acres, usually a little more, selling the wood for 
pulp wood, never actually settling on the land. Any 
merchantable timber cut. however, in this way was the 
property of the licensee of the limits before allotment. 
This has proven a prolific source of trouble and dispute. 
Again it was most annoying to such a licensee to have 
the best patch of spruce in his lease picked out and 
allowed to be used in this way. Hence a situation has 
arisen which sei'ves to aggravate the lumber interests 
as well as the Crown Land Department, giving every- 
one concerned a horror at the mere mention of pulp 

The operations of about two hundred such settlers 
along the Elaine boundary, who cut the wood as above 
and shipped or hauled across the line, has given rise 
to a .special act which came into effect August 1st. 1912. 
calhd "An Act Respecting the ^ranufaeture of Spruce 
and other Pulp Wood Cut on Crown Lands," which 
says that permits to cut spruce or other soft wood, not 
being pine or poplar suitable for manufacturing pulp 
and paper on ungranted Crown lands, shall contain 
the condition that all such wood must be maniifactured 
into merchantable lumber, pulp or paper, or other mer- 
chandise, in Canada. This is intended to obviate the 
aliove difficulty and pi'event the exploitation of natural 
resources by foreign mills. 

As yet it is too early to say what efi'ect the new act 
will liave, but we venture to predict that the remedy 
will only be partial. The section of New Brunswick 
suffering most in this respect is the northwest eoraer, 
in the County of Madawaska. and here is where the 
law is very difficult to enforce. And when the majority 
of the people in any locality strongly favor the old 
order of things, and regard the new act as an instru- 

ment of the large limit holders, the enforcement will 
be most difficult. 

New mills proposing to work Crown lands in New 
Brunswick will do well to investigate carefully and 
thoroughly understand the policy of the Government. 
We think the policy a little extreme, since there is 
much land in Northern New Brunswick of stunted 
growth, which can never be of value as merchantable 
timber, but offers excellent opportunities for pulp ex- 
ploitation and would add to New Brunswick a train 
of the valua])le industries following pulp and paper de- 
velopments with the attendant pecuniary advantages 
to people and province. 


.\ova Scoria shares little of the laurels of the pulp 
and paper industry. Not indeed for lack of resources 
which make such enterprises successfiil, or of openings 
for advantageous location of mills, but for lack of 
attention given to its possibilities by the financial men 
of the province. Then, too. with one or two notable 
exceptions, such as steel and ear works, the province 
is accustomed only to enterprises requiring moderate 
capital or those which can grow from small beginnings. 
The general opinion seems to be that a development in 
pulp or paper requires a prohibitive initial outlay. Such 
is triie compared with most of the Nova Scotia indus- 
tries, as lumber, etc.. which may start and get a good 
working footing on a much smaller minimiim capital 
outlay. This opinion is. however, greatly exaggerated 
in most cases, due. doubtless, to the effects of reports 
of the enormous developments in Quebec and Ontario. 

With the exception of the ilcLeod Pulp Company, 
and the old discarded plant at Hartville. pulp opera- 
tions have been limited to small ground wood mills for 
the main part very inefficiently operated. The present 
slump and continued depression of the ground wood 
market has made havoc with the narrow manufacturing 
margin luider such operation and the result is a gen- 
eral sore feeling in the piilp industry. This we doubt 
not will influence to an appreciable extent the future 
exportation of Nova Scotia in this regard, at least as 
far as interesting local capital in provincial enterprises. 
In this connection, also, the old disbanded plant at 
Hartville will have a similar tendency. This province 
has indeed been anything but successful in its pulp 
operations, and local interests with plans for develop- 
ment or expansion will do well to look into the broader 
Canadian field for encouragement and example. 

The McLeod Pulp Company is the shining light of 
Nova Scotia's paper field, and well deserves the credit- 
able position it now holds. To rebuild and put on an 
economical basis an old dilapidated plant is at the best 
;> tedious and exacting task. This example of such a 
plant completely remodeled from earnings is a strik- 
ing credit to the management who thoroughly appre- 
ciate their unique opportunities, with shipping facili- 
ties of an ice free port, abundant power still undevel- 


ri'LP AND I' A 

i; :\r a r; a z i n e 

Pehniary 1, I'M: 

oped, and llu" best of lalior conditions. Tlii'ii- plans 
for L■.\l)all^illll will diiulitless iiii-ct willi Ihc success Ihcy 
well deserve. The Caiupliell Liiiiiliei' ('(niipany, at 
Weymouth, have also emerged from a perind of struggle 
after having their mill at Weymouth Falls completely 
destroyed by tire. Hampered by diffienlties in seciiiiiig 
capital, they have rebuilt and remodided and have been 
operating their six grinders since October. Additional 
equipment is still being added, and the mill gi'c.itly 
improved. The second ground wood ]il,iiil of this com- 
l>aiiy at Sissibo F;dls. two miles fai'lher up the Wey- 
inontli lix'cr. is coniidetely dismantled and awaits the 
ac(|uisition of about tifteen thousand dollars c.i])ital to 
i-i'biuld it. This tii-ni have struggled IVom sni dl be- 
ginnings and now have a tine jilant. 

One difficulty which operates slightly against pulp 
man\ifactui'e in Nova Scotia is the sc.iltered condition 
of the pulp wood t'oi-ests compared with those of the 
other jirovinccs. This makes logging costs somewhat 
highei'. offset, liowever. to some extent by the very fav- 
(ir;d)li' labor conditions. Avhieh have no e(pial elsewheie 
in Canada. An interesting thing in connection with 
the logging here is the use of oxen in the liush. Out- 
siders are accustomed at first to laugh at theii' slow 
plodding habits and feel it is an anticiuated method of 
making wood. But once the scoft'ei' looks over the lial- 
ance sheet he becomes a convert. For severe conditions 
and cheap upkeep, horses are outclassed in some 
liranches id' the work, and it is the coniliination lA' oxen 
and lioises in the work at wliicli each is best which 
makes Nova Scotia's lumber operations so successful. 

Timber land here is nearly all held in fee sim]ile and 
is not subject to any export duties. This offers \ery 
attractive openings for mills making gi'ades of jiulp 
and ])a]>ei' to cater to the American markets. The un- 
excelli'd shipping facilities create a decided advantage 
in entering tlie English markets. 

^Ii'. .1. H. Whitman. Deputy Commissionei- of Ci-own 
Lands, is advocating and developing an rx'ensivi' 
policy of forest preservation and protection, as \xv\\ 
as reforestry id' tin' bai-ren and depleted areas. That 
things ai'e ieall.\- being done in this direction is a mat- 
tei' of congratulation to the Department and the (iii\-- 
eiaiment it I'epresenls. In conclusion. A\e ventni'c to 
] i-i'dict a rapid development when the ]")ossibilities of 
the \ai-ious kinds of pulp are realized. 

The mills will all be limited as to size, but there are 
a very large nundier of very attractive openings now 
awaiting the hand of the legitimate promoter. 

Prof. Feiiiow, of the Forestry Department of Toronto 
University, is somewhat of an iconoclast against pre- 
conceived ideas of the inexhaustible wealth of North- 
I rn Ontario north of the Height of Land. He traveled. 
somewhat hurriedly, it is true, along the Transcontin- 
ental, and i-eporlcd that while the country is densely 
wooded it is by no means all timber. Indeed, from 
the point of \iew of sawmill supplies the woods are 
ilisaiii>ointing. Even for pul|>wood the supply is not 
what the uninitiated suppose and what has been believ- 
ed to exist. The early explorers traveled by canoes 
and hence reported oidy the l)idter developed timber 
of large-sized white sjiruce. aspen, balsam, poplar, etc.. 
which skii'ts the rivei's on the well-drained portions in 
quarter to half-mile licit.-,, without realizing that in the 
s^va.m]is beyond this belt the bulk of the forest growth 
is black spruce of small size. He speaks more favor- 
^d)ly of the iigiicultural jisju-cts of the cminti'y. al- 
though even in this respect, he pronounces about 50 
per cent, of the land undesirable under present condi- 
tions for settlement. Unless great care is taken, there- 
foi'e. in selecting the sections thrown open for settle- 
ment, there is likely to be disappointment. However, 
it is only fair to state that the Doctor's time for in- 
vestigation was limited, and that the Ontario Gov- 
ernment authorities, who luive also examined the region 
with care, tell a stoi-v somewhat different. 


The Dominion Government will introduce a system of 
parcel post. Do the paper trade realize that this will 
eventually nn^an a great thing for them. Mail o'-der 
houses will increase and enlarge their catalogues; paper 
for wra]>ping parcels will be in greater demand. 


Jlr. -las. Lawler, Secretary ol' the Canadian Forestry 
Association, in an admirable addre-s before the St. 
Catharines Canadian Club, iccently. referred to the 
I>ulp and paper mills along the Wetland Canal are in 
earnest of the interest taken by Canadians in forestry 

He doubted that there would evei' be a substitute for 
wood in paper making, lint, assuming, he said, that a 
substitute can he found for wood, if we are willing to 
I art with the profits of the lumber trade and its raraifi- 
citiims, there is still a loss in tlie destruction of the 
fores'.ts of almost ecpial magnitude. Central Canada is 
] ractically without fuel, and it would appear that 
i!atui-e had eomi)ensated for this lack by providing an 
abundance of watei- power. It is estimated that Canada 
has 40 per cent, of the water powers of the world, and 
these powers are most abundant in Welland and vicin- 
ity where coal is not found. 

The desert making process has gone so far that the 
Ontario Department of Agriculture has issued a report 
on the reforestration of waste lands in southern On- 
tario. The Government has se-t aside a .sum for the pur- 
chase of a portion of the lands in Norfolk county, and 
has now 1,.300 acres. In the first place, our forests are 
not illinutable. In the second ]dace, no substitutes have 
ever been found for wood. In the third place, suppos- 
ing a suitable substitute were found, this would not 
touch the other uses of the forest, equally iiliportant 
with the supply of wood. These uses include the con- 
servation and regulation of the water supply in our 
streams, with its attendant effect upon water powers 
and navigation. 

V 1. 1913. 

]' ( ■ L P AND 1' A P E P 'SI A O A Z T N E 



]W K. 

:\Iillcr. M.A.. .M.E.. Prof, of Forestry, U.N.B. 

The University of New Bniu.swick. located al Krcd- 
erieton. New Brunswick, received as an early s'init 
:3.600 acres of woodland at the hack of the city: hut 
it was onlv with the estahlishinent of forestry m the 
curriculum in 1908 that its value was apprecuitecl 
either commerciallv or as a training ground for fores- 
try students. Prior to that time it lay praetieally open 
to" all comers, with little provision for protection or 
economic handling. 

Within the last five years, however, theie has evolved 
a decided change in policy. The work of i)r()!eetion 
against fire and trespass has been placed entirely with 
the forester, and this year we have been given the op- 
portunity of cutting the college wood after forestry 
methods" and of beginning in a small way a lumbering 
operation. These things to the i)usy manager of a 
large tract would mean little— here in their functidii 
of enabling forestry students to acipiire familiarity 
with woods work, they mean very much. The building 
of a small camp in the woods in any jiart of New Bruns- 
wick by a guide or lumbennan is :\ mere "circum- 
.stanee'"'; built in connection with the forestry course, 
by forestry students, and in our nw n t'orest, it is "an 

It means that with cold weather field, w(irk nei-d no: 
be altogether suspended, but that men can still aec|uiie 
valuable experience in planning roads, bridging brooks, 
marking timber for cutting, and yarding logs and seal- 

meeting and lunching place for the parties of stvidents 
assigned to different kinds of work throughout the 
year, and as a sort of ranger's cabin from which trips 
can be made in connection with the protection of the 
college lands against trespass. This winter two wood- 
cutters have been located in it while cutting the col- 
lege wood on an adjoining lot, and as more lumbering 
is done on the tract, this function as a camp for work- 
men may gradually increase. During the spring and 
summer it will be a handy point from which to start 
a pulp wood operation, since it is surrounded b.v woods 
in which the popple is getting over-mature, and very 
profitable thinnings might be made not only in this but 
spruce and fire and the product utilized for pulp wood 

Forestry Camp on College Land. 

ing them for a small winter operation. While this tim- 
ber is being cut. it will also afford an opportunity for 
making volume tables for second gi-owth forests, and 
acquiring more definite knowledge of growth in par- 
tially culled forests, which the college lands fairly 
well typify. Planting operations have not yet been start- 
ed, l)ut there is a chance to try out planting on the old 
clearings which can be found in all stages, as w'ell as a 
chance to study the best methods of brush dis[)osal. 
It means a center for estimating, for running traverses, 
sketching topography, and writing such short forest 
descriptions as might be required by the private owner 
in gaining information about his property. 

The camp is already proving itself a very valuable 
addition to the school's equipment. It is used as a 

Interior of Forestry Camp 

at a profit. Without a camp on the grounds, such 
operations would be practically impossible. 

It was about the middle of October. 1912. that the 
e.unp idea took tangible shape, largely through the co- 
operation of the professor and students of the engin- 
eering department. On that Saturday, a party of fif- 
teen or more men chose a site for the camp between 
two brooks, about three miles from the college, and 
some began the felling and peeling of trees for its con- 
struction. As it was desired to have the inside dimen- 
sions sixteen by twenty feet, straight, sound fir logs, 
varying in size "from ten to fourteen inches in diameter 
breast high, were chosen on a flat near the brook and 
care taken not to make too heavy a felling in any one 
place. The logs were cut in two lengths, nineteen and 
twenty-three feet, so as to allow for a projection at the 
corners of a foot and a half. Fir logs, when peeled are 
fairly durable, and after being peeled for a week or 
two lose considerable weight. 

At first, the logs were carried up the slope on the 
shoulders of the men— no easy task when the logs were 
heavv and slippery with balsam, but later the pack- 
horse was used for twitching them out of the woods 
and up to the building site. This saved much hard 
work, and it was a fortunate discovery that "old 
Molly" had been a woods horse up-river and could fol- 
low "along any narrow path swamped out in front of 
her. Three of the men who had seen lumber camps 
constructed, then began notching the corners and put- 
ting the first logs in place. In order to keep the walls 
level, some had to be notched very deeply, and in many 
cases small poles called "drop logs" were put in be- 
tween the larger ones. The work was done largely 



Februarv 1, 1913. 

Saturdiiys. until a1 Tliiiiiksg'i\-iiiK. alioiit the last of 
Oetiilicr, the caiiip was tlu'ee or four logs high. 

During the Thanksgiving recess it was deeided to 
push the \\oilc iiioi'c rapidly, and a earn]) outfit was 
talven out \\ith a pack-horse, and a teiiipoi-ary cam]) 
pitched across the hi'ook from the building, by the au- 

A Winter Scene 

thor and two df the students, who weie ycvy familial' 
with camp life. 'I'o nne who has never had thr i^xjirri- 
ence of camping in the New liruuswiek woods in the 
cool of October, the operation of making a eamii snug 
for the night is an interesting piece of work and re- 
flects, as nothing else, the skill and experience of the 
woodsman, be he guide or forester. The "lean-to" 
tent is the easiest put u]) and the wai-mcst on frosty 
nights. With a big fire in fiont. haeki'd by gie<'n logs 
to reflect the heat upon the occupants, the tent acts as 
a sort of reflecting oven — providing a good supply of 
fuel is on hand during tlie night and someone wakes 
ui> jieriodieally to thi'ow on a few sticks. After the 
tent is i>itclied and tin- first meal under way, the next 
thing is the const rueticni of a bed of boughs — anothei' 
art in which the \\<)(idsnuni either reveals or betrays 
him.self. If you ai-e a tenderfoot, as 1 was, — with no 
guide by Stewart Edward White and other sporting 
goods experts in camp lore — you will watch this oper- 
ation with considerable interest. 

There is secured a pile of b;dsam boughs — about 
twice as many as needed. Then ynu will have about 
half enough. If you are in the right locality the small 

Reproduction on Old Pasture 

flat twigs of the ground hemlock are considered su- 
perior to balsam. Only the small flat eiuls of the 
boughs are taken, and the expert, in making this Oster- 
moor of the woods, begins at the head of what is to 
be the bed and sticks them in feather fashion, with the 
flat end.s pointing forward and the tnags shingling over 
and hiding each other. This has two, advantages — 

your blankets will not work do\vn "against the grain" 
of the boughs and you will not wake up in the night 
thinking you are on a corduroy road. After making 
a bed some seven feet long and of ample width, season 
the whole with moonlight .streaming through the 
branches and the historic balsamic odor for which you 
pay a guide niiu' dollars a day, and you have a couch 
which will woo Morpheus to a .stand-still. I have de- 
scrilied the balsam bed at considerable length, because 
your nights in the woods are more important than the 
days. The days are full of • wnrk and forgetfulness, 
but the night on an ill-constructed bed of boughs is an 
luiending nightiiuirc. 

During this short vacation, the walls of the camp 
were brought up to a height of about seven feet, which 
was considered ample. The two top or side logs were 
of good size and notched for the ends of the rafters. 
These rafters were of jjeeled spriiee poles, about two 
and a half feet apait. with their ends spiked to the .side 
logs. The roof was given about a half pitch, so as to 
shed the snow as much as possible, and the rafters at 
each end of the Imilding were left six inches apart, so 
that the short logs which formed the gable could be 
tlropped down Ijetween them and .s])iked together. No 
openings were left for doors or windows, but such 
openings were cut out of the logs after the whole thing 
was completed. 

Ttie Barrens on the University Tract 

A tight sheathing of hemlock boards was then nailed 
to the rafters, and over this a layer of three-ply felt 
I'oofing was nailed on, the strips running lengthwise, 
and the edges well tarred. Such a roof is warranted 
for about ten years, but on account of being inflamma- 
ble and very hot in smnmer, it will probably be covered 
later with cedar .shingles. This will outlast the camp, 
as such camps fall in through the decay of the bottom 
logs or the undermining by porcupines and other ani- 

For the floor, sills of peeled logs were sunk in the 
ground about two feet apart and a double layer of 
heudock boards put down across them. A layer of 
chea]) tarred paper put between the two layers of 
b(iaids would have added much to the warmth of the 
tliior. The floors of lumber camps here are usually 
made of round poles, adzed ofi:' smooth and leaving 
large cracks, a convenient receptable for dirt and 
quids of tobacco. Our camp, in this latter respect, 
lacks one of the conveniences, but makes up for the 
defect in other directions. 

The loof of the camp was finished just before the 
first snowfall, and there yet remained the putting in 
of a door and a window, and the chinking or "stog- 
ging" of the cracks, which is a considerable task. 
IMoss was gathered (ui the high ground for this jnir- 

Krliniary 1, l!)l: 



post' and cai'rii'il tn ihr camp in sacks, an iiniueuse 
cpiautity being iTipiircd. This was pounded in between 
the logs witli a tamp from the outside at first, but cold 
weather setting in. the rest of the chinking was done 
from the inside witli moss, bui'la]) or paper. The second 
year the moss falls out and mueii of the work must he 
relocated if tlie cain]) is to lie comfortable. 

A Sylvan Glade 

The completion of the camp owes it-self to two hardy 
spirits — Messrs. Howe and Weston. Just before Christ- 
mas they went out, with the old Star stove and a quan- 
tity of provisions, to put in the door and the window, 
and finish the work of ""stogging. "' Just how haid 
they worked and how much they suffered that after- 
noon and evening, no one knows. Suffice it to say. that 
when we opened the door next morning we found them 
sleeping, and the atmosphere of the lumber camp ])er- 
vading the place, an air which spelt home. Cold was 
forever shut out. and in its place was installed good 
cheer and hospitality, which are abiding. 

Such is in brief the history of this camp, which is 
more than a meie building. There has been built into 

Part of the Camp 

it. as its walls rose, log upon log, much of self-sacrifice, 
brotherhood and loyalty to and school which we 
believe to be some of the strongest assets in the future. 
It means that the woods, which was three miles away, 
has been brought nearer so that we feel its spirit urg- 
ing us to greater endeavor. It means a rendezvous 
for congenial spirits, a place where the student and 
teacher who love the trail and the pack better than the 
five o'clock tea can slip away and acquire a woods 
si)irit for work and perhaps stundde on to a few ori- 
ginal ideas. 

Once a year there is hi'ld tliei'c. along tiie bi-oolc 
which is too frozen to babiile. a gathering whose ardor 
tlH! frosts and snows of thirty-six below zero cannot 
chill, because its centre is the sjjontaneous enthusiasm 

of youth — we refer to that time-honored feed in Janu- 
ary, commonly known a.s the Forester's "stog" or 
annual "Hammerfest." What the camp fires at Mil- 
ford. Pa., were to the Yale students of forestry, it is 
hoped in a lesser way the annual "Hammerfest" may 
l)e to the students in the University of New Brimswiek. 
On this occasion, good fellowship radiates out through 
the stray chinks, the old Star .stove puffs with enthusi- 
asm, and suggestions are made of the greatest value 
for the improvement of the course and of inspiration to 
those just entering the profession. To some the camp 
may mean only a place of recreation and outing; to the 
ma.iority, we believe, it means a vital part of their 
training. To a few it may mean the discovery in them- 
selves of a latent liking for the woods which is essen- 
tial to success in the profession they have chosen. If 
to these few it results in such a discovery, it has cer- 
tainly paid very high dividends on the investment. 


The machinery of the old St. John Pulp & Paper 
Company at Mispec, owned by the city of St. John, 
and formerly operated by Stetson Cutler & Company, 
has been purchased by Frank H. Davis, of East Cam- 
bridge. Mass.. for. it is understood, about fifteen thous- 
and dcdlars. The plant will be completely dismantled. 
The principals in the case were really the Edward Part- 
ington Pulp & Paper Company. Limited, of St. John, 
who are installing this machinery in their plant at Re- 
versing Falls. 

This machinery consists of two small digesters, a 
pulp drying machine, screens, etc.. all of which will 
be added to the above plant. Beside this they have 
purcnased two second-hand Ruth centrifugals from 
Frank H. Davis. Their screen room is also equipped 
with one of the new centrifugals built by the Sher- 
brooke Machinery Company, which give a high screen- 
ing capacity on low power consumption. 

The plant, as the trade are already aware, is now 
under the management of Senator Jones, of Bangor, 
Mr. Clarkson. thi> former manager, having retired. 

The new management is pushing the mill to its full- 
est capacity and has greatly increased production. An- 
other innovation is the method of shipping the pulp in 
unwrapped rolls rather than in bundles of square 
sheet.s. wrapped in excelsior, as formerly. This effects 
considerable saving, and if satisfactory to the consumer 
is a decided advantage to the mill. 

Motor trucks have also been added to haul the pulp 
from the mill to the company's siding at Fairville. It 
is understood that the present management are work- 
ing under arrangement of guaranteed residts. with Sir 
Edward Parlingtnn. both with the mill and the Gibson 
limits which he purchased some time ago. 

The manufacture of sul])liite alcohol in Sweden is 
increasing but not so rapidly as might be expected. 
During the first ten months of the year about 1.000.000 
gallons of 50 per cent, alcohol was distilled. The un- 
certainty of production of sulphite alcohol, when man- 
ufactured on such a large scale has pn-sented capital 
from starting new plants. The question of using the 
sulphite alcohol as fuel for motors is not yet solved. 


pr l.l- A \ I) I' A 1' H i; M A C A Z I X H 



(Sjn'cially wi'ittcii for I'lilp .iml ]'A\>ry \]i\i^:v/.\nr liy 

I-ialcisih Uciiui 

The iiivestigatious of tlie U.S. Departincnl of \v:n- 
culture are many aud varied and cover almost cvory 
phase of production, in effoi-ts to <lis<'o\'i'i' not only 
what uature lias so liounlilully |iro\i(lrd. Init lo ascrr- 
tain how and the best \v,iy llial these products may 
be utilized and luadr to scrxc the imlixidual. Xol llie 
least interesting antl valuable arc the sixcral lines of 
investigations being condueted in pa]iei' makint; ^md 
paper producing materials. Elforts liaxe been lnn<; 
directed toward discovering additional sourees trcnii 
which paper products might be made to \ ield ne\v 
industries. From 1S97 to li)i;i I lie department rei-m-ds 
show that consumption of wood for pnl]i has moi-e than 
((undrupled. At the beginning of the pei-iod cited, 
three-fourths of all the pulp was spruce ami h ss than 
one-fourth of it was imported. Now with an annual 
consnm])tion of five billion cords, 40 ]ier ci'iit. is spruce 
aud about one-half is impol'tcd. The price of spruce 
in the meanliim' has doiihh'd, l<]xpoi'ls of wood pulj) 
have fallen otf anil iirii)orts have increasi'd fourfold. 
These tigui'cs point to the fact that if the I'liiied States 
is to furnish its own supi)l,v of wood pul|) it must do so 
from sulistitutes for spruce. Tests imule by the de- 
partment show that the jjulps of commercial value suit- 
able for news and wrapping paper can lie made hy I he 
sulphite process from eight native woods, sevei'al of 
which grow in abundance in our national forests. Some 
of these woods are now being used to a limited e.xti'iit. 
The depart:ment 's activities have proven, lor instance, 
that native species, large quantities of whidi are a\ail- 
able and cheap in the Lake States, can be substituted 
for spruce in the ground wood j^rocess for newspi'int 
paper. As a direct result of the Government experi- 
ments, mills have begun grinding these woods. .More- 
o\-er, the department has demonstrated in its pajjcr 
laboratories that efficiency in inilp making can be 
raised far beyond what has hitherlo been obtained. 
Experiments have been continued also with good re- 
sults, in utilizing waste long leaf line fin- i)aper making. 
The Secretary of Agriculture says that in no line of 
industrial enterprise is there greater opportunity for 
conservation than in paper making. Not only are large 
quantities of raw material totally unused, but those 
which are consumed are not so fasliioncd that ai'licles 
of highest utility are produced. National ri'ser\-es are 
being sacrificed in the wasteful produetion of inferior 
products. American paper is beautiful in apiiearaiice. 
and American shoes are tastefully made, hut too fre- 
quently liotli lack durabilit.\- and utility. Investiga- 
tions, the Seeretai-.x- declares, show that it is |)iac1icable 
to reduce the quantity of p.aper used in this countr.v 
from 10 to 25 per cent. It has heen demonstrated that 
lighter and thinner pajters can be made thai are in 
ever.\- way superior to those now generall.\' used. Tiie 
annual cost of paper can be reduced, according to his 
belief, by $3,000.0(111. ,ind the ecpiivalent in raw ma- 
terials and labor conserved. The dei)arlmen1 states 
that its paper laboratory can propose specifications for 
paper for various purposes and show how the cost of 
paper ina.v be reduced and the (pialit.v improved. The 
total stands of timber in the Kil) national forest reser- 

\ations, according to the records of the dei)a.rtment. is 
now eipiivalent to six hundred million feet. 

Krsults from experiments with jack pine and hem- 
lock for ground wood pulp begun last year, have de- 
monstrated conclusively that these two woods can be 
made into the cheaper grades of paper by practically 
the s.iiiie methods used in grinding spruce pulp. Since 
the results of these tests have become known a number 
of mills lia\-e begun grinding these woods with success- 
ful results. A number of other woods which are avail- 
able for use as wood pulp are now being studied. The 
investigations of the department showed that the prac- 
tice among mills manufacturing ground wood pulp 
differs widely, even when the same species of wood are 
used and the same products turned out. With this in 
mind a thorough study was made of the effects of the 
conditions of the surface of the pulp stone, the pressure 
with which wood is foi-ceil upon the stone, the tempera- 
ture of grinding, and the physical condition of the 
wood iiixui the resultant factors of the horse power 
which must In- applied to the grinder, the amount of 
pill)) produced in twent.v-four hours, the horse power 
consumption per ton of pul]). and the yield and quality 
of pulp. The results obtained should be of great value 
to till' paper and pulp industry in establishing stand- 
ards of practice, increasing the efficiency of grinding 
and reducing the cost of operation. The ett'ect of steam- 
ing or boiling wood previous to grinding was deter- 
mined in part by extended experiments during the past 
,\'eai'. It wa/s found that such treatment produces a 
pulp of greatly increased strength, though of a darker 
color. It is jiossible that woods not suitable for grind- 
ing in theii- natural state may be rendered suitable by 
some preliminar.v treatment, and that the ground wood 
pulp thus obtained can be used for tough wrapping 
papers which now require chemical pulps. In the tests 
to determine the relative suitaltility of various species 
for the production of soda and sulphite pulps, redwood, 
redwood liark. red hi', lodgepole pine, and sand pine 
were stutlied. In addition a small quantity of mill 
waste from ^Jexico was tested by recpiest of the De- 
partment of State. The yields from the best cooks of 
these materials in the soda process ranged from 3-1.9 
per cent, for redwood liark to 51.7 for the millwaste, 
and the sulphite prices from 33 per cent, for tlie red- 
wood bark to 47.8 foi- sand pine. The general effect 
of the work with soda aud sulphite pulps from the 
various woods is seen in the increasing use by pulp 
mills of species which a few years ago \\ere not thought 
suitable for the commercial manufacture of pajier pulp. 

There is undoubtedly reason to believe, that 
the etifieiency of coininercial practice, as well as of 
experimental work by the service, may be increased by 
a knowledge of the relation of the fundamental cooking 
conditi(uis in pulp manufacture. The effects of the 
variable cooking conditions — proportion of caustic 
soda to weight of wood, cau.sticity of cooking liquor, 
and temperature ami duration of cooking-^in the pro- 
duction of soda pulp have been studied, aud the rela- 
tion of these factors to the yield of crude and screened 
piiljis. the consumption of chemicals, and the quality of 
resiiltanl pnljis determined. 

FcliruMrv 1. IM1: 

vr\.v A \ D P .\ T^ 1-: I ; .\r a g a z i x e 



;Writti'ii spccijilly lor thr I'ulp anil l'a|>.-i- MaKii/.ine liy -Ins. U. Ross.) 

All in(lu^tly intimately rehitrd to tlir lUMiiut'aeture 
<if t'oalcil liapcrs is tlic ininins' and rcliiiiiig of oliiiia 
clay, whicii is imw lioing eaiTicd mi in the I'nivinee of 
Quebec alioul KHI miles north of ^Montreal at St. Remi 
d "Amherst. 

Ill a liille valley in llir haureiitian Hills, siirroundiiiir 
Lae du Sable, in the townshiji of Amherst, after the 
jMiie timber had been cut and floated down the ilas- 
kinonee River, a settlement of habitants, mostlv of the 

Plant of Can. China Clay Co. at St. Remi d'Amherst, Que. 

family of Tasse. i;riiiilied the s:um|is ar.d settled down 
to win a living fr(mi the soil lying between the roeky 
ridges. Some fifteen years ago. in digging wells near 
their log cabins, the fanners eame on a wliite sub- 
stance at the rock level under aliout twelve feet of 
overburden. The only use they found for it was to mix 
it with water and whitewash their cabins. 

The late Dr. R. W. Ells, of the Geological Survey, in 
iiis report on the County of Ottawa in 1901. mentioned 
the oeeurreuee of kaolin, or china clay, on the farm of 
Phibbert Tasse. lot 5. range vi. south township of Am- 
lierst, Gounty of Ottawa. No further occurrences have 
yet been reported, though it is to be expected that in 
other similarly sheltered valleys more deposits may be 
found. Desultory attempts at prospecting by trench- 
ing and pits disclosed china clay in so many places that 
in liHO a French engineer was led to report the pres- 
ence of an immense bed. A shipment of several tons 
was made to ilontreal and an experimental washing 
trough erected. Samples comparatively free fiom grit 

Washing Plant, Can. China Clay Co., Ltd., St. RemiSd'Amherst, Que 

iloi- :,.sts 

wiTr olitaiiicd. .\n,d\'si's aiu 
the .Milton Ilersey Co.. Ltd.. and . 
the kaolin to be of the first gi"iil' 
to the best l']nglish china clavs. 



wci'c iiiacle iiy 
which proved 
'i|ual in color 

In June. 1911, the writer examined the property and 
systematic prospecting was commenced. By trenching 
and drilling in a field several veins were opened up. 
The formation under some feet of overburden proved 
to bo Laurentian Gneiss, composed almost wholly of a 
(|uartzose rock with fine lines of kaolin. These gradu- 
ally widened until a vein 18 ft. in width was crossed. 
This vein was evidently a decomposed feldspar and 
carried only 5 per cent, of quartz grains. Boreholes 
v.-ere .sunk in this to a depth of 80 ft. and were still in 
good clay when .stojiped. Stripping was also continued 
along its length. Geologically this occurrence is similar 
:o those in the West of England. 

A study was made of the English methods of washing 
rl.iy. In that country the clay is refined by eleutriation. 
CJreat quarries are dug in the hill sides. Sluice boxes 
are built up to the face of the quarry and the mixed 
reck and cl;\v shoveled into them. A stream of water 
carries the clay and finer particles of rock in suspen- 
sion down the sluice way. the rock particles gradually 
.-e'tling to the bottom as the current becomes slower. 
The water carrying the clay in suspension discharges 
into immense vats or ponds. After a time the clay 
settles to the bottom and the .surplus clear water is 
pumped off. The clay remains in the vats for about 
si.\ months when it becomes jierfectly dry. It is then 

China Clay— Opening a New Vein 

cut into chunks, carted out and loaded into half-ton 
casks for shipment. This makes a good clay, 
liut takes time. 

The bulk of the kaolin used in the industries of 
Hurope and America is produced in the West of Eng- 
land, principally in Cornwall. The pits there have 
been operated for china clay since IS'M. and in 1911 
had an output of 750.000 tons. As this is only one-fifth 
of the material dug an immense amount of quarrying 
must be done to recover this. Very little first-grade 
china clay is produced in the United States, and tliat is 
in the southern part. The clay there is of sedimentary 
formation and so tinted by iron oxides that it does not 
command the price of the pure white residual clay of 
England and Canada. 



Febiiiarv 1, 1 !»!:{. 

Clay WMshinu: plniils in tin- sciuiheni States were 
visited and the iiictlKid of extrauting water t'roiii the 
clay by means of lilfer )»ri'sses was fonud to be woi-king 
satisfactorily. As cvim-v rlay recpiii'i's a different treat- 
ment, experiments wim-c c.-i n'ird on initil a system suit- 
able for this cday was devised. The style of plunger, 
size of .screen, (|U,intity of watei-. h-ngth, dimensions 
and pitch of eleutriation troughs, size of settling tanks, 
design of filter press, weight of duck. etc.. all had to 
be considered. These features having been decided ;i 
plant was designed which proved smtisfactorx- and altei- 
the usual delays incident to the establishing of a new- 
industry the Canadian China Clay Co.. Tjtd.. have had 
the satisfaction of ]ii'oducing a c-hina clay of very 
superior quality and coloi' f k c from gi'il. 

An analysis of the i'l.i\- |irodu<-ed as dcteiniined li\- 
the Milton Hersey Co.. Ltd.. is as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica ■ii--i:i 

Alumina 40.48 

Oxide of iron 0.0:5!) 

Lime 0.24 

Magnesia 0.:ifi 

Sulphuric anhydride none 

Combined moisture, carbon dioxide ami or- 
ganic mater 14.4() 

Residue on flotation ti'ace 

The residui' on flolation is unnsindly low. 

The clay is mined by digging, no di'illing oi- blasting 
being reqtiired. trammed 600 ft. to the plant, washed 
free from grit and allowed to settle. Aftei- the tillei' 

presses have exti-acte(l tin' -.ur|)lus moisture the clay is 
dried in kilns. ])ulveri/ed and haggi-d for shipment. 

The plant is situated two miles fi-oni St. Remi d "Am- 
herst, and seven miles from Ilubertleau Station, the 
tei'unnus (d" the Canadian Xoi'thern Quebec Railway, 
l>4 nnles noi-tli of .Mmitreal. Surveys have l)een made 
ti) continue the lailway past the pioperty. 

Chin.-i clay or kaolin A1,0,. 2SrO+2H.,0 is composed 
i-ldctly of kaolinite. It is used largely in the manufac- 
lure of porcelain and chinaware. It is also used in the 
manufacture of high tension electric insidators, electric 
lit tings, door knobs, etc.. also in the paper, textile, I'ub- 
hei' and jiaint industi'ies. The largest use in Canada is 
foi- coating white pa])ei-. As it is pui-e white in color 
and does not ivMinii'e such aids as liluing and other 
hleaching agents used in some imported clays, it finds 
a ready market here. The washing system devised 
pi'oduces aclay free from grit wliich will irot harm the 
tinest calender rolls. 

The following analyses of English clays show that 
the St. Remi clay c<uiip!ires more than favoi'ably with 
them in (|ualitics necessaiy to a good pajier clay: 

Coml.ini'd water, volatile 12.27 10.77 11.27 12.79 

1 2 :! 4 

.Moisture, loss at 100' ('... ().:!ii 10.1.". 7, (lit 0.10 
' 'oudiined watm'. volatile 

at red heat 12.27 10.77 11.27 12.7!) 

Silica (SiO.,) 47.r)6 42.72 43.50 41.16 

Alumina (A1..0J .•^8.12 3.3.44 3.5.48 35.84 

Ses(|uioxide ofiron (FcO.! 08 1.04 trace 0.67 

Lime (CaO) 0.39 1.61 0.17 0.42 

Magnesia (ilgO) 0.00 0.16 0.02 

Alkalis 1.28 0.11 2.08 

(iritlev flotation test 0.65 6.83 0.10 


Paper makers who use i-ags have to conuuence by 
taking the old starch and bllings out. It has long been 
the practice to do this by malting the rags. Cross & 
Bevan. in their "Textbook of I'aper-making, " stati': 
"It nniy be noted that the removal of starch fi'om 
'rags' — i.e.. cuttings fi-om unused cloth, -whether 
bleached or unbleached, is hy no means easily accomp- 
li.shed by the ordinary alkali hoil. The first effect of 
the treatment being to geletinise the starch, which then 
combines with the^ alkali, the penetration of the rags 
by the alkaline is mi;ch impeded. The starch is 
best attacked by the specific treatnn'ut of malting. 
The rags are boiled with sufficient water to swell the 
starch ; more water is than added to cool the nmss to 60 
degrees C, an infusi(ni of malt is then added. In one 
to two hours the hydi'olysis of the starch is so far com- 
plete that the oi-dinai-y Imiling nniy be ]iroceeded v.ith 
after adding the eomplenn-nt of alkaline lye."" 

The same ardlmrs ex|ilain the action of nndt on 
starch as follows : — 

"Starch, under the influence of enzynu' of malt. 
termed diastase, yields to the series of dextrines, am\-- 
lins. nuilto-dextrins. maltose, and finally dextrose. To 
convey some idea of the complications presented by the 
series, it may be noted that it is necessary to expand 
the original starch molecule to 5 (C|.JL„0,„)o„. The 
first effect of hydrolysis is to split this into a I'esistanf 
dextrin of the formula ( ,,.II,,„0|„ ) and a group of amy- 
line reiiresenting the remaining four-fifths id' the mob^- 

eule which pass through further hydration stages re- 
piesented l\v .such formulae as (C,„H„„0-,n)n -\- HoqO 
maltose grou]-) being successfidly formed aud split off. 
\'ea>l. again, secretes an enzyme termed invertase, 
wliii'h hydrates the crystalli.sable but still complex 
sugars, such as maltose and cane sugar (both C,.jHo„Oin) 
to the simple hexose C,;H,oO,;. 

This may be explained in a simpler manner. Extract 
of nmlt contains chemically active substances known as 
"enzynn's. "" These bodies are not in the true sense fer- 
ments: they are not living organisms, but are products 
of the chemical processes of the living ceJi, though 
their chemical activity sui'vives the lif':' of the cell and 
is separated fi'om it. 

Each enzyme appears to act on a very limited group 
of chemical compounds: thus amylase, the enzyme of 
malt, hydrolyzes starch. l)Ut does not h.vdrolyze cellu- 
lose. l'>y '-('ason of this selective action diastastic pre- 
p:irations nniy be employed for the removal of sizing 
fi-om textile goods, as they cause the complete solution 
and removal of the size without in any mannei- attack- 
ing the fibi-e. 

Enzymes are soluble in water. flKuigh the>- are easi!\- 
coagulated liy preci|)itates, and they arc also readily 
absoibi'd from solution by the textile fibres. apj)arently 
adhering to them with great tenacity, as it is very difiti- 
cult to renu)ve the enzyme by washing. 

Enzymes ai-e very sensitive to heat. At 32 degi-ees 
E. they ha\e no action whatever. With rising temper- 

F.tiniMi-v 1. 1!113. 



aturt'. liDWi'ViT. their activity increases in efficiency up 
to a maxinunn point, which varies with different liinds 
of enzvnies. When this temperature of inaxininm effi- 
ciency is exceeded, the activity of the enzyme again 
decreases, until at 190 to 212 degrees F. it becomes en- 
tirely suspended. 

The presence of vai-ious chemical substances may 
influence the activity of the enzyme. Acids, alkalies, 
and salts usually exert a retarding or even a destroying 
effect. Other chemical bodies, such, for example, as 
asparagin. promote and stimulate the aeiivity of the 

The process of making malt from barley is a well- 
known one. The grain is first carefully cleaned, and is 
then subjected to a steeping process. When the grain 
has absorbed the proper amount of water it is allowed 
to gernnnate. This furnishes the malt, which is then 
dried and serves as the primary material for the pro- 
duction of diastase. 

ilalt diastase is not a simple uniform body, but con- 
sists of a number of different enzymes. The develop- 
ment of one or the other specific enzyme may be favor- 
ed or i-etarded according to the conditions under which 
the malting process is conducted. One enzyme in nuilt 
is peptose. which is capable of converting albununous 
substances into soluble bodies (peptones.) Another 
enzyme is pectase. which acts specifically on pectin 
bodies, converting them into soluble products. 

The action of diastase on starch is a hydrolyziug one; 
the starch takes up water, and is first converted into 
soluble starch, then into dextrin, and finally into mal- 
tose. The efficiency of the diastase is greatly depend- 
ent on the temperature : it increases with rise of tem- 
perature up to about 1.55 degrees F.. then decreases, 
until at about 190 degrees F. all activity ceases. 

:Malt has bee nemployed by paper-makers and in 
the textile industries for a long time; For instance, 
take calico printing. The textile printer has to add a 
thickening to his color paste, otherwise it would spread. 
This thickening, having served its purpose, must be 
removed and this is done by malting. 

It is only within the last few years, however, that 
the chemical knowledge of malt preparations has been 
so developed as to permit of the isolation and separa- 
tion of the different eft'eetive enzymes in the malt ex- 
tract. By special malting processes it is now possible 
to separate amylase and pectase almost quantitatively 
from other constituents, and to obtain them in an easily 
soluble form so as to be conveniently used in the tex- 
tile trades. The first product of this character was 
1 lanufactured by the Diamalt Works, of Vienna, in 
1903. and was put on the market under the name of 
Diastafor. The Malt Producers Company, of 
Bermondsey. who have paid great attention to the mat- 
ter, have also brought out a most excellent product 
under the name of Brimal. This is now a favorite ex- 
tract with laundereis. who use it in their "breakdown 
—i.e.. ill getting the old starch out of the linen in the 
least damaging manner, and also in the textile trades. 
Here it is used both destructively and constructively, 
that is to say, it is employed both to get rid of unneces- 
sary starch, and also to prepare starch dressings, and 
it must be remembered that all textile finishing mix- 
tures have a basis of starch. 

The particular api)!ications of Brimal in paper-inak- 
-ing and iii.inufacturing are in two well-defined direc- 
tions : — 

1. If 1-ags are tln' raw material it is. of course, ne- 
cessarv to remove the starch and loading materials, 
and incidentallv the dirt, before beating. Although 

caustic soda or lime is often employed to effect the re- 
moval of starch and iucrusta;ing matters, it is the prac- 
tice in many mills to substitute the old method by the 
improved treatment of malting, which immediately 
reduces all starchy matter in the rag to a liquid state, 
and naturally the dirt falls out more readily. This 
newer process is not only much quicker, but it so thor- 
oughly cleanses and softens the stock that the bleach- 
ing liquor is better absorbed, and ultimately a closer 
and more evenl.v felted sheet is obtained without the 
slightest tendering action on the rags. 

As we have pointed out. Cross & Bevan recommend 
making as the easiest and most complete method. The 
use of specially concentrated Brimal .simplifies the pro- 
cess much further. 

Rags treated in the rotary or stationary boiler with 
one to two pounds of Brimal per 100 gallons of water 
for 1.5 to 20 minutes, at 140 to 150 degrees F. (not 
boiled), with no other addition, will be completely de- 
sized and freed from dirt. An,v steeping action will 
do in vats or boileis in the heat named. The strength 
of a bath of greater volume will be well maintained b.v 
the addition of 8 ounces Brimal to each succeeding 100 
gallons. A bath of 1.200 gallons would therefore re- 
quire onlv 7 lbs. 

Brimal has a strong solvent action on the pectinous 
matter which esparto contains so largely, and is a very 
effective agent in the scouring treatment of jute. Less 
chlorine is required, and a much shorter treatment. 
Jute ma.v be given a bath at 150 degi-ees F., similar to 
rags, and left .stacked if convenient, the longer the bet- 
ter, then washed if necessary. 

There is not the slightest tendering action. The Bri- 
mal bath must not be boiled ; 140 degrees to 150 degrees 
F. is the most advantageous temperature. Straw is 
made more flexible owing to the softening actiim of 
Brimal on the highly-polished fibre. 

2. The incorporation of starch for the production of 
highly surfaced papers is simple, if the starch is dex- 
trinised with Brimal 

A starch mixing including Brimal in the pro5)orfion 
of 2 lbs. to the 100 lbs. of starch (on the dry weight of 
starchj will, upon heating to 150 degrees F.. gelatinise 
to a clear fluid, with a content of dextrine sufficient to 
produce a high and even surface without the additiim 
of an.v gums or glazing agents. 

A similarly prepared starch mixing can, if necessarv, 
be easily incorporated as a valuable strengthening to 
the pulp paste. The peculiar resilienc.v resulting in the 
starch permits of its mining in the pa.ste without the 
fear of its dr\ing out in undesirable patches, or of its 
being squeezed out of the paste under the rollers. As 
a toughening agent, such a ilextrinised starch is inex- 

The writer has watched with interest the progress 
of these special malt extracts and their gradually de- 
veloping employment in the textile industries. He is 
proud to be able to be the first to call the attention of 
j)aper-makers to an important medium for the imjirove- 
ment of their j)rocesses. 

Mr. F. Christie, of the Forestry Department. Univer- 
sitv of Toronto, is lecturing at Ciuelph. taking up the 
work of Prof. Zavitz. recently appointed Ontario Com- 
missioner of Fore>trv. Mr. Christie is a native of Am- N.S.. and holds a high reputation as a clever 



Fi'hniarv 1. 191:3. 


E. L. Einman, oi' llamas has invriitrd a process of 
making sodiuni bicarbonati- ami uriiaiiie siihstanees from 
soda pulp -waste li(iuoi-. 

When the so-called lilaek lii|U()rs from soda imli) 
mills have been freed, by treating the same with ear- 
l)ODic acid or otherwise, from those organic substances 
which are precipitated by carbonic acid, they contain 
sodium oxide combined with eai'bonic aciil m- wiakei- 
acids, and also combined with acetic acid, formic acid, 
resinous acids and other organic acids, says the inven- 

The object of the invention is to treat the said black 
liquors further in such a manner as to recover directly 
the largest possi])le quantity of sodium in the form of 
bicarbonate of soda (soda lye for boiling cellulose sidi- 
stances) and, if desired, at the same time obtain the 
acetic acid, the formic acid, the resinous acids and other 
organic acids in a practically suitable form. 

The invention consists chiefly in directly sub.jecting 
the black liquor, freed in any suitable manner, wholly 
or to a considerable part, from those organic substances 
which are precipitated by carbonic acid. and. if de- 
sired, in a concentrated form, to the well-known am- 
monia soda process. By this means I obtain hic;U'b;)u- 
ate of soda and. if lime be used for driving oflf ammonia 
from the waste liquor. 1 also obtain calcium salts, of 
acetic, formic, resinous and other organic acids. In 
fact, by treating the black liquor with ammonia and 
carl)onic acid at a suitable temperatui-c and a suitable 
concentration of sodium salts, dissnlved thci-ein. bicar- 
bonate of soda will be precipitated even more fully than 
when a mere solution of sodium chloride is treated, due 
to the fact that a larger qiiantity of ammonium salts 
may be dissolved when several acids with more easily 
soluble ammonium salts are present than when the 
solution contains only ammonium chlni'idc. 

In ordei- that my invention may be fully understood. 
I will now describe a particular example thereof, viz.. 
the treatment of a lilack liquor containing sodium 
chloride, said liquor having first been substantially 
fieed by carbonic acid (bicarbonate of soda) fi'om or- 
ganic substances and reduced by evaporation to a suit- 
able concentration. The black liquor thus treated con- 
tains Na.,0 combined with organic acids, hydrochloric 
acid and carbon dioxide, the concentration being pre- 
feralily such that one litre of liquor contains aliout 100 
grammes of Na.O combined with organic acids, about 
80 grammes of Na^O combined with hydrochloric acid 
and about 30 grammes of Xa,,0 combined with carbim 
dioxide. This liquor is further treated in ordinary 
saturating apparatus with ammonia and carbon 
dioxide, at a temperature of 20 deg. to 40 deg. Centi- 
grade, until about 60 to 70 per cent, of the quantity of 
sodium oxide has been precipitated in the form of bi- 
barconate of soda, whereupon the precipitate is separ- 
ated in suitable tittering apparatus fi-oni the (lark 
colored mother liquor. For the saturation with carbon 
dioxide I preferably employ the escape gases from lime 
burning furnaces (containing about 25 to 30 per cent, 
of carbon dioxide), in which case the saturation will 
generally require a time of 12 to 24 hours (more or less 
accoi'ding to the concentration of the carbon dioxide). 

The mother liquor from the precipitate contains 
hydrocldoric acid, acetic acid, formic acid, resinous 
acids and oxy-acids soluble in water, all combined with 
ammonia and sodium. From this mother liquor not 
oidy ammonia, but also the organic acids should be re- 

covered. This is effected in the following manner: 
First free ammonia and ammonia combined with car- 
l;onic acid. and. possibly, other weak acids, sneh as 
resinous acids, arc driven oft'; in the latter ease the said 
resinous acids are precipitated. Thereupon a strong 
base, such as lime, is added, in a i|uantit\- somewhat 
larger than that calculated from the formula. By this 
means the ammonia is disengaged, while the acids pro- 
duce lime salts. Resinous substances previously pre- 
cipitated may be i-emoved. or not, before the lime is 
added. The ammonia is thereupon separated from the 
solution by heating same, during a sufficiently long 
time, in a suitable appai'atus. As the licpiid is very 
liable to skim, care should be taken to prevent this by 
any suitable means, such as agitators, addition of 
[laraftin. or the like. 

Jf tlie i-esinous acids Imve not been separated before, 
the lime added to the lye produces an easily filterable 
and washable fine grained precipitate of calcium resin- 
ates insolulde in water, whereas the acetic acid and the 
foi'mic acid as well as the oxyacids form soluble cal- 
cium salts. If the said lye is to be utilized this may be 
1 erformed in the following way: The calcium resinate 
is separated from the solution by known methods of 
filtration or pressing. The calcium resinate thus ol)- 
tained may l)e treated in any suitable manner, for in- 
stance, by dry distillation, in the presence of steam or 
not. The solution obtained from the said processes (the 
filtrate 1 now contains calcium salts of acetic acid, 
formic acid, other organic acids, and. possibly, hydi'o- 
chloric acid and also contains sodium chloride. If the 
organic acids in solution are to be utilized, the solution 
is concentrated as hereinafter set forth. Acetate and 
formate of lime together with sodium chloride may be 
crystallized out from the solution concentrated to the 
consistency of syinp. The main qiiantity of the latter 
salt may be ciystalli/ed out without considerable quan- 
tities of organic salts being mixed therewith, and it may 
be used in the pi'ocess instead of pure sodium chloride, 
especially if the solution has first ben freed, for in- 
stance, by precipitation with oxy-acids tlic calcium 
salts of which are preci]n table with alcohol. The lime 
salts thns separated may be utilized in any suitable 

Another way of proceeding consists in eva])orating 
the whole solution to dryness, and. after adding a 
strong acid, distilling off acetic acid and formic acid in 
usual manner. The residue of distillation may 
thereupon l)e subjected to dry distillation. It is obvi- 
ous that the whole solution, reduced to dryness, may be 
immediately exposed to dry distillation, in the presence 
of sui^erheated steam or not. in which case acetone and 
other substances are obtained. The acetate and the 
formate of lime separated may be treated in known 
manner for recovering acetic acid and formic acid. The 
oilier lime salts nuiy be subjected to dry distillation, 
in tlie presence of steam oi- not. or they may be treated 
otherwise, if desired. 

A further way of proceeding consists of disengaging 
the organic acids by stronger acids. Among the latter 
I i)refei'ably first employ sulphurous acid, by which 
about half the whole quantity of lime is precipitated 
as in-()lulile calcium sulphite; the reaction is fiest per- 
formed at an incri'ased temperature, in order to prevent 
the formation of acid calcium sulphite. Hereby the 
ace'ic acid is disengaged and may be directly distilled 
off. if desired. When the acetic acid has been distilled 

l-'rlinini-v 1, 19l:l. 



off. till' loi-iiuc acid may bo disengaged l)y a stronger 
acid, sueli as sulphuric acid, and distilled off. 

A still Tui'ther wa.v of proceeding consists in first 
irinoxing calcium sul])lii1e iind thereui)on adding a 
sufficient (juautit.v of snli)linric acid so that foi'inic acid 
or all the organic acids aie at oiic-e disengaged. There- 
upon the mixture of acetic acid and foi-mic acid is dis- 
tilled off. (iypsuni which is preci]iitafed may be separ- 
ated hefoi-e oi' after the distillation. The oxy-acids may 
thereupon b(> dii'cctly sei)arated from tiu! mass of salts 
by filtration oi' ])ressing witii or without the addition 
of water oi- other suitable solvent. The syruj) thus 
obtained nniy be utilized by methods of dry distilla- 
tion. If desired, the I'alciuin salts of ox.v-acids niny be 
subjected to such a dry distillation bcfoi-e the formic 
acid is distilled off. 

Obviiujsly, care sjiould be taken that in preciiiitat ing 
bicarbonate of sod.i the lye contains a sufficient fiuan- 
tity of sodium chloride. It is obvious that in using tlu' 
process foi- regenerating carbonate of .sodi fi'om black 
li(|U(ns it sinndd at the same time be directly u.«ed on 
new (|uantilies of sodium chloi-ide in order at the same 
lime to i)i'oduce a cheap solution of carl;onate of soda 
for covering all losses of sodium oxide in boiling cellu- 
lose substances. The said addition of sodium chloride 
is to bi' effected in such manner that the ipnintity of 
sodium e(|nivalent to the desired quantity of sodn 
amounts to about 60 per cent, of the total percentage 
(if sodium of tlie lye. On account thei-eof. the addition 
is to be calculated in the n^nnl m.iiine)' in each separate 

In all operations performed in this process of regen- 
erating sodium oxide from the black liquor or in simul- 
taneously recovering sodium oxide from sodium chlor- 
ide care should be taken that the solution containing 
acetic acid and formic acid is not unnecessarily diluted, 
since in such case the price of recovering the said acids 
will obviously be raised. 

If desired, the precipitate of bicarbonate of soda may 
be freed from ammonium salts by washing same with 
black liquors (treated with carbtuiie acid, or not) from 
which bicarbonate is to be precipitated with ammonia 
and cai'bonic acid. The precipitate of bicarbonate of 
soda may also be used, either directly or after imper- 
fect washing, for producing new quantities of boiling Obviously, however, the ammonia contained in 
the said precipitate should be recovered. If the bicar- 
bonate of soda is to lie used for producing a solution 
of cai-lionate of soda to be eausticized for forming boil- 
ing lye. carbonic acid disengaged is suitabl.v recovered 
in order to be again used in the process. If this car- 
bonic acid gas contains ammonia, it may. obviousl.y, be 
employed with the same result. 

The Vera Chemical Company is erecting a factory at 
ISurlington. Ont.. for the manufaiiture of sizing for 
writing paper. The building is 152 feet by 62, four 
storeys high. 

Dr. J. A. Hanci-oft. of .Arc(;ill I'niversity. Montreal, 
who was in charge of a survey party sent out by the 
Quebec Government to study the natural resources of 
the territory south of James Bay, states that in the 
basins of the Xottaway. Hai-rinaw, and Pell Hivers, 
there is a great wealth of pulp wood, including black 
and white sprue, balsam and jack pine. There are also 
numerous water powers, some of them quite large. At 
Iroquois chute the entire Xottaway Rivei- takes a drop 
of 35 feet. 


At the new plant of tin- .Milton Lcatherboard Co., 
Milton, N.H., what are said to be the largest concrete 
beater tubs in the w-orld have just been completed by 
the Aberthaw Construction Co.. of Boston, Mass., who 
are executing the entire contract for this work. The 
accompanying illustration, which shows three of the 
four tubs built, will give a good idea as to their unusu- 
ally large .size. The over-all dimensions of each are 
26 ft. 8 in. long by 13 ft. 2 in. wide, making them larger 
than any wooden titbs which have heretofore been 

Reinforced concrete has been used exclusively in the 
buildings of the Milton Leatherboard Co. The main 
building is 185 ft. by 70 ft., with two storeys and base- 
ment. Adjoining is a raw stock room 120 ft. b.\' -10 ft. 
and 30 ft. high. 

The Aberthaw Construction Co., Boston, has ex- 
ecuted the work in accordance with design of I. W. 
Jones, engineer, of ililton, N.H. 


The McLeod Pulp Company, of Milton, N.S., the only 
mill in that province with a paper machine, is contem- 
plating exten.sive additions in the form of sulphite and 
an additional machine. 

Mr. J. D. McLeod. the president, of the tirm of J. B. 
McCurdy & Company, brokers, Halifax, is a man of the business perceptions. The amalgamation of 
these mills with tlie Halifax Tramways and Robert in- 
terests in the Gaspereaux valley is reported a dead 
issue. The above company will rather pursue a policy 
of independent development of their exceptional ad- 
vantages. A deep-sea shipping port open the year 
round, three mills now in good running order, the best 
of labor and ideal manufactni-ing conditions, with un- 
limited power, give them the most valuable opening in 
this province. 

The manager, Jlr. Downer, is one of the most active 
men in the industry, and has made a most creditable 
showing in putting a small old mill on a modern and 
successful operating basis. In the inunediate vicinity 
of the mill he has a possible total development of 25.- 
000 horse-power, which will gradually be utilized in 
extensions. The mill caters almost entirely to the Eng- 
lish market, where this wood board is deserved jiopular. 

We c(uigratulate the management of so young a firm 
on their rapid i>rogress and bespeak for them the 
greatest success in their future ventures. 



Febniarv 1, 1013. 


l>y II. Ijluiiiiiric ;md il. Ai'fiy. 
(Specially ti-aiislati'd for l*iil|) and I'apci' ]\Iagazine.) 

The idea (if inakiiit;- paper iiu])ei-iiiealile hy iiujiregnat- 
iuo; it is eci'taiiily not new. heeause tar or oil ])apers 
have lieeu inamifaetui'ed for a long time. The prepar- 
ing of these papers, especially the oil paper, is ratlier 
expensive, and requires much space and labor and many 
mechauieal devices. Besides, tliese papers on account 
of their taste and smell or theii- inconvenient soiling of 
delicate ol)jeets with which they come in contact, are 
exempted from a great nnndier of uses and esjiecially 
from wrapping aliments and confectionery. The oil 
paper, besides, is difficult and takes long to dry. as the 
oil only dries by nutans of a kind of oxidation. 

(Ither pajiers. mostly used for lining lioxes. Irans- 
l)Oi-ted by water and for wrai)ping certain jjroduets 
sensitive to humidity, are made by impregnating with 
a kind of grease, vei'y thick at ordinary temperatures 
and obtained in the same way as paraffin from Ameri- 
can peti'olc-um. In order that a paper thus iirejiared 
may not soil objects with which it comes in contact, it 
is necessary to eliminate at high temperature the ex- 
cess of grease by means of an enei'getie pressm-e be- 
tween rolls. The jiaper might afterwards to be aei-ated 
foi- a suitable time. 

It is only lately that fatty substances, solid at ordin- 
ary temi)eiatures and cMlnrless and oderless. such as 
waxes and paraffins, have been utilized for making 
papers impermeable. Wax was first used, but its high 
price has caused it to be aliandoned for the paraffin, a 
mixtui'e of solid hydro-carbons, olitained by treating 
the heavy oils from a slow distillation at high tempera- 
ture of American ])etriileum. 

Paraffin possesses tin' same qualities as wax for mak- 
ing paper impermeable and is cheaper. There are 
several different grades of paraffin in the market, more 
or less hard, and which have a melting point of 
-H'-64'('.. ili'ijendiiig upon theii- purity. The [lai'affin 
used always ought to be rather hard, so that the im- 
pregnated sheets do not stick together when cut. It 
must be odorless, especially if the paper to be impreg- 
nated is used for wrai)ping footstuffs. For impregnat- 
ing papers used for wrapping less sen.sitive objects, 
inferior grades of ])araffin still containing a little oil 
are used. 

The applications of paraffin papers are numerous: 
wrapping of aliments, especially concentrated i)roducts 
sold in solid form and in prepared portions, chocolate, 
candy, etc., in one word, everything which must be 
preserved in a durable way against the action of the air 
iir the humidity or protected against drying. Paraffin 
paper is valuable for confectionery, liecause it is an 
ideal protection against dust, so injurious to health and 
because it does not adhere to the pi'oducts wrapped u]i. 
On account of its multiplied uses the consumption of 
this paper has increased considerably during the last 
years and is still growing. Its use foi- I'eproduction 
ajiparatus. called Cyclostyles. Jlimeographs, etc.. may 
also be mentioned. 

Thick paraffin papers are used for sevei-al purposes. 
In certain countries, fruit boxes are made from this 
material; it is also used for dynamite cartridges. 

The paper was originally prepared by hand by rub- 
bing on the pai'affiu , while the paper was placed on a 
heated plate. This method was much too slow and tlie 
high price prevented the ])aper from obtaining any 
great consumption. Paraffin paper has been made by 
mechanical means for about twenty years. The accom- 
panying figure, represents a pai'affining machine built 
by A. Koebig. Dresden. It has a box containing molten 
juiraffin through which the paj)er passes, when paper 

Machine for Paraffening Paper 

paraffined on both sides is made, which is the most 
usual. This box is heated by gas or steam so that the 
temperature of the paraffin bath is close to 100 deg. C. 
The jiaper leaving the bath carries with it a quantity of 
pai'affin in excess, greater in degree with the speed of 
the ihachine. In the first macliines constructed this 
excess was scraped off by thin steel scrapers. Three 
such scrapers were used on each side of the paper. 
This .system had the inconvenience of retaining particles 
of grit and other impurities contained in the paraffin 
or projecting from the surface of the paper. This grit 
was retained under the scrapers and caused streaks in 
the paper, of which a certain quantity became .spoiled. 
This refuse paper would sometimes amount to 20 per 
cent, of the total production, depending upon the veloc- 
ity at which the machine was run. 

The paper is then cooled otif while passing over a 
series of other rolls. A small ventilator accelerates the 
cooling. The paraffin has then become sufficiently hard 
so that the paper can be rolled. With this system with 
scrapers, thin paper strongly calendered and weighing 
17 to 18 grammes per square metre, absorbs about 30 
per cent, of its weight of paraffin. With new machines 
and suitable paper it is possible to use only 3..") to 4 
grammes of paraffin per square metre. 

Lately the excess of paraffin has been squeezed out 
by rubber rolls, which cause much less refuse and i-e- 
duce the ciu:intity of paraffin absorl)ed. It may be re- 
marked, that all qualities of rublier are not suitable for 

Fphniiirv 1, 1913. 



llu'sp 1-olls oil account of the elevated temperature to 
wiiicli they are exjiosed. Even the special qualities 
used don't have more tlian a rather limited existence, 
hut the extra expense caused is insignificant compared 
with the reduction of refuse. With up-to-date machines 
a prcxlnctioii nf up to l.").!)!!!!' per houi- of thill and care- 
fully made paper has hceii allaincd. The machines 
are e.isily h;iiidled ; a lioy is eiiouirh fur each machine, 
tlieii' )irii'c- is low ,inil thr_\- don't i'e(|uirr niuch sjiace. 

The maehiiie can also he mana<4e(| so that the p:ii-- 
aftiii is (Uily applied to one side. The cimsumpt ion of 
l)aiafliii may tlieii he reduced to two grammes jier 
square metre. The paper paraffined in only '>ii' side 
is. however, always cloudy and has fe-,\cr appli(!ations. 
Thill paraffined papers are seldom made widei- -iian one 
metre, hut thicker grades occur in wichhs of 1.40 metres 
and more. 

I'nder such eondilions the (piestion ai'ises. why Ih-n-e 
not more mills for paraffin papers been o'arted. as the 
manufacture is so simple and a small capital is enough. 
The most important hiiidi'ance to the starting of new 
mills is the (lifficulty of finding a paper with suitable 
ipialities as raw material. The thin grades, of which 
tlie greatest part of the coiisumjition consists, recpiire 
tissue paper of 17-18 grammes per sipiare metre, well 
manufactured and very regulai-. delivered carefully 
rolled and e([uall.v stretched on both sides. If one side 
is more stretched than the other. diagon;d fcdds ai'e 
formed, which are visilile in the paper in the form it\' 
white streaks, whicli make the jiaper unsalable. The 
tissue paper ought to be calendered in order to alisorb 
less paraffin. It is mostly made by mills turning out 
cigarette paper, and several paraffin their paper them- 
.selves, only selling the excess of their production. Very 
few other mills are able to manufacture thin super- 
calendered papers; the authors have seen several pro- 
jects for paraffining mills abandoned on account of the 
difficulty of ]>rocuring a regular deli\-ery of the re- 
(piired raw ])aper. 

The machine described above makes pajier iviraffined 
nn'formly on its whole surface. This paper is often 
oefore Iteing jiaraffined. covered with illustrations, etc.. 
ill one or more colors. ]U"iiited with aniline colors on a 
small machine with rubber rolls, having the illustra- 
tions in relief. 

Papers are also manufactured which are only par- 
affini'd on part of their surface, following bands placed 
at certain intervals. Such, for instance, are the cigar- 
ette papers called "Anbres. " After cutting these par- 
affined bands from the end of the cigarette; the.v pre- 
vent it sticking to the smoker's lips. The work of 
l)arafifining is done either in sheets; by hand or by ma- 
chine, or eontimiously and tlien only by machine. In 
case of continuous paraffining, the paraffined bands 
ought to be transverse to the paper, so that after cut- 
ting the cigarette is rolled transverse to the length of 
the machine in which direction the pajier is more easily 
lolled. The quantity of paralifin api)Iied to the pa])er 
ought to be so small that the thi(dvness of the paper is 
not increased on the ]iaraffini>d jilaces. especially close 
beside the bands. It is a very delicate work and r(^- 
qiiiiTs the greatest care. When the sheets are piled (ui 
top (d' each other so that the paraffined bands exactly 
coiiK'ide. the pile must not be thickei-, where the bands 
ari'. The speed of these machines is much lower than 
for the comiiioii paraffining machine and does not ex- 
ceed 40-(iO' per minute. — La Papeterie. 



The Editor I'ulp and Paper .Magazine: 

The rapid strides which the pulp and paper industry 
has made in Canada during the past two years has 
caused cei-tain authorities of some eminence to advise 
caution in the launching of further projects, though on 
the whole there has been a noticeable tendency on the 
part of the issuers of these warnings to assume an un- 
compromising attitude indicating that they have not 
given the (piestion as much thought or study as it would 
warrant. Their warnings, liowever, have been issued 
with a concern chiefly in connection with the probable 
temporary unbalancing of the pulp and ])aper trade as 
a result of the enormous increase of output in the 
operation of the new Canadian mills. 

That the country is capable of supplying an even 
much greater output is not questioned for a moment, 
for it is now fairly well understood that the i)ulp and 
pai)er production of Eastern Canada can continue to 
expand to an enormous extent for many years to come 
without endaiigeiing the capital foi-est wealth of the 
country. 1 calculate that Quebec Province alone can 
supply five million tons of ])aper annually from the in- 
crement of her forests. Other oiiinions greatly increase 
that estimate. 

Ill order to understand the situation, some knowl- 
edge of the world's consumiition of paper must be ob- 
tained and in this connection these is probably no bet- 
ter authority to be consulted than Mr. Franz Krawany, 
of Germany, who some time ago estimated that tlie 
world's paper consumption is over eight million tons a 
year, of which six and a half million tons is made from 
wood pulp, and the balance from other materials. It is 
estimated by the same authority that by 1920 the 
world's consumption of paper will be ten million tons a 
year, an increase of 25 per cent, in ten years, or 214 per 
cent, a year, which means an increase in demand of 
200.000 tons a year, or 660 tons daily per year. 

Where shall this increased production come from? 

There are few jtlaces outside of Canada where condi- 
tions will permit of large expansion, but. on the con- 
trar.v, it is more reasonable to expect a marked diminu- 
ation of output from many of the older pulp and paper 
manufacturing centres in the Ignited States, which, at 
present, import raw material from Canada for a pro- 
duction of nearly one million tons a year. This ex- 
porting of raw material from Canada certainly cannot 
increase, but must rather diminish, not alone on account 
of tariff restrictions, lint owing to the well-known con- 
ditions which jilacc Canadian manufacturers in a much 
more favorable position for competition in [Tnited 
States and other foreign markets, .so that whether tarifT 
regulations favor the Canailian jiroducei' or not even- 
tually (and that is socm ) consumers must come to 
Canada to buy. 

Here are the woi'ds of .Mi-, (ieo. C. Sherman. Secre- 
tary and Treasurer of the St. Regis Paper Co., and a 
gentleman who knows what he is talking about, as any- 
one can learn if he cares to investigate. Jlr. Slierman 
says: " Ft will be only a short time before tlie (Canadian 
manufacturers will be able to dictate [irices to Ameri- 
can imblishers. if Ihey are mil e\eii iio\\- in ;i position 
to do so. .Ml papei- iii.inufaelurers with whom I have 
tiilked agreed the prodin'tioii of ii(Mvs|)iinl and 
other papers made birgely of ground wood will dimin- 



F.'hni.-ii-v 1, lin:!. 

ish in the I'nilcd States aud grow aci-oss the bcn-dei'. 
Unless we United States inamifacturci's an' i)lace(l in a 
position where we can secure our I'aw iiiafiTJal we will 
he driven from tlie tichl. 

Now, with ail annual iiii-rease of L>()(l.(l(l(l tons nf 
paper in the iiiai-kets of the woi'id the (piestion to he 
answered is. how iiiiich of this ih'inand can Canada 
safely assume as her shai-e in eompctitioii with the rest 
of the world? 

The chief competing countries in the pulp and paper 
trade are United States, Scandinavia. <iermany. Russia, 
Newfoundland. France. England, and a few smaller 
producers. In how many of the fciregoiiig can expan- 
sion of the paper production lake |)lMee. and to what 
extent ? 

In the older and well settled Eui-opean eountiie- no 
expansion of the wood ],roduct may he anticipat' d. and 
as wood pulp has for years gradually been displacing 
other materials, it is likely to continue to do so, or, at 
least, to the extent of very nearly accounting for the 
increase of the world's consumption, which is 660 tons 
per day per annum as estimated by Mr. Krawany and 
verified by the writer by various comparisons. 

Scandinavia is now manufacturing pulp and i)ai)i'r 
very nearly to the limit of her resources and producing 
a l>ulp inferior to the Canadian article. Russia is the 
only I'robahle future competitor of any lai-ge account, 
but her foi'csts arc to a considerable extent inaccessible 
and nuist remain so for many nu)re year.s. during which 
period the Canadian industry can assume the ]n-ofitable 
Inirden of supplying almost all the inci'easing deman<l. 

C'onsidering, in addition to the foregoing argunu'nts. 
the just alarm which has stirred the world of late in 
regard to the growing scarcity of wood as a la'sult of 
forest depletion, and accepting the recognized fad that 
Canadian .spruce aud other conifei's arc tin' most 
economical fibrous product foi- the maiiufactui'c of 
paper, it must be admitted that Canada, iiy the natural 
conditions which favor her in legard to forests and 
water powers, shall and nuist assume the greatest jior- 
tion or praeticall.\- all of the annual iiuM'case of the 
world's paper production. Thercfoi-c. ;in iiu'rease of 
about 600 tons pei' da.\' jjei- annum can be handled liy 
Caniadian mills. 

The flurry in the establishing of new ]iai>er mills in 
this country during the year 1912. accounted for an in- 
crease of 1.000 tons per day. besides about IrSoO tons of 
pulp per day. 

This increase is considerably in excess of the logical 
increment. l)ut 1913 and lltll will not see anything like 
such another increase, so that even eliminating the 
probabilities of decreasing production in the United 
States and other countries, the Canadian mills by the 
end of 1912 were only abreast of the times. Besides 
it is well to remember that the stock of paper carried 
by large publishei's ever,vwhei-c rarely, if evei-. exceeds 
an eight days' supjtly. 

As it takes two oi' three \-ears to launch and put into 
operation a large pulp or papei' mill, no alarm need be 
felt if new enterprises are launched during tin- next 
two years. The writer is indebted to Mr. John Forman. 
of Montreal, for his kindness in permitting the use of 
his private fyles and reference lihraiw for verifying 
some of the above statistics. 


Chief Engineer and ]\igr. Jlontreal Engineering Co., 


Scconil ill im|)oi-tance (coming next to agricultural 
implements) in Canadian exports to Australia is the 
item of jirintiiig pai)er of which the importations into 
the (.'ommoiiwealtli have remained, practically, at the 
same figures in lllld and 1911. The trade returns dis- 
close the fact thai Caiia<lian printing paper is not main- 
taining the j)osition held in former years. The reason 
is doubtless capable of explanation in the industry. 
.Alore ])rofitablc domestic Inisiness and the demand in 
markets where there may he less competition than in 
Australia arc likel\- factors in the results arrived at. 
Several of the largi'st ( 'aiiadian paper mills have ex- 
I crienccd and cipahle rcpi-esentation in Australia and 
the decline cannot be attributed to any disadvantage 
ill that iesi)ect. As printing paper is dut.v free, the 

iipetition is upon an equal footing, but, in quoting 

upon c.i.r. and e. basis, continental shippers (at; least) 
likely obtain a more favorable freight rate. The im- 
I (irts fiom Norway and Sweden increased from £75.618 
in IIHID to £120,444 in 1911, whereas the imports from 
('.iiiada in the same period declined by £2,896, although 
the total imports expanded by £137.017, The trend of 
the trade is disclosed in the following cmnpaiative 
schedule in which the values from the principal sources 
of supply are enumerated: 


Total Australian imports of printing (news') 

paper " £.'i89.398 

From Canada 136.099 

From United States 98.343 

From United Kingdom 233.990 

From Germany 33,022 

From Norway " 50,228 

From Sweden 25.390 


'I'otal Australian imjiorts of i)rinting (news) 

paper 731.196 

Frinii Canaila 158.624 

From United States 111.038 

From United Kingdom 303.541 

From (ii'rmany 33.866 

Fi 0111 .Xorway' 58,049 

From Sweden 46.285 


Total Australian imports of printing (news) 

paper 726.415 

From Canada 133.203 

From United States 106.611 

From I'liited Kingdom 306.630 

From Germanv 44,203 

From Norway 69.260 

From Sweden 51.184 

Canadian paper boards are being introduced, and, 
while the figures are yet diminutive, the outlook foi- 
increased returns is promising. Wrapping paper to 
the value of over £170,000 was imported in 1911, of 
which Sweden, Germany and Norway contributed to 
the extent of £152,000. "and Canada £206 only. Some 
manufacturers of wrapping and cartridge papers have 
n^ceutly received from the Canadian Trade Commis- 
sioner at ]\Ielbourne samples and particulars concern- 
ing competitive prices, which is encouraging evidence 
of interest being aroused in th-e trade. 






l'.y F. K. C^illaiiii.T .iiid 1. I.. Pearl. 

When wood or sawdust is cooked at high pressui'es lower yields of soluble material and fermentable sug- 

with dilute acids there is formed a consideralile amount ars than wood. The ratio of fermentable sugars to the 

of fermentalik' sugai-. mainly dextrose. Previous in- total soluble material is about the same as for extracts 

vestigatois have differed in their opinions as to the from wood cooks. 

source of the sugar, some maintaining tluit it is formed At ordinary temperatures chlorine vigorously attacks 

from the cellulose and others fi-om the ligniu. The pin- tlir liguin portion of wood, but has little effect on the 

])0se of the experiments liei'e described is to sujiply cellulose portion. This is used as the basis of several 

additional data that will contribute to the solution of analytical methods for the determination of cellulose, 

the problem. We have found that chlorine, when substituted for sul- 

AU of the cooks I'eferred to in this i)ai)er were made phuric acid in a high pressure cook with sawdust, gave 

on long-leaf pine sawdust scieened through a ten-mesh a very fair yi"ld of soluble and fermentable material, 

sieve. As hydrolysing agent 1 per cent. IIoSO^. figured from which it might be concluded that the sugars were 

on the dry weight of the sawdust, was used. Three formed from the lignin portion of the wood. The fol- 

parts of liquor, by weight, were used for each part of lowing data, however, indicate that under the cooking 

sawdust. The cook was carried out in a ]ioi-eelain lined conditions used the chlorine will attack pure cellulose, 

covered dish suspended over water in an autoclave, converting it into fermentable sugar. In these experi- 

A nuiximum pressuie of IM") pounds (nine atmosphei-es) ments 0.2 per cent, chlorine, in the form of chlorine 

was maintained for thirty unnules. The total duration water, was used. The cooking method was in other 

of the cook, including heating up and pressure relief respects similar to that alieady described, 
periods, was about seventy minutes. The cooked saw- Since the almost pure cellulose yields fermentable 

dust \ras completely extracted by water, evaporated to sugars, but in le.sser amount than the ligno cellulose 

about 11 degrees. liiix (1.04.') Sp. iry.\ and fermented, material, it would appear that both the cellulose and 


Sugars from Pure Cellulose Material. 


Total Reducing Fermentable Fermentable 

Extract ilaterial. Sugars, Sugars, 

Percent. Per Cent. Per Cent. Total Solids. 

la Bleached cotton '-11 1.6 1.4 .44 

lb Bleached cotton (residue fi-om la re-cooked) 4.5 2.8 2.5 .55 

2a Bleached soda wood jnilp 17.7 Ki.O 6.3 .36 

2b Bleached soda wood pulji (residue fr(uu 2a re- 
cooked ) 7.5 4.3 3.8 .51 

Note. — To avoid bui-ning. cottons were cooked at 100 ])ounds instead of 135 pounds pressure. 

Tiie percentages of water solul)le and copper reducing the lignin can be converted into sugar, at least with 

materials was determined on portions of the evaporated this special reagent. 

extract. The most conclusive data bearing on the cjuestions 

A series of cooks was made to determine the extent as to whether the cellulose or ligniu portions of the 

to which fairly pure forms of cellulose could be con- wood yield sugar on hydrolysis are furnished by a 

verted into sugars by this procedure. The character of series of experiments in which the change in the com- 

these experiments and the results will be clear from position of the wood on cooking with acid has been de- 

Tabie No. 1. termined. The cellulose in the original sawdust, in the 

These results would indicate that pure cellulose can residue from the first cook and in the residue from the 
he converted into fermentable sugars. Cotton cellulose re-cook, was determined liy the Dean and Towei' modi- 
does not give as high a sugar yield as the wood cellu- fication of the Cross and Bevan method. The results 
h)ses under the hydrolysing conditions used. Each of of the cooks and analyses are given in Table No. 3. 
the celluloses is cajiable of yielding a further amount If in the first cook the lignin alone had been attacked 


Chlorine as Hy drolysing Agent. 

Total Reducuig Fermentable Rat. Per. Sug. 

^lateiial Extract. Substances. Sugars. Total Extract. 

Sawdust " ".: 26.7 18^4 

Sulphite w(M„l pulp 13.5 10.< 8.0 .59 

of sugars on re-cooking, and the extract from the see- the I'esidue would have contained 70 per cent, of eellu- 

ond cook is the more fermentable. Contrary to the lose. If the cellulose alone had been attacked, the resi- 

data of some i)revious investigatoi's. the cellulose gave due would have contained 41 per cent, of cellulose. 

After the secontl cook the sawdust i-esidue was in liuely 

*Read befoi'e the Eiirhth International Congress of divided physical condition and noticeably carboni/.ed. 

Applied Chemistry. Xew Yoi'k. A great deal of i-eliance cannot therefore be attached 



Febraan- 1. 191 3. 

to the last, cellulose determiuatioii. For similai' reasons 
it did not appear to be practicable to carry out cellu- 
lose determination on the final residue. 

This expei-iment indicates that the cellulose and the 
lignin go into solution, on high temperature hydrolysis. 

wood exti-act as for the extracts from the pure cellu- 
lose, we conclude that both the cellulose and lignin can 
be equally converted into dextrose. The conversion of 
cellulose and wood by chlorine water is also in accord 
with this view. 


Effect of Hydrolysis on Cellulose Content of Wood. 












Fer. Sug.. 



Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 

Per Cent. 

Total Ext. 

Per Cent. 

Per Cent 

Sawdust (longleaf pine) 







Residue from ( a ) 







Residue from (b) 





in about the same ratio as they exist in the wood. Since 
the ratio of 

Fermentable sugars 

is about the same for the 

Total extract 

Under the conditions of high temperature hydrolysis 
with dilute acid, the cellulose and the lignin do not re- 
act as chemical individuals, but rather as a chemical 
compound, ligno celhdose. 


This pulper, consists of a com1)ination of two cylin- 
drical receptacles of which the larger one A — or soak- 
ing chamber, supports a hopper L. In the lower part 
of this chamlier is provided a second precipitation 
chamber S having a cleaning door, in which are ad- 
mitted the steam and water at openings TT. 

The second cylinder B, of smaller diameter, is the 
pressure chamber. At one end is located the outlet, 
the passage through which is controlled by a sluice I, 
with counterweight J. This cylinder is made of two 
parts bolted together, the upper jtart being easily i-e- 
movable for cleansing. 

A shaft C. revolving in two bearings KK and di'iven 
by internal gear driving arrangement with cut spui' 

For hard and ]>ai'chment-like substances, a greater 
pressure is required than for cardboard, printers waste, 
unsized pulp, etc., which only require a small pressui'e, 
in this case the anioiuit of pulp delivered is nearly un- 

Sometimes, small quantities of air enter with the 
material, which if allowed to remain in the mass would 
produce a reduction of the reciprocal action of the 
fibres : in order to avoid this small apertures are pro- 
vided in the upper part of c.ylinder B. 

It is said that no existing machine has ever given 
such excellent results as the jmlper described, either 
as to the amount of stutif delivered or quality of the 




*p^ i *^ "^^ 

pinion gear, passes centrally through the two cham- 
bers. On the said shaft are fixed in the soaking cham- 
ber, the three armed mixing wheels EE ; between the 
two chambers, a screw F; and in the pressure chamber 
a number of four armed mixing wheels GG. 

The arms are made of a special shape to prevent any 
useless mechanical strain and to avoid the clogging of 
strings, fibre, etc. 

Between each wheel is fastened in the upper and 
lower part of the cylinder a series of teeth HH. of 
curved shape, corresponding with the shape of the 

When comparing the pulju'i- with the kollergangs, 
beaters or other pulping devices, the following advan- 
tages are evident : 

1. The amount delivered is three times as great as 
any other pulper. 

2. The power recpiired to drive it is nuich i-educed. 
In actual practice the pulj)er has treated as much as 
7.50 to 1.400 pounds old paper per hour with 20 horse 

8. ?A'onomy of labor. One workman is sutBeient for 
working f\u' apparatus. 

FrliniMrv 1, 1013. 



4. EooiiimiN' of installation. This api)aratus eosts 
k'ss than a i)air of Uollci-g-aiifi's oi- heaters, and may Itc 
fixed on any existing fioor. 

5. Great reduction of cost of niaintcnani'o. The re- 
paii's and maintenance of existing pulping devices are 
vi'i'v great and tlie ett'eet in this pulper has been to 
eutii-ely avoid them. The patent pulper gives complete 
satisfaction in this respect and the manufacturer has 
no hesitation in guaranteeing, for one year, the main- 
tenance of the apparatus. There are no hidden joints, 
no jamming, no wear and tear unless it l)e the natural 
wear of the two bearings. 

6. Complete absence of noi.-e. vibration and shock, 
which arc injuritnis to both the apjiaiatus and its 

7. Very little lubrication is requii'cd. 

S. The drive of th 
free from danger, and 

apparatus is very sim|)l( 
ma\' be enti'usted to anv i 

man. liowexer inexpcriiiu-ed. 

9. ilost perfect results, leaving the til)res undam- 
aged, while it is claimed that kollergaugs. owing to the 
pressure and friction they exert, destroy the structui'e 
of the cellulose fibres in an undesirable manner and 
are not under control, and beaters cut and tear the 
fibres. When treating broke and paper stock in this 
pulper far better results are obtained, the paper being 
stronger, and of better appearance, owing to the fibres 
being pei-fectly separated. 

10. The foreign substances which are always to be 
found in broke, or old papers, leave the apparatus 
without having lieen crushed. Theii- separation from 
the raw material before entering the pulper is nearly 
impossible, but it becomes very easy when the material 
has been worked into half stuff. When the half stuff 
leaves the pulper it is easy to pick out any foreign sub- 
stance such as j>archment. india rubber, linen, gum, 
orange peel, wood splinters, coal and other hard sub- 
stances, which would be crashed in koUei-gangs or 
beatei's. thereby sjioiling the half stnft' and lu-oducing 
|ia]?ei- of an inferior ipiality. 


Uy a method patented in Gii-many by 11. Achonbach. 
the hot liquor running oft' from the digester is atomized 
by its own pressure in a container, so that the sulphur- 
ous acid is seperated oft' and can be let out. The sul- 
phurous acid can be used to pri-pare fresh acid, while 
the liipior, now free from acid, is let out fi'oni the bot- 
tom of the container. 

The new device con.sMsts of a container built in the 
waste liquor conduit from the digester and which has 
an atomizing device for the liquor and a veut for gas. 

Fig. (1) shows the atomizing device in vei'tical long- 
titudinal section. Fig. (2) in cross .section and Fig. 
'3^ the gas vent. 

P where they are completely absorlied. The liipior 
freed from acid flows from the container A through 
pipe I and is let out in the river mixed with dther waste 
liquors from the mill. 

The atomizing of the liquor takes place in the narrow 
container A near the liottom of which is ]ilaced the 
pipe B (Fig. 1 and 2) to which the waste licpior tlows 
from the digester through pipe ('. 

The atomizers are connected with the distribution 
pipe B and consist of pipes D closed in the upper end 
and having many small spray holes P opposite the walls 
E of the container A. The liquor is pressed out through 


The li(|uor is let out after the digesting i)i'ocess is 
iiiiied under a pressure of 15-80 lbs. with a tempera- 
ture of 12()-180°C. from the digester K (Fig. :5) through 
pipe (' to the container N and is there atomized. The 
snlphuidus acid is then separated out and is conducted 
through i)ii)e H ami the cooler 'SI to the acid-tank N 
where it is used for the ]!rei)aring or strengthening of 
the fresh acid. The gases not absoi-bed by the acid in 
container \ are conducted through pipe O to the tower 

Up- 3. 

the holes F and is being atomized when striking the 
walls E. The sulplnu-ous acid which is then separated 
out fills the up])er part of the container A goes into the 
gas collector G and is let out through i)ipe II. The 
liquor fi-eed from acid flows down the walls E. is col- 
lected on the bottom of coiitainer .\ and let out Ihi'dugh 
pipe 1. 

'fhe gas obtained can be dried by letting it cunie in 
contact with the admission pijie for the hot licpioi-s. 



F.-bruarv 1. 101?,. 

Claims : 

1. A iiH'lliixl to i-ecbiiiii tin- siil|iliiirmis acid from 
jsiilphitf waste li(|UOi's (Iciiciidiiig upon the atomizing 
of the waste li(iuor by its own i>i-essure. while being let 
out from the digester into a eontaiiiei-. tlie sulphurous 
acid then separating out being again al)sorl^ed. 

2. A method to eouduet the reclaiming process ac- 
cording to claim (1). an atomizing device (BDF) being 
coupled in in the waste liquor conduit C from the 
digester and which is surrounded by a container A, 
having a gas vent II and a dis<'hargr> pipe 1 tni' li(|U(ir. 
— Papierzeitung. 


In the eoiii'se of time five different moiles of making 
board have arisen, viz. : 

1. On the Fourdrinier machine, 

2. AVith two wire tables arranged one ovei' the other. 
8. By the co-operation of two Fourdi'inier m;i<-hines, 

4. By pasting togethiT wehs of pa pel' on tln> glueing 

5. By the cylinder machine having several cylinders. 
In board for writing purposes, beautiful look-thnmgh 

and homogeneous surface are specially lecjuired. and 
in printing board (for picture postcards, etc.) as little 
transparency as possible and a certain strenglli and 
stiffness are desired in addition. The pulp is. tlien.- 
fore, selected accordingly. Long pulp renilijy gives a 
cloudy look-through and uneven surl'aee. whilst short 
pulp yields ])eautiful look-through and closed sui-lace. 
but the strength is diminished. 'rhes<' contradictions 
are negatixcd by nuxing long and short fibres. For 
example, rag half-stuff is used to Avhich short fine 
fibres, such as straw, asp or beech chemical lUil]) ai'e 
added. Hard sulphite pulp in less suitable for board 
owing to its tendenc.v to being beaten greasy. When 
the apparatus is available each pulp should be lieaten 
b,v itself. If the pulp is nbtaim^d too gi-casy this can 
lie I'emedied by introducing steam into the stuff; l^.'i 
degrees (' should not. howe\-ei-. l)e exceeded because 
otherwise the look-through and sizing suffer. A prim- 
ary condition when making board is a suitable ItMigth 
of the wire ]>art ; the thicker the board, the longer must 
be the wiie. 1^'or obtaining a beautiful lo ik-tlii-ough 
three gates are absolutely necessary. A descen<liiig 
wire must be avoided, but on the other hand a modei-- 
ately rising wire should be worked with, 'fhe dilution 
of the pulp must be kejit within certain limits. The 
apron should end just before the last rule. Surface and 
look-through are improved eonsideral)ly by 1-12 dainly- 
rolls. 4 — 5 suction boxes should be employed, whose 
action should increase in stages. The thicker the board 
and the greasier the pulp, the more must the to]i eoui-h- 
roll be shifted towards the breast-roll. The jacket for 
the couch-roll should be of short hairs and thick. A 
second shower ]n]>e should be arranged above the to]i 
couch-roll accoi-ilingly this pii)e will be used only 
for preventing the pulp rising at the lop couch- 
roll. Dr.ying must take jjlace gradually, because other- 
wise the surface of the board is roughened. On the 
I)aper machine only slight moistening is used, but then 
the board is moistened more on the moistening ma- 
chine and left at rest for I) — 6 days before the calen- 
dering. The Ujijier wii-e apiiroaches the lower close 
befoi'e the concher and ri'lurns above after it has de- 
livered its web to the lower wire. The upper wire 
must always sui)pl.v thicker paper than the lower, be- 
cause otherwise folds are formed and the paper is 
crushed; to make board of 360 gAsq. m.. the upper web 

should be about 240, and the lowei- 120 g sq. m. The 
upper wire is always started working first and then 
pulp is gradually supplied to the lower wire until the 
prescribed thickness is obtained. The upper wire wears 
more quickly than the lower. In order to avoid the for- 
mation of folds and crushing of the web in the 
press, it is absolutely necessary to place a light roller 
directly before the entrance to the press. The first 
gi-oup of cylinders should l)e heated only with waste 
steam. In order to improve the surface a calender of 
Tittel's sy.stem which can be heated should be placed 
between the individual c.vlinders, before mentioned. 
For making boards snniofh on one side, a c.vlinder of 
2 m. diameter having a ])ressing conti-ivance should be 
provided. The one-sided glaze ;fids in lending the 
boai'd a certain stiff'ness. The employment of two 
wii'es also enables the manufacture of two-colored 
board, which is used in large quantities for many pur- 
poses. For example, the Indian Government employs 
two-coloied board of 198 g sq. m. consisting of 20 per 
cent, unbleached STd])hite jiulp. 65 per cent, mechani- 
cal wood ]m\\> and 1.") per cent, pui'e white waste, 25 
kg. kaolin and 5 kg. anilini'. Cloth nulls employ so- 
called ad\-ertiscnieut board of ISO — 11)0 g q. m. consist- 
ing of 10 per cent, unbleached sulphite pulp, 35 per 
i-i'ut. mechanical wood pulp. 60 per cent, waste. 20 per 
cent, kaolin. A board consisting of 3 layers, light 
bi-own on the one side and white on the other and 
weighing 320 g'sq. m. is maile as follows: The brown 
side is nnule on the lowc wiie, the insertion on the 
upper wire, and the white side is su|)i)lied by an Odo 
eyiindei' machine ai-ranged at the upper wet part. In 
this manner a three-fold board for button factories 
weighing 280 g'sq. m. is made and also a postcard 
board having an insertion containing wood and outside 
layers free fi'om wood. — Dei- Papier F''alirikant. 


TIk' I'ornier erroneous impression that forest reserves 
are areas set apart by the government to be reserved 
from use and development, is giving way to the cor- 
rect view that thev are for the general use of the pub- 

The Dominion Forestry Branch is desirous of spread- 
ing this idea abroad, and with this end in view has in- 
augurated the policy of surveying summer resort lots 
aiound convenient lakes in forest reserves. These lots 
are of two kinds, viz.. building lots and camping lots, 
so that the demands of lioth cottagers and campers 
may be met. Such lots are leased to the public for a 
term of years at a ver.v nominal figure. 

It is hoped that in this way a start may be made in 
liringing to the public a realization of the opportuni- 
ties and advantages which the reservation of these 
great areas of the public domain aft'ords the country 
at large. 

A good example of such a resort is seen in British 
Columbia, where a site has been laid out at Trout Lake, 
in the Long Lake forest reserve. This reserve is situat- 
ed in the Kamloops district of the Railway Belt. 

Trout Lake, at an altitude of 4.100 feet, is an ideal 
retreat tVu- the residents of the towns and cities of the 
Dry Belt. Here they ma,y escape the oppressive heat 
and drought of the summer season, and at the same time 
enjoy some of the finest fishing to be had 'anywhere 
in Canada. Already man.v people have secured build- 
ing lots, and it is expected that in a verv .short time a 
large and flourishing summer colony will be establish- 
ed at this point. 

February 1. 1013. 




Lucieu :ilarguet, of Riouperoux, Isere, France, has 
invented a method of construction and means of opera- 
tion of pulp-straining drums for paper making ma- 

The drums used in connection with pulp straining in 
paper making machines, says the inventor, usually have 
two movements, one a reciprocating motion which im- 
parts to the drum a certain amount of displacement in 
the vertical direction, and the other in conjunction with 
the first, imparts a very slow rotation to the drum. 
Several means have already Iteen employed to ohtaui 
these results, and this invention has for its object to 
provide a a new constructiou of the parts more simple 
and efBeient than has hitherto been accomplished, by 
means of which the same results can be attained. 

This invention consists more particularly in provid- 
ing a single or multiple crank fixed on the driving shaft 
over which passes or pass the actuating belt or belts 
from the dnmi the said cranks giving on its or then- 
rotation one or more vertical movements, together with 
a very slow rotation to said drum on each revolution 
of the ma'n shaft. 

Fig. 1 is a front view of a pulp straining drum of an 
ordinary paper machine fitted with these improve- 
ments .showing a simple crank constructed according 
to this invention: Fig. 2 is a sectional side view taken 
on line A— A of Fig. 1 : Fig. 8 is a part sectional plan 
view of the journal of the said drum taken on line B — B 
of Fig. 2 ; Fig. i is an enlarged detail view showing a 
modification in which is employed a double crank. 

On referring to the drawings. 1 shows the pulp 
straining drum of the paper making machine con- 
structed in the usual manner having an envelope 2 
supported at its extremities by two nietallic collars 3 
and 3' each provided with a flanged portion 4 and V 
forming pulleys which each receive an endless belt 5 
and 6. Each of these endless belts pass over a crank 
7 and 8 said cranks being made preferably integral 
\\ irli the shaft 8. said shaft having four bearings 10. 11. 
12. 13. 

Each revolution of the shaft f) is communicated by a 
main belt passing over a stepped pulley 9 allowing 
varying speeds to be given to the crank shaft 9 giving 
motion to the belts 5 and 6. and. consequently, the drum 
receives a vertical movement and at the same time a 
Siow rotation continuous or intermittent each time that 
the crank 7 or 8 revolve. 

In order to render the shaking effect, due to recipro- 
cation more easy, two adjustable pieces 14 and 15 are 
provided on each side of the drum. These abutments 
can be regulated vertically so as to vary the extent of 
the chocks as well as for taking up the elongation or 
extension of the belts 5 and 6. It is clear for the 
rotation of the drum as .slow as requii-ed. it is onl.v 
necessary to adjust the nuts on the abutments 14 and 
15 (Fig." 2) so that the endless belts only lift the drum 
when the crank is at the limit of its eccentricity; this 
movement can naturally be varied within its limits 
either way. Other means are equally provided tor 
taking up the elongation in the length of the belts 5 and 
fi which consist of two specially shaped pieces of wood 
(ir other suitable material 16 and 17 see Fig. 2. which 
act as guides for the belts. The said members can be 
regulated in distance one from the other by means of 
screws opi)Ositely threaded governed fay the hand 
wheels 20 and 2l". It is equally possible to take up the 

elongation of the belts by lifting simultaneously the 
four bearing 10. 11. 12. 13 by means of the screws, or 
by any other suitable mechanical equivalent. Both ex- 
tremities of the drum are provided with flanges or col- 
lars 22 and 23 which engage in the grooves in the 
brackets 24. 25, 26 and 27. see Fig. 3. in order to prevent 
the drum 1 from receiving axial displacement. 

In the form of construction shown in Fig. 4 the crank 
7 has a double throw and is arranged cam fashion the 
excentric parts being preferably diametrically op- 
posed. The belt 5 passes over a rounded member 28 
having a central cavity through which passes the mam 
shaft 9. and this member 28 is disposed in such a way 
that the double crank 7 does not touch the belt when it 
occupies the position shown in dotted lines in the draw- 

ings It will be understood that the crank / instead 
of being double, may l)e triple, quadruple or consist ot 
anv number, in which case the number of shocks given 
to "the drum at each revolution of the mam shatt wi 1 
correspond thereto. Further, the throws of the crank 
7 can be calculated in such manner that the pulp 
straining drum receives at each turn of the shaft verti- 
cal movements of variable amplitude. 

It will be readily understood that at each half, third. 
or quarter turn of the shaft 9 one of the bosses ot the 
caiii shaped crank 7 (either double or multiple) htts 
the belt 5 at the same time that it eommuncates a move- 
ment of rotation, this movement being transmitted to 
the drum, two or a greater number of times for each 
complete revolution of the shaft 9. in this way the speed 
of the main shaft can be diminished for any given num- 
ber of shocks, the i)ower neces.saiy for its rotation being 
less, the wear of the belts being diininished which is a 
desirable feature over known construction. 


p r T. p A X D p A PEP ^r A r; a z t n p 

F.-l>nKirv P PIPI 


Till' Ass()ci;iii(iii of Wodd Pulp liii|Hirlcrs presented 
to tlie Wiiys iiiid Cleans CuiiLiiiittee tlie following brief 
which outlined the tariff situation and the changes that 
they advocate: 

Paper manufacturing is one of tlii' leading intlustries 
of the United States, there heing TBo jdants now in 
operation engaged in this industry. The raw material 
entering largely into the nianufactui-e of [laper is 
chemical wood ])ulp. generally known as sidjihite. sul- 
l)lia1e 01- kraft ])ulp. The present duty on this material 
is one-sixth of a cent, per pound dry weight if un- 
hleached. and ojie-([uarter of a cent per pound di'y 
weight if bleached. There is, however, this excejition 
to be noted: if imported from Canada, when manu- 
factui-ed from wood on the exportation of which there 
is no export restriction, it is now admitted free of duty 
in accordance with Section 2 of the Canadian Recipi-oc- 
ity .\et. which became effective -July "26. P)1P 

Of the Tli:; papei' mills now in operation in tlic I'liiled 
States, 'y-iS paj)er mills use chemical pulp in their manu- 
facture. There are in this country ninety-four mills 
manufacturing chemical pulp.s. having a maximum 
capacity of 'A.'AG'.i tons of unbleached pulp per da.\' and 
PPl.") tons id' bleached pulp per day. Of these mills 
only eighteen are engaged in the sale of pulj); the other 
seventy-six pulp nulls Iiave paper mills also, which use 
up their entire production of pulp. Of the eighteen 
mills engaged in the sale of pulp, twelve ha\e jiaper 
mills in connection with their pulp mills, and sell only 
such portions of their product of pulp as is in excess 
of their own requirements at their paper mills, so there 
are really only six pulp mills in this country actually 
engaged in the exclusive manufacture and sale of their 
product. These six mills have a maximum daily ca]iae- 
ity of 635 tons, of which 4:^0 tons is bleached pulp and 
205 tons unbleached pulp. 

It is impossible for oui- domestic mills to sui)ply 
sufficient pulp for our jiaper mills, and on account of 
the increased manufacture and eonNUiii]ition (if jiajier 
in this country the imp(U-tations of eheinieal i>ulp lia\e 
largely increased. 

No new pulp nulls have lieeii ereeted in this country 
since some years owing to tlu' searcity of s\iital)le wood- 
lands in the Pnited States. Hxisting woodlands are now 
owned or controlled largely by present pulj) and paper 
mill owners, or lumber concei'iis, making it difficult for 
prospective pulp manufacturers to hope for any oppor- 
tunity of profitable competition. 

We respectfully refer to the brief read before, and 
tiled with this committee at the hearing, November 21, 
1908, and printed in Tariff Healings, Sixtieth Congress. 
1908-i). page 6021. The conditions of the industry 
therein described are still prevailing. Tlie cost of the 
production of pulp in Europe has greatly increased in 
the past five years owing to the increased scarcity and 
resulting enhanced cost of wood and higher cost of 
labor, coal, ocean freights, etc. 

P^reign pulps command a higher price than domestic 
on account of their higher cost and quality. Under the 
present tariil' the foreign manufacturer of unbleached 
chemical pulp is under an additional cost of about $10 
per ton and of bleached pulp about -$12 per ton on ac- 
count of charges for packing, foreign inland freight, 
ocean freight, importer's profit and duty, of which the 
domestic manufacturer has the advantage; consequent- 
ly the foreign pulji must he. and is. sold at a higher 

price than the domestic, and the market to-day for 
foreign pulps rules from ^H to $4 per ton higher than 
for domestic. This comparatively small difference is 
made pos.sible only by the economies of manufacture 
which are taken advantage of so generally in Europe. 
and so generally neglected in this country. For in- 
stance, with the exception of one mill here, all mills in 
this c(nmtry burn sulphur to generate their sulphurous 
acid gases used in cooking the pulp, but abroad, the 
mills generally burn pyrites to get their sulphurous 
acid gases, resulting in a saving in cost of about $2 pei" 
ton of pulp. 

In spite of the reluctance of the American manufac- 
turer of pulp to use the most modern methods, no chemi- 
cal pulp mill has failed in business since the last sixteen 

Dui'ing the year 1912 some 285,000 tons of unbleached 
pulp, upon which about $900,000 duty has been paid, 
were imported, and during the same period about 78,- 
000 tons of bleached pulp, .subject to a duty of about 
$390,000, were imported, thus netting to the Govern- 
ment a revenue of over one and a quarter million dol- 
lars for the year. From these amounts of importations 
46.000 tons of unbleached pulp — about one-sixth of the 
quantity — came from Canada, and from this about one- 
half was admitted free of duty. Of the bleached pulp 
importations some 6.000 tons — about one-thirteenth of 
the (|iiantity imported — came from Canada all free of 

Any additional burdens placed upon pulp may pos- 
sibly be to the advantage of the very few pulp mills 
who manufacture their product for sale, but it would 
add a heavy load to the nearly 400 paper manufacturers 
in this country who are obliged to buy their pulp, and 
it would place them at a great disadvantage with the 
other paper mills having their own chemical pulp mills. 

We further desire to point out to your honorable 
body the importance of retaining the tai'iff on wood 
pulp, whatever it may be. on a specific liasis instead of 
on an ad valorem basis. The value of pulp, whether 
bleached or unbleached, from the lowest grade to the 
highest, does not vary in the average more than 15 per 
cent., and in the majority of cases the variation in 
market values does not exceed 5 per cent. An ad val- 
orem duty gives rise to differences in opinion as to 
market values, and exposes the importer to severe 
penalties for possible unintentional underviiluations, 
and gives the opnortuuity to unscrupulous importers 
to undervalue importations and thus cause unfair eoin- 
lietition to others engaged in this industry. 

We venture the oiiinion that the operation of the 
Tariff Act on the wood pulp schedule on a specific basis, 
has been satisfactory both to the Government and to 
the importer, and we must strongly urge upon you not 
to make any change in this respect. 

W^e have tried to make our brief short, aud have not 
gone into any exhaustive length on any of the points 
to which your attention is called. However, for the 
purpose of bringing the matter still more clearly be- 
fore you, we make herewith resume of the questions 
involved : 

1st. — The tariff on (uilp should not be advanced fiu- 
reasons mentioned. 

2nd. — European pulp should be placed on the same 
basis as Canadian pulps. 

3rd. — The tariff, if continued, should be continued 
on a specific basis and not on an ad valorem basis. 

i-v 1. 101:1. 




Th,. Dmninion Printing & L.mso I-cmT CouiiKiny will 

nut up a factory in Ottawa. 

' ' « * # * 

E S Munroe, of the \Vilsou-.Munr.>c ( • paper 
dealers, Toronto, is .spending thr winter in ( alilonna. 
' * * » * 

Mr S Downer, manager of McLeo,! I'ul|i Coiniiany. 
.Miiltowu. N.S.. is lecoveringfrom an alliick ..| p.icii- 
nionia and is again at his "tiRee. 

:\Ii- .1 U Sutherland, sales manager (.f tiir Spanish 
I'uli) & Paper Company, has been appointed assistant 
to the general manager. Mr.J.^II. Watson. 

The 15rompt,.n Pulp & Paper Company Inis purrhas- 
,.d the timber limits of J. E. Laberge '"■^'i- 'j';""""- 
(Jue The 5 000 acres cost in the vieinity ot H^.i.).uuu. 
' ■ # * * * 

Our readers will sympathize with :\Ir. W. II. Rowle.v. 
president of the E. B. Eddy Co.. Hull, in the loss ot his 
ni.itlicr. who died last mouth at Jhe age ol iS. 

The Capital Wire Cloth & ^Manufaetiiring Company's 
plant at Ottawa is now in operation and receiving so 
many orders that it contemplates doubling the size of 
its plant next summer. 

The statement is made that probably hall' of the pulp 
recently manufactured by the Anglo^Newfoundland De- 
yelopm'ent Co. was made from burnt wood, wliieli is 
usually looked upon as yalueless^. 

Soyer Kookera Bag. Limited, :\Ioutreai which makes 
special bags for cooking purposes, is issuing $lo,000 
common stock. E. H. Bradley, of :\Iontreal. is manag- 
ing director, and Percy A. Bradley, secretary. 
« * * * 

The foundations and sidewalks are now completed for 
the Donnaeonna Paper Co.. at Cap Sante, a few miles 
from Quebec. The mill will be 550 feet by 12o feet, 
mostly two storeys high, of brick and cement. There 

will ill- a 1250-foot concrete dam. 

* * ♦ * 

The International Paper Company have elected 
Piiilip T. Dodge president, to succeed Alonzo N. Bur- 
bank, who was elected chairman of the boartl. :Mr. 
Dodge is president of the IMergenthaler Linotype Com- 
pany and has for some time past been a director. 

* * * « 

I'.alir Bros. Manufacturing Company. Marion. _lnd., 
have been granted a Canadian patent ( Xo. 1442!)7 ) on 
their manganese steel Jordan engine linings. They are 
made of a metal which is claimed to be frictionless. 
saves power, is slow to wear mit and will not tear out. 

Till' Campbell Lumber Company. Weymouth, N.S., 
arc inslalling additions to the barker room. Most of 
their wood supply for this .season has been purchased 
ffoni l.ieal farmers, owing to their mill being burned, 
and their own logging operations being cut down. 
* * * « 

.1. .1. Steele, of Vancouver, represenis an eastern syn- 
dicate which is making application for the right to use 
."idO inches of water from the Spalliimcheen river near 
Knderhv. B.C.. the piirpos.- lu'ing to erect pulp and 

paper mills. There is said to lu' a large supply ot 
siiilahlc wood in the district. 

The St. Croix Paper Company, Hartville, N.S., are 
l)laeing a lot of old papers in their mill, and it is rum- 
ored they will soon recommence operations. This mill 
was first" built by J\Ir. EUershausan, a German, and has 
since had a varied career. The paper made was a poor 
(|uality and the mill operation, which has been inter- 
mittent, was not of the best. 

# * * * 

Part of the machinery of the ^Morrison Cove. N.S., 
harking mill, namely, 15 barkers, 3 boilers, and cutting 
up gear, is being sent to Gaspe, where the Dalhousie 
Lumber Company, a subsidiary of the International 
Paper Company, is erecting a barking mill. Mr. Brank- 
ley purposes to run the remaining half of the Jlorrison 
Cove machinery next summer instead of operating the 
Richards mill day and night, as was done last summer. 
« « * # 

The Flax Decorticating Company, Rosetown, Sask., 
A. ^'aln Allen manager, has erected a plant in the 
centre of the Goose Lake district. The plant will use 
that portion of the flax formerly regarded as \va.ste in 
the manufacture of a high grade paper pulp. The 
filire can be converted into pulp at a moderate cost, per 
ton and a large English firm are said to have guaran- 
teed to take ail the product which the new factory can 
turn out. 

While four employees in the rag room of the St. 
Lawrence Paper Company, at ililles Roches, were en- 
gaged in their occupation of sorting paper, rags, etc.. 
they came across one lot which contained what seemed 
and proved to be diamonds. The wa.ste paper, which 
is shipped to the factory in bales, arrived from New 
York. The find consisted of a few rings and a large 
number of iniset atones, valued at several thousand dol- 

* * » * 

Jlr. J. R. Booth. Ottawa, has begun an action before 
Mr. Justice Cassels, against the Crown, in which he 
alleges he has suffered damage by reason of the failure 
of the Department of Indian Affairs for Canada to 
grant a renewal of a license to cut timber upon Indian 
Reserve No. 10, on the northerly side of Lake Nipissing 
.since the year 1909. iMr. Booth's original license had 
been granted on 5th October. 1891. and renewed from 
year to year up to that time. 

« * * « 

The Alberta & Saskatchewan Straw Paper Products 
Compauv. Limited, is making progress with its factory 
building at Medicine Hat. The new company, which 
will utilize the straw of Alberta \vheat for making 
building paper, boxes and other materials, is already 
assured of a good market for its products, and will 
open a new source of income for the farmers of Al- 
berta. This factory is expected to be in operation this 
year and steps will" afterwards be taken to erect branch 
■plants at Calgary, Red Deer, Moose Jaw and other 


' * # » * 

The St. George Pulp & Paper Company. St. (Jeorge, 
.\.B„ are not planning to erect a l>ag mill, as was rum- 
ored in the daily press, on the nearby ac(iuii-ed property 
of the granite "works. This was purchased as a safe- 
guard in ease of future exten.sions. though no immedi- 
ate development is in mind. Their entire outi)ut of 
ground wood is shipped to the ])aper inill at Niu-walk. 
Conn., during open .season, which this year was later 


PULP A N D P A P E H .M A < ; A Z I X E 

F>4.niarv 1. 1913. 

thaa ever. Direcl saltwater shipping between their 
pulp mill in Canada and the paper mill at Norwalk 
sive them decided advantages. 

° * « * * 

Steady progiess is being made making plans fur the 
large piilp and paper mills at Grand Falls, N.B. It is 
expected that the engineers will present alternative 
plans for bringing the water power to the turbines, 
which will convert it into electricity. One plan calls 
for the excavation of a tunnel through the solid rock 
twenty-tive feet in diameter and nearly 1.000 yards in 
lengtli. The other plan is for a canal of almost equal 
length. Both plans have their advantages, but there is 
a difl'erence of almost a million dollars in the cost. As 
soon as the board of directors decide which plan to 
adopt, it is believed the work of construction will be 

The Dominion Pul]) Cn.. Chatham, are completing a 
magnifient new office building at the mill. The 
new log handling system, and boiler room recently in- 
stalled are giving the greatest satisfaction. The in- 
creased production of the mill is making heavy de- 
mands on their stock of wood, but this deticiency has 
been arranged for by the purchase of a number of 
small holdings up tin- iliramichi River. Wood from 
these now comes to Chatham on ears, and is hauled 
across the ice to the mill on the opposite bank. Mr. 
Stevens, the manager, is at present in England on busi- 
ness. In this connection there are local rumors of 
doubling the plant, and of other extensive enlarge- 
ments. A new digester room is one of the improve- 
ments uuiler consideration. 


Canadian Jewish Times, Montreal. To publish news- 
papers and other printed matter. Sam. W. Jacobs and 
A. Rives Hall. 31nntreal. 

Canadian Public Utilities, Limited, ^Montreal. To 
develop water powers and sell same to mills, etc. C. H. 
Cahan, Jr., O. B. MacCallum. Montreal. 

Grenville Board & Paper Comi)any. Tlnirold. (Jut., 
maniifacturers of wall board, etc.. are authorized to in- 
crease their capital from $75,000 to $150,000. 

# # * * 

Con.solidated Agency, Limited, Toronto, capital. 
$200,000. To print and publish newspapers, magazines, 
etc.. carry on business as printers, bookbinders, etc. 

C. H. C. Leggott and B. Webster, Toronto. 

* * * « 

R. G. McLean. Limited, Toronto, capital. $200,000. 
To publish newspapers, books, magazines, and do busi- 
ness as printers, stationers, bookbinders, publishers, 
etc. J. F. MacGregor, W. H. Walter, and J. H. Riley, 

Tregillus-Tliompson. Limited, Calgary, is authorized 
to do business in British Columbia, with offices at Vic- 
toria, and C. X. Thompson, attorney, capital. $100,000. 
To compile and publish city and l)usiness directories, 
print newspapers, circulars, etc. 

The Fred W. Halls Papri' Company, liimited. Toron- 
to, capital, $40,000. To uutnufacturc and deal in paper, 
paper board, paper boxes, pails, bags, envelopes, calen- 
dars labels and paper novelties of all kinds. F. W., 
H. H.. and Wm. Halls. Toronto. 


The Dominion Railway Commission has been enquir- 
ing into the complaints which for a long time past have 
been made by pulp and paper shippers as to the higher 
rates they have to pay in the West compared with the 
East, and with American shippers between correspond- 
ing points in the Western States. It is claimed that 
for long distances the Canadian shipper has to pay from 
6 to 32 cents more per hundred pounds than does the 
American. Some comparative rates are given below, 
showing cost on carload lots on the C. P. R. from Fort 
William, Ont., to Alberta and Saskatchewan points, and 
on the Great Northern from St. Paul, Minn., to corres- 
ponding points in JMontana: — 

Paper, board, box binders, chip, memo, paper stock, 
pulp straw or tar — St. Paul to Hinsdale, Mont.. 816 
miles G. N. R. rate 67 cents, and C. P. R. rate from Fort 
William to Moose Jaw, Sask., 819 miles. 71 cents; to 
Harlem, Mont., 901 miles, American rate 67 cents. Can- 
adian rate to Saskatoon, Sask.. 899 miles. 78 cents; 
American rate to Yantic, Mont., 930 miles, 67 cents, 
Canadian rate to Swift Current, Sask., 929 miles. 80 
cents; American rate to Cut Bank, Mont., 1,072 miles, 
70 cents, Canadian rate to Medicine Hat Alta.. 1.077 
miles. 90 cent.s; American rate to B^itte. Mont.. 1.237 
miles, 70 cents, Canadian rate to Calgary, Alta., 1.257 
miles, $1.02; American rate to Anaconda. Mont., 1.263 
miles, 70 cents, Canadian rate to Edmonton. Alta., 1.265 
miles, $1,02. 

Paper, building and roofing and news print — Ameri- 
caxi rate to Hinsdale, 67 cents, Canadian rate to Moose 
Jaw, 7] cents; to Harlem, Mont.. 67 cents, to Saska- 
toon. Sask., 78 cents; to Yantic. ^lont., 67 cents, to 
Swift Current 80 cents; to Cut Bank, j\Iont.. 70 cents, 
to ^ledicine Hat, 90 cents; to Butte, Mont., 70 cents, 
to Calgary, Alta,. $1.02; to Anaconda, 70 cents, to Ed- 
monton, $1.02. Differences in favor of the American 
shipper are from 4 to 32 cents. 

Paper wrapping, posters and tailors' patterns — Am- 
erican rate to Hinsdale, 67 cents, Canadian rate to 
]\Ioose Jaw, 71 cents; rate to Harlem. 67 cents, to Sask- 
atoon, 78 cents; rate to Yantic. 67 cents. Swift Current, 
80 cents ; rate to Cut Bank, 70 cents, to Medicine Hat. 
90 cents; rate to Butte, 70 cents, to Calgary, Alta.. 
$1.02; rate to Anaconda, 70 cents, to Edmonton. $1.02. 
Differences in favor of the American shipper are from 
4 to 32 cents. 


This mill was closed down for ten da.vs but is now 
operating to its full capacity again. A break in the 
casting of the main engine was the cause. 

The rumors among the trade that ]\Ir. Beveridge con- 
templates retiring are entirely unfounded. This is a 
matter of congratulation for the firm as his efficient 
management has proven most profitable. This mill is 
a ffne example of the advantages of scientific manage- 
ment, making a very high class sheet of paper. 

The New Bertram M. F, machine, installed some 
months ago, is giving excellent satisfaction in the 
mill and to their customers. 

Mr, Norman Beveridge, the son of Jlr. James Bever- 
idge, has the pulp mill at Dryden under operation and 
expects to soon .get the ]iai)cr mill producing as well. 

Kcliniiiry 1, 1913. 




( til llir I'ulp ,111(1 Pajier ^lagazine.) 

London, January 20, 1913. 

Rrilisli Irailc in I'ML'. according to the Government 
returns jiulilislied in January, was a record — far above 
1911. which also exceeded the figures for any previous 
vear. The increase during the year was remarkably 
(general and the profits, when the time of reckoning 
comes to pass, should send a glow of warmth into the 
hearts of English mill nwners. Briefly the ligurcs are: 

191'i 1911 

Imports of paper £7,233.:398 £6,r.74.r,r,0 

Exports of paiier 3.550,716 3.310.966 

Re-exports of paper 184.513 •208.764 

During the twelve months, Newfoundland exported 
to the British market £394.764 worth of i)ai)cr. nii in- 
crease of £130.202. which is greater than any oilier 
country shipping paper on reels to English pm'ts. Can- 
ada has not paid the attention to this market it de- 
serves; as a matter of fact, the Dominion exi)orts to 
it have decreased, but the progress of Newfoundland 
in particular has been watched in England with the 
keenest interest, and to-day Sweden stands in the un- 
happy position of being out-rivalled by Newfoundland. 
That is to say, Swedish paper on i-eels deerea,M'il to the 
extent of £59,033, as against Newfoundland i)aper on 
reels, which apparently is looked upon as superior and 
more suitable than the Swedish. Needless to say, this 
great jump — the figures have been steadily going up 
since 1909 — gives the greatest vsatisfaction amongst 
paper-makers in British markets. M.ostly all cheap 
papers are imported from Scandinavia, whilst English 
and Scotch mill owners go in for good class pa|)ei-s. 
their exports of pi-intings and writings to Canada in 
1912 totalling £161.617, compared with £152,329 in 
1911. If Newfoundland is able to oust Sweden, as re- 
gards imports to British ports, there is no knowing 
what Dominion, generally speaking. ina\' do in 
regard to Oei-ninny and Norway! 

For ehiu i clay works like those at St. Renii, or any 
other works in the Dominion that turn out the clay 
for pajicr-makers' use, there is a very bright outlook. 
.Makers of China clay in Canada to-day have one of the 
greatest chances in their lives. In the United States 
tliere is an outcry that paper-makers cannot get enough 
to meet theii- demands and the English producers are 
unable to cope with the position. French makes are 
not in request very much; but if the Canadian material 
could be got out in larger ipiantities the United States 
markets wduld he relieved and in time a consumer 
would \>v fiiniid in tin- English market. The position 
of affairs is somewhat critieal in Cornwall (England) 
jnsf now. Railway facilities are reported to be inade- 
(|nate to keep the exi)ort trade and shipping at Fowey 
P'>rl is ill a bad way, owing to the want of accommo- 
d.ifiini fill' loading and unloading. Up to the present 
the I'ailway company has decided to spend soinefiiing 
like i)(3()(),000 on new jetties and wharves, but this sum 
is not sufficient fo satisfy China clay producers ami if 
is grcally feared that in the near future flu're will be 
a scarcity ol' day. This is where the United States will 
leil the pinch, in addition fo Scandinavian paper-mak- 
ers, and if it is i>ossible l<i bring the Canadian material 
to the ironf during these days, it may be taken for 
"■ranted that the outlook shiuild be a prosperous one. 
Meantiiiie, the (Iveat Wi'stern Railway Comjiany is slow 
ill iiio\iiig in ('onnvall to improve the pin't and China 

clay sellers are iirofesting against their industry being 
hampered in this wav. One large firm predicts a scar- 

* * * « 

I\Ien in the wood pulp trade will be interested to 
know that Becker & ('ompany. Limited, of London, in 
addition to the orders standing on their books — and 
it may safely be assumed they were very considerable 
financially and otherwise — booked new business in 1912 
to the extent of three and one-quarter million pounds 
sterling. They are the largest wood pulp importers 
in England, where they represent the Chicoutimi Pulp 
Mill and the ]\Iacleo(l Pulp Company, of Liverpool, 
(Canada). The Chicuutimi Pulp iMill is one of llio-e 
fortunate concerns whicli are preparing to supply pulp 
to English firms on a ten year's contract. 

* # * * 

About this period twelve months ago, exports of pulp 
and paper from Canada to English ports were held up 
by the coal strike. To some of the principal paper 
mills the crisis was most serious and thousands of dol- 
lars were lost in a week, whilst many mills had to be 
closed. If the ])aper-iiiak('rs of England do not quickly 
make up their minds the.y will experience another set- 
back, as their mill hands are adopting a threatening 
attitude over the Saturday (noon) to Monday stop 
(luestion. The hands want to cease M'ork at 12 o'clock 
noon on Saturdays and resume at 6 o'clock a.m. on 
^londays. The owners of the mills, in many eases, are 
against the request and they have now i-eeeived a mani- 
festo from the men. who have decided not to take any 
action until January 20th, pending a reply, "Yes," 
or, "No." If the reply is in the negative it is feared 
that all men in the unions will cease work, and should 
this course be taken, the present brisk trade will very 
soon become dislocated. The British paper-maker, 
however, has a hapi)y knack of settling differences, 
and very probably he will find some way out of the 
present difficulty. 

According to information that has arrived from an 
excellent Norwegian source, if a paper-maker travelled 
round all the chemical pulp mills in Norway he would 
fail to secure enough pulp to keep him going for two 
weeks. The question one may ask is: What will be- 
come of the 1913 re(pnremen'ts wanted from time to 
time? Those who have not fixed up contracts will find 
themselves in an invidious position, because the de- 
mand will exceed the supply. What the sellers have 
on hand is intended for sale at the highest figures. 
Therefore, the buyer will have to find out where pulp 
is to be had and arrange his price. Most of the Nor- 
wegian mills are making up their balance sheets for 
1912 and navigation in the Gulf of Bothnia is just 
closed. The scarcity of chemical pulp in Norway is 
naturally creating a good demand I'or mechanical, and 
it is also reported that in the latter consideralile busi- 
ness is passing. 

« * * * 

The enlargement and improvennmts effected in the 
])ublication of "The Pull) and Paper Jlagazine of Can- 
ada" have won the econiuins of men in the pulp and 
l)aper trade of the United Kingdom. One gentleman 
1(dd your representative that it was the best journal 
in every way that is tui-ned out for the trade, and it 
beat American. English, German. Norwegian, Finnish 
or Swedish nailers. 



Feliniai-v 1. 1913. 


(Speciiil ('DiTcspoiulciicp of Pulp ninl I'iipfi- .M.tfrazine. j 

.Monti-eal, -Ian. :!Otli. IIIP!. 

Among pulp and papfi- men in this pi-ovin<'c. Ilirn- 
is little or nothing being discussed but the develop- 
ments taking place in connection with the Washington- 
Quebec controversy over the removal of the endnirgo 
on wood cut from certain Crown Lands in this pro- 
vince. Tlie (ii-der-in-eouneil issued by the Gmiin Gov- 
ernment was made public on December 31st. and the 
expectation was that the "Washington authorities would 
accept the interpretation of the Provincial GuviMnment 
and immediately admit the paper made by the four 
companies mentioned in the order-in-council. free of 
duty. The Washington authorities, however, have beiMi 
primed full of objections by the American pulp and 
papei' iiianufaeturei-s. with the I'esnlt that the whole 
matter is held u]> jiending an official \-iTtlic1 by the 
Washington (Jovei'nment. The following statement 
was issued a few days ago l»y the Treasury Department 
at Washington, which exjilains the American view of 
the situation : 

"To collectors of cust(niis and others coneei-ned: 

"The Departm<'nt is infoi'med that certain manufac- 
turers of papei' in the I'loxinee of Queliec are claiming 
the right. l)y virtue of an order-in-coiuicil dated De- 
cemiier 31st. 1912. to state in their declarations upon 
invoices that the wood from which the merchandise 
was manufactured, though cut on Grown Lands, is free 
from all restrictions of manufacture, exportation, etc. 

"Pending further instructions, eolleetors are hereliy 
instructed to continue to collect duty on all impoi'ta- 
tions of pnl]), paper or paper boai'd manufactured from 
wood cut on Grown Lands in the Province of Quebec, 
notwithstanding statements in such declarations relat- 
ing to the freedom of the wood, cut in such lands from 
restrictions as to manufacture, exportation, etc." 



On the oilier hanil. the Ann'rican publishers want Cana- 
dian iiapei-. and are putting up a determined tight be- 
fore tile Government to secure free paper from this 
connti-y. or failing that, to have the American Gov- 
ernment meet the Quebec order-in-conncil half way and 
a<lmit paper free from the four companies mentioni-d 
by the order-in-council. 

The fight l)etween tin- American |)ai)er mamifactur- 
ers and the American publishers is an interesting one. 
It is not the first time that these two bodies have 
crossed swords, nor is if likely to be the last time. 
Heretofore the publishers, tliroii^li the eiiormons in- 
fluence they can wield b\- publicity. Ii.ive got the bet- 
ter of the argument. This is shown b\- the fact that 
the Government practically acceded to their re(|uests 
two years ago and admitted Canadian paper free, when 
removed tVom all I'estrictions in this eounti-y. The 
American jiublishers claim that if they are left to the 
mercy of American newspaper manufacturers. Ilie lat- 
ter will '■s(|ueeze" them ami force them to pay an un- 
rea.sonably high price for their paper. The manufac- 
turers, on the other liand. point out that they are a 
great manufacturing industry with some >(<5r)0.n()0.000 
invested^ in plant, macliinery and equipment, and that 
it is unfaii' for them to meet the open competition of 
the world when practically every other manufacturing 
industry in the United States is protected. Thev claim 

that they are unable to compete with Canadian manu- 
facturers of paper, as their Northern neighboi's have 
an al)undant sup])ly of raw material, have unequalled 
water powers and a plentifiU supply of labor. They 
l)oint out that as a result of an investigation, it was 
shown that Canadians can manufacture paper $5.50 
a ton cheaper than Americans can. and unless they are 
])i-otected to this extent, the Canadian manufacturers 
can undersell them and eventually compel them to close 
down their mills. This fight, while in a sense between 
various American interests, is nevertheless of the ut- 
nnist importance to Canadians, and the outcome is be- 
ing watched by the pulp and jiaper men in this pro- 
vince with the greatest interest. 

As was stated in our last letter, the action of the 
Gouin Government in lifting the embargo from the out- 
]iut of four mills, is still a subject of controversy in 
this ju'ovince. The mills atfeeted. and others who are 
likely to seek similar concessions, defend the action of 
the Governmi'nt. Others again are loud in their com- 
plaints, and claim that the four companies seeking 
special legislation were actuated by selfish motives, 
and that it is likely to do more harm to the industry 
than good. There is ,i growing feeling in this province 
that the various pulp and paper men should unite and 
form an association for their mutual protection. It is 
pointed out that at present a single nmnufacturer or 
group of manufacturers adopts a certain policy or se- 
cures s])ceial legislation without an.y consideration as 
to how it will aft'ect his fellow manufacturers, or the 
interests of the country as a whole. It is felt that an 
oi'ganization embracing all the pulp and paper men in 
the country would be a wise move. Such an organiza- 
tion could gather expert evidence in regard to the state 
of the indiistry. keep in close touch with the develop- 
ments taking place at home and abroad, secure or pre- 
vent legislation as the case might be. and in a thousand 
otlnn' ways help, not only the industry as a whole, but 
the whole country. One of the most prominent paper 
men in the province in an interview with your corres- 
pondent was strongly of the opinion that such an or- 
ganization was needed. In an interview he said: 

■The result of the between the 
ington and Quebec Governments over the removal of 
the emljargo on wofid cut fi'om Crown Lands will result 
in the organization of a Canadian Pulp and Paj)er Men's 
Association somewhat along the lines of the American 
association." Continuing, the ])aper manufacturer 
said: "The action of the Quebec Government in remov- 
ing the embargo from the wood supply of four com- 
panies, smacks of unfair play, and was undoubtedly 
actuated by selfish motives. Apparently, two or three 
paper manufacturers in this province set themselves 
up as authorities, and have such an influence with the 
Quebec Government that they can secure what legis- 
lation they like. The pulp and paper men of Quebec. 
Ontario and the other provinces, should unite and se- 
cure the services of some such expert as Jlr. Hastings, 
of New York, who would devote his .whole time to 
looking after the interests of the industry. As it is at 
present, we face such an organization in the United 
States, who possess expert advice and are able to influ- 
ence legislation to a- marked extent. In Canada we 
have no such organization, and two or three mills get 
together and secure legislation, which is oftentimes 

Fcln-iuirv 1, 191:]. 



Inii'tful to the industry as n whole and to the eouutry. 
Most paper men feel that it was an iiiopportiuie time 
foi' Sir Lonier fJouin to make any changes in the pulp 
and papei' sitiuifion at a time when the whole suhject 
was being investigated by tlie United States Cougres- 
sioiial Comniittee. Such an action gives the United 
States a bad impi-ession of us. and it gives them the 
ide.i that we are n'sorfiiig to trieker\' and shaiji pi'ac- 

When asked what he l)elie\('(l would be the outcome 
of the confrovei'sy. the pa])ei' nuuiufaeturer said: 

"I am satisfied tluit Washington will eventually ac- 
cept the contention of the t^hiebee {)apei- men. They 
have already admitted the paper of the I'nwcll I\iver 
Pulp & Power Company of iii-itish Columbia, and hav- 
ing this precedent, the.v cannot verv well ref\ise to 
accept paper removed of all restrictions from the Pro- 
vince of Quebec. There is tliis dit¥ei-ence. however: 
]\lr. Nelson, head of tlie I'owell River ('omi)an.v, was 
an Anun-iean manufacturer, who l)uilt the mill for the 
express purpose of supplying American paper needs, 
and there is also the fact to be considered that there 
aie very few mills on the Pacitic slope, while on the 
Atlantic side there are too man.v. Naturally, if the 
limits ai-e free from all restrictions, the Americans 
must admit it duty free, as it comes under section 2 
of the recent agreement. I am of the opinion, how- 
ever, that Sir Lomer Gouin will remove all the restric- 
tions and throw the forests of the province open to all 
comers. This uudoubtedl.v would l)e bad for the pro- 
vince, and would defeat the object he had two years 
ago. when he placed his embargo on wood cut fi-om 
Crown Lands. Ontario is vitall.v concerned in this 
(piestion, as they have now an output of 720 tons of 
news print per day. Had that province been consulted, 
there is no doubt but that Sir Lomer Gouin would not 
liave acted as he did. This present action seems ill- 
advised and untimel.v. and points to the need of an 
organization among the pulp and paper men of the Do- 
minion. 1 think that will be one of the outcomes of 
the present controversy. "" 

Apparently, American pul]) and paper men are not 
l)eing deterred by the latest order-in-couiu'il from in- 
vesting in this province. The latest American company 
to cross the border is the St. Lawrence Pulp & Lumber 
Corporation, a company formed under the laws of the 
State of New York, with an autiiorized paid-up capital 
of .t4 000.000. Of this. .+2.000,000 will be immediately 
invested in this province in pulp and paper mills and 
in th- lumber business. The Canadian ofifices of the 
company will be at New Carlisle in Konaveuture Coun- 
ty, and :\Ir. John Hall Kelly, Local :\lember for Bona- 
veiiture. will act as their legal representative. The new 
enmpany have taken over the Grand Pabos f.,uniber 
Company's limits, formerly owned by King Bros, of 
(iaspe Peninsula. It is .said that the price paid for limits was in the neighborhood of .+1 .000.000. Kn- 
irineers are now at work going over the property, and 
.Mr. Kelly has announced that the construction work 
will ciimmenee in the spring, and will be vigorously 
I iisjicd. He has not stated what the plans of the new 
company are. but it is generally believed that they will 
nianntaetuiT both wood pulp and news. In an inter- 
view. Ml'. Kelly, who. by the way, is a supporter of the 
t'ouin (Joverninent, expressed the following views in 
legaril to the recent order-in-eouncil : 

"The policy of the Gouin Government as enacted a 
lew years ago, was to bring pulp and pai)er mills to 
tile Province (if (^)uel)i-c. and in order to bring about 
that result. Sir L(iiiier"s (iovernment has ahvavs been 

prepared to oft'er all po.ssible inducements. This recent 
order-in-council. whereby four large paper mills are re- 
lieved from the obligation to manufacture their pulp 
wood in this province, and are allowed to ship it into 
the United States in the raw state, can be interpreted 
in one or two ways: 

■ ■ ( 1 ) As a backdown from his old [mlicy or (2) as an- 
other proof of his determination to persist in his policy 
and to encourage the paper mills to come to Canada. 
Anyone who knows the Premier and has followed his 
public utterances during the past few years, knows 
that when he says a thing he means it, and. as he has 
stateil that his policy is to prevent the export of pulp 
wood in the raw state, and encourage the pulp and iiaper 
mills to come to Canada, we can rest assured that the 
recent order-in-council is only the reatfirmatiou of his 
cherished policy." 

"But if that is so, why has he passed an order-in- 
council allowing these four companies to export their 
pulp wood in the raw state?" "Here is the position. 
The United States tariff law provides that if any coun- 
try laws or regulations whereby that country 
prevents the export of pulp wood in the raw state from 
any of its lands, then the United States retaliates by 
sa.ving: 'Very well, keep .vour pulp wood, but if you 
mantifaeture it into paper, before you will Itring your 
manufactured article into the United States, .vou will 
pa.v five dollars and sixt.v-six cents a ton on your 
paper. ' 

"Now. b.v pa.ssing the order-in-eouneil. whereby the 
four paper mills in the province are no longer subject 
to the prohibition, not to export their wood, the Gov- 
ernment has placed these companies in the position that 
the.v can go to the United States customs and show 
that their iiutnufaetured paper does not come from 
lands on which any restriction exists, and they will 
thus save the customs dut.v of $5.65 per ton on their 
paper, which is a very great consideration and a great 
encouragement to. the paper industr.v in this province." 
Asked if he thought these companies would now ship 
their wood in the raw state. Mr. Kelly replied: 

"No; first of all because it would not pay them to 
do .so, now that they have their paper mills built here 
and can thus save the United States customs duty: 
secondl.v. because these men know tlie vilue of their 
standing lumi)er and did not ship it in tlie raw state 
when they had the right to do so, that is to sa.v. before 
the order-in-eouncil. ]U-ohibiting the exjjorr. was enact- 
ed ; and thirdly, because the Government li'iving pass- 
ed the recent order-in-council in order to help these 
companies to avoid the United States customs, and not 
with the object of allowing them to export the raw ma- 
terial, would certainly resent an.v move wliereb.v its 
policy to prevent the ex]iort of the raw material would 
lie defeated, and would immediately rejieal the conces- 
sion in the case of the offending eompan.'. That is 
why the order-in-eouncil '-elates to specified couipanies, 
not to all companies generally. As it i.s, they c:'n reach 
any special comi>anv by a mere order-in-counei!. whi.-h 
they could not do if the l.iw was one in general terms." 

Asked if he thought the I'nited States Government 
would not pass sotne tariff regulation to eluekmate Sir 
L(uner's move. Mr. Kelly said: 

•■Undoubtedly the jiaper manufacturers across the 
line will do all they can in that direction, but on the 
other hand the new.spapers of the United States are all 
in favor of getting their paper as cbeaj) as possible, and 
the (piestion is which of I lu> twn will win out at Wash- 
ington. Past cxperienci' woubl seem to indicate that 

114 P U L P A N D P A P E R M A G A Z I N E Febniary 1, 1913. 

the chances ai'C iu favor of the newspaj)ers. The next phite and eventually news print. At the outset, they 

few days will soon decide between the two." expect to have 21,500 h.p. generated, which will be 

"Will the Gouiu Government grant the same pri- more than sufificient to run the eighteen ten-ton grind- 

vileges to other companies putting up paper mills T' ers which will be installed. After making due allow- 

Mv. Kelly Avas asked. "I understand that such is the ances for all contingencies, Mr. Anson expects that the 

policy." "he replied, "and Sir Lomer's past record is company will produce 50.000 tons of piilp per year. 

there fo show that what he does for one he will do for The railway at the present time is within live miles of 

all. In fact, he informed me this morning that he was the company's jiiant. J. C. R. 

delighted to hear of the St. Lawrence Pulp & Lumber 

('„rporatiou coming to Ganada and that if they put up rOMPANV T TMTTFT^ 

a paper mill they would receive the same conces.sions i'KlUJ!. BKUb &, OUMFAJNY, i.lMllJl.iJ. 

as the four other companies." The annu^il siatciiicnt i>\' I'ricc P)r(.)s. it Cumpauy. 

The following table shows tlie lumlici-. ncwspajier Limited, Jouquiere. Que., for the year ending Novem- 

and wood piilp exports from Canadu In tlie I'nited l)er 30th last, made a very satisfactory showing. The 

States during the past two years: ju-dfits wei-e as follows: 

VM2. Pill. i:)12. 1911. Inc. 

Ash •+ 4,,SS9 >t; 11.475 PiMitits .■i^4(i:'..71(i ^■-MrS.'JGi .$69,752 

Basswood 2.4.50 5.993 Bond interest 24G.775 213.708 33.067 

Hemlock : . . 39,708 1 1.295 

Lath 93,464 107.165 Net i)rofits $216,941 .$180,255 $36,686 

Pickets 2!».(iSl 58.063 >^'pf profits in 1911 were equal to 3.65 on the capital 

Railway ties 4,4S2 14..561 ^^,^^1-^ 

^^'^^ 1'""^' f-l'n~l -n'-nl The consolidated surplus account on November 30, 

^"'"g'''"* io- --n -j')— 1- 1911- ^^'"^ $718,185. With the net profits from 1912 

Spruce . . . r'ul "Voo/i added to this sum. aftei- deduction of $82,662 for reor- 

St)ruee plank b.404 i2.;i.54 ... i ■ i i i j.- ^ 

tj^i ', , , , , ,, --- i.)oo- ganization expenses, which have now been entirelv 

Telegraph and telephone poles. 9.(.y _l._i.8N. ^^,^.^^^^ ^^._ ^j^^ ^^^^^^ .^^ ^.^.^^^.^ ^^ ^^^ j^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ 

White pme 1 . - 6,s.(.4( 1 . , ._..i.61) ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ j.^^^ ^,^_^^_ ^^..^^ $852,463. 

Newsprint papei- 8b.i..>3.i b.).:),lb2 ^tt-,,- t^ • • n . ,. ,, 

Wood puhi "round 417,320 542,836 ^"■- William Price, president of the company, said 

^ ' in his address : — 

$3 36"' 077 $:i 503 945 "Your directors consider these earnings most satis- 
factory, pai'ticiilarly .is the new pulp and paper plant 

Mr. A. Knechtel. Inspector of Dominion P'orest Re- at Kenogami did not commence operations until after 

serves, addressing a meeting in Montreal recently, the close of the com])any's fiscal year, 

spoke of the enormous w^aste caused by forest fires to "Your directors have not considered it necessary to 

the timber itself and also outlined the effect of forest carry anything to reserve for depreciation on fixed 

fires on the agricultural resources of the country. "For- assets, in view of the low figure at which these stand 

e.sts, if left alone, served to retain moisture in the i^ the books and considering the fact that a eonsider- 

spring, whereas, if they were swept away liy fire or the able part of the cost of improvements to the properties 

marauding axe of the pioneer, the waters swept into ]jas been charged to revenue. 

the rivers in the spring time, causing floods and a lack "During the year $2,557,848.92 has been expended 

of water in other seasons. It was a question of conserv- on additions toVroperties. principally on account of 

iiig the water as well as the forest supply. "" the construction of the company's pulp and paper plant 

The lecture was illustrated with stereoptieon views, at Kenogami. At this plant operations were commenced 

The Abitibi Pulp & Paper :\Iills. Limited, eoinpjeted on the 1st of December last, and it is expected that the 

its organization on the 21st inst. The following direc- plant will be running to its full capacity of 150 tons 

tors were elected: Messrs. F. H. Anson. Shirley Ogilvie, of paper daily by the first of :May next.' 

Victor E. Mitchell. D. Lome McGibbon. Sir Thomas "Since the 'last re||<'it. the companv has issued $243.- 

Tait, all of Montreal; Jas. Playfair. of ]\Iidland, Ont. ; :3:33,33 five per cent, first mortgage bonds, making the 

Hon. George Gordon, Cache Bay, Ont.; J. A. McAnd- total i.ssue to date $5,110.0(10 of the authorized issue of 

rews, Toronto, Ont.; Geo. E. Challes, Toronto. $6,000,000." 

The following officers were chosen: F. II. Anson, pre- The balance sheet of the company shows some 

sident; Shirley Ogilvie. vice-president and treasurer; changes owing to the fact that while in previous years 

J. A. McAndrew, secretary; E. C. :Morris. assistant sec- the entire share capital and bonds of the Jonquiere 

retary and treasurer. p„lp Company. Limited, and the Price-Porritt Pulp 

The company started construction woi-k some time & Paper Compan.\-. Limited, (which are owned by Price 

ago and at present have a force of over 200 men at Brothers & Company, Limited), have been shown as 

work on the company's propert.v. The underwriting investments, this year the balance sheet consolidates 

of the company's securities is being taken u]i privatel.w the affairs of the three companies. The capital surplus 

but a public announcement will be forthcoming short- (which is the increase in book values of capital assets 

ly. The authorized capital is $1,500,000 bonds. $1,.500.- u])on valuation at 19th July. 1910). has been reduced 

000 preferred and $3,500,000 common stock. Of the by the amount of goodwill which arises in the consoli- 

bonds and preferred stock, it is proposed to issue $1.- dation. 

000,000 each. The a.ssets of the company are given as' $15,007,111. 

Mr. Anson, the pi'esideut of the company, stated that of which $13,298,499 is in real estate, plant, water pow- 

they expected to commence operations by the first Feb- ers, etc. The liabilities consist of $5,000.0000 capital 

ruary, 1914. At the outset they would confine their stock; $5,110,000 bonds; $1,072,837 accounts and bills 

attentions to th(» making of ground Avood. liut a little pa.vable. etc.; $393,836 reserve funds; .$2,556,681 capi- 

later on would probably extend and maiuifaeture sul- tal surplus ;, $852,463 sur{)lus account. 

Fchru.ny 1, 1913. 




Toronto, -Ian. lil. IDi:'.. 
'riici-c was ap|)arently a slight falling off in the home 
(leinand for news i)riut earlier in the month, but it has 
strengthened again during the past few days, while 
from the United States there has l)een no slackening 
in the demand. Prices contracted for during the com- 
ing year ai'e understood in many cases to be slightly 
lower than was the ease in 1912. The outlook is very 
liright. HiHik, writing and ledger papers are in good 
i'e(|uest. and prices keep up well. A large trade is 
being (lone in kraft and wrappings, but cases of cut- 
ting the price of the former are heard of. The ground- 
wood situation has improved, and enquiries have been 
much more fre(|uent than has been the case for months. 
This will serve to stiffen the backbone of holders, al- 
though it is hardly probable that prices can advance 
very materially in view of the heavy stocks piled at 
the various mills. Sulphite is as strong as ever. 

Quotations (f.o.b. Toronto), for paper, ]>uli) and 
paper stock are as follows: 


News (rolls) !|;42 to •+4.'). acenrding tn ipianfity. 

News (sheet ■! ^44 to !f^.")0. according to (puintity. 

Book papers (carload) No. 3, 43/^c. to 4;'4C. 

Book paper (broken lots) No. 3, iVoC. to 4;4c. 

Book papers (carload) No. 2, 4^c. 

Book papers (broken lots) No. 2. dyic. to 5%c. 

Book papers (carload) No. .1. SI/qC. to 614c. 

Book papers (broken lots) No. 1, 6^40. 

Writings 4}4c. to TV-'C. 

B(mds. 8e. to 18e. 

Fibre. 3-^4^. to 4c. 

Manilla B., 3c. to 3i/.c. 

ilanilla No. 2, 3i,4c."to 3-14C. 

Manilla No. 1, 3-'54c. to 414c. 

Kraft. 4e to 4i4c. 


Oround Avood (at mill). ^IG to -^17. 

Sulphite (unbleached). $45 to $47. in Canada. 

Sulphite (unbleached). $47 to .$49. in United States. 

Stilphite (bleached), $60. delivered in Canada. 

Sulphite (bleached). $r>2. delivered in United States. 

Paper Stock. 

Waste Paper. $9 to $10. 

No. 1 hard shavings, $1.85. 

No. 1 soft white shavings. $1.80 to $1.85. 

Mixed shavings. 60c. 

White l)lanks. $1.00. 

Ledger. $1.15 to $1.20. 

No. 1 book stock, 85c. to 90c. 

No. 2 book stock, 55c, 

No. 1 manilla envelope cuttings. $1.10 to $1.15. 

No. 1 print manillas. 60e. 

Folded news. 55c. 

Over is.sues. $14. 

Over issues (folded). $15. 

No. 1 clean mixed paper. 42' 2C. to 47i4e. 

Old white cotton. .$2.50 to $2.75. 

Thii-ds and blues. $1.40 to $1.50. 

No. 1 white shirt cuttings. .$5.50 to .$5.75. 

Fancy shirt cuttings. .$4.10. 

Blue overall cuttings. $3.50 to .$3.62>4. 

Black overall cuttings. $1.65 to $1.75. 

Black linings. $1.65 to $1.75. 

New light flannelettes, .$4.60. 

Ordiliary satinets, 85c. to 90c. 

Montreal. January 30th, 1913. 

Thei- are few or no price changes to note in connection 
with pulp and i)aper from those quoted two weeks ago. 
The situation remains remarkably satisfactory, despite 
the increase in |)roduction and the uncertainty regarding 
tariff changes. Apparently, there is a good supply of 
news on liand in the ITnited States, and prices in this 
commodity have not shown any strength, but remain 
about stationary, (i round wood stocks are accunuilating, 
owing to the very mild weather which has prevailed dur- 
ing the winter and to tiie frequent rains. The result of 
this mild weather and accumulation in stocks, is seen in 
slightly lower prices. On the other hand, sulphite is 
much stronger owing to a decrease in the output in 
Canada. One large mill was closed down for some months 
and has just recently started up one of its digestors; 
another will start in three weeks, another three weeks 
later and a fourth three weeks after that, but in the mean- 
time the stock of sulphite has decreased. 

Sulphite delivered in the United States runs from $46 
to .$47, while delivered in Canada it varies from $44 to 
$45. News in the United States runs from $41 to $43 
and in Canada from $41 to $42 for large contracts and 
about $45 foi- smaller orders. The mills all seem to be 
busy, and are finding no difficulty in disposing of their 
output. Sonje of the Quebec mills have recently been 
lilacing heavy orders in Chicago and also with Lloyds. 
The following are the prices for paper. i)ulp and pa]ier 
stock: F.O.B. Montreal. 


News, .$41 to $43, delivered in United States, 

News, $41 to 42 for large orders, $45 for small orders, 

delivered in Eastern Canada. 
Newsi)rint, sheets, $2.25 at mill. 
Book papers, carload lots. No. 3, 4i/.c. to 4%c. 
Book paper,*, broken lots. No. 3, 4i/)C. to 4-*4C. 
Carload lots, No. 2, 4-y4C. 
:\ranilla B., 314c. 

Broken lots. No. 2, 5V'ic. to 514c. 
Carload lots. No. 1, 5i/o to 614c. 
Broken lots. No. 1, 6c. to G-^c. 
-Manilla B., 314c. to 334c. 

Fibre. 3:54c. to 4c. 
No. 2 manilla, 3i/l>e. 
No. 1 manilla, 33ie. to 4c. 
Kraft. 4c. to 4-'|e. 

Paper Stock. 

Xo. 1 iuird >liavings. $1.70 to $1.80. 

No. 1 soft white shavings, $1.60. 

No. 2 .soft white shavings, $1.15. 

Jlixed sluiATngs, 50c. to 55e. 

White blanks, 80c. 

Ledger. $1.15 to $1.20. 

No. 1 book stock. 90e. 

Xo. 2 book stock. 45c. 

Manilla envelope cuttings. $1.05. 

White envelone cuttings, $1.75. 

Xo. 1 print Manillas. .')5c to 60e. 

Folded news, 50c. 

Crushed news, 45e, 

(lood mixed paper, 40 to 42i/.iC. 

Old white cotton, $2.50. 


P i: L P AND P A P E R :\I A G A Z I X E 

Fpl)i-u;iry 1. 191:1 

M\xed cottons. ^lAW to $1.7.'). 

Ligiit c'ottniis. $1.7.'). 

No. 1 white shirt cuttiufi-s. .$r).l)() to $5.50. 

Liojit print .-iitliiiKs. .$4.(H) to .$4. .■>(». 

K;incv shirt cnttiiiiis. .$1.7.') 1o $-J.(M». 

Hliic'..v.rall ciittintis. .$:j.-K) to $:!..')(). 

I-ii-own i.vrrall cuttings, $2.2.") to $2..')(l. 

J^lack ovcratl cuttings, $l..')(l to $1.71). 

Linings, $l.."il) tn $1.7.'). 

New unhieacluMi .■,itton, .$4..'i() to $.").(MI. 

Ph-ached and uiilileaclied cottnn. $4..")(l to $.').nO. 

I!lea<'lied and unhicached slme ,-lips, .$4,110 to $4.2.5. 

New light Hauu(4ettcs, $:!.7') to .$4.(H). 

Fh)ck satinets i-ooting stock, !)()c. .i $1,011. 

Ordinary satinets, 70c. to SOc. 

Tailors' sweepings, 6.")c. to 7tlc. 

Cniund wood (at mill i. $14..')(l in $1.'). 
.Sul])llite. .\o. 1 unhle.-iched, $4(i 1.i *47, delivi-red in 

I'nited States. 
Sulphite, $42 to $4.'), delivered in Canada. 
Sul|ihite (lileachcdi, $.')1 to •$.'):■!. 


The wood t>ulp market is continuall.v tinu with a 
rising tendency. Any important changes in the prices, 
however, ha\i' not tak'en place since our last rejiort, liut 
are not ixcluded in the iieai' Future. In (iermany. \ei'y 
much is heajil ahout the I'ise iu the price of pulp wchmI 
in all countries, which again necessarily must iutiuence 
the part of wood pulp. The United States import 
is also steadily increasing, which goes to ])rove that 
the large consumption necessitates a forced import frnui 
other pulj) ]ii-odueing countries. 

The mai'kct is vei'y tiriii liotli foi' wixid pulp and eel- 

The latest (|uotations are: — 

For England — 

€ s. d. £ s. il. 

Sulphite, hleached 11 1(1 to 12 10 

Sulphite, light lile.ached :i 2 ii 11 7 ti' 

Sidphite, stioiig lileacdied S 12 6 ,S 17 6 

Sulphate, Ime S S 2 (3 

IMeehanical, wet 2 H fi 2 10 

iMechanical. dry .'> .'> .'. Ki o 

All per. ton, c.i.f ., the I'ast coast of England. 

'I'lie Swedish (picit.-itiims aii' per ton, t'.o.h.. Swedish 
ports — 

aieehanical. wet white $ !l 07 td $ ,S7 

Jleehanical. diy white 20 00 21 :!:^ 

Suli>hite, light hleached. Ime.... 40 00 41 87 

Sulphite, strong lileai'lied line.... itS (HI :!() 47 

Sulphate, light hleached, onlin.iry :!4 (:;7 :!(i 00 

Sulphate, strong :54 67 ■".() 00 

The Norwegian trade papei- Farmand writes: — 

At the heginniug of the year almost everyhody con- 
nected with tlie trade was of the opinion that mechaui- Wdiid pul]) would cdmmand \-ei'y high or e\en ex- 
hiU'liitant pi'ices het'ore the winter was iivei'. Uuyci-s 
heUl h;ick. however, delaxing ])urchases as much as 
possihle, and as a coiise(iuence the marki't stagnated 
during January and Fehrnary. Snme live year con- 
tracts were repoi-led in .Iannar\- ,it unnecessarily low 
pTices; hu.vers were li-iumphanl ami h,i iiniiei-eil the 
price, until i>rompt pulp and Inr dclixeiy over the yeir 
came ilow n to $S.,SS and (>|.casi<uially c\en less. This 
shniij) lasted to the end of May. since which time the 
market has sluwh- I'ecovered. 

At the beginning of .luiic Xoi-wegian mills would 
not take tlian $9.06 for |)rompt and many of them 
would not consider anything below $9.33, at which 
figui-es a good deal of busiio'ss was done both for 
liromj)! and fur d(4ivery over 1111:'). During August 
the price hardened to .$9.60 and in Novemlier it came 
nearer .$9.87 net f.o.b. In Deceud)er the Norwegian 
market became inactive. i)artly perhaps because the 
Baltic shipping season continued longer than expected, 
and at the moment $9.60 to $9.87 is probably the 
which can be obtained. In spite of the heavy rains in 
August, a few mills i-e|)orted water scarcity in October. 
but on the whole water conditions liave been favorable 
this \'e,ir at the Norwegian mills except in tlie northerji 
|,art of the country, wlieie thei-e was a prolonged 
drought dui'ing the sunniier. The Norwegian mechani- 
cal pnl]i mills have been compelled to j)ay much more 
than last yeai- loi- their winter supply of logs. 


(Special to The I'nip aial I'aper Magii/ciue.) 

Eondon, January 23, 1913. 
As was anticii)ated in the Jauuai-y issue of the "Pulp 
and Paper Magazine of Canada," the British raanu- 
faetiirei's of pajjei's have found that it was impossible 
to drag along on their old |)rices. ( 'onseipu>ntly, just 
before the dawn of the \\ -w yeai' a meeting was con- 
vened to consider an advance on all grades, but uj) to 
the present the proceedings have been kept very pi-i- 
\ate. It has, however, leaked out that a rise eciual to a 
cent should be charged wdien an o])portunity presented 
itself. The British paper-nmker is naturally experienc- 
ing extra expenditure in the cost of production, and 
from all accounts thei-e are very anxious times ahead 
of him during the coming year. One of the reasons 
for keeping down prices was the keen eompetit-ion 
amongst the mills and the proverbial dread of "The 
(ireen Eyed ^lonsfer, " in the shape of the foreigner. 
But the latest information from foreign sources shows 
that home competition is at the root of all cheap and 
cutting quotations. This is evidenced by the fact that 
an agent for a foreign mill in London recently got two 
and one-half per cent, more for his paper for a new.s- 
]?aper office than his English rival, who really hail the 
.advantage in man.v ways, as the news])aper found it 
necessary to have a large propoi-tiou of local sup])ly. 
Norwegians are also consequently harping on English 
cut prices and state the.v are willing to co-operate, to 
,1 certain extent, for a betterment in quotations. As 
matters stand now paper manufacturers are endeavor- 
ing to get the increased pi-ice to cover the increased 
cost in production, and the mills in all parts of the 
country opened the lU'W year with order books "hlled 

to the i)i-im." 

s * # # 

A \ery satisfactory feature of the imports of paper 
into the United Kingdom is the i)osition Newfoundland 
has taken. Scandinavian |;aper finds the product from 
Newfoundland ;i keen competitoi- and the success 
;icliic\'ed during 1!I12 has lion \ery reiii;irk,'dile. Taking 
the imjiorts foi- Decmubcr. Newfoundland contriiiuted 
printings or wi-itings "on rells" of the value of $20!t.- 
')76 — comi)ared with $134,164 in 1911 — out ,of a total 
of $583,44:5. This is the only class of paper which is 
exported largely from the Donnnion. Particulars of 
other grades of papers are, however, interesting. The 
total imports of paper "not on reels" was $341,296, 
as against $343,508 for Decemlier in PHI: hangings. 
.$97,220. against .$99,465 in 1911: coated papers.'^ $96.- 








S I K M K N s BR () S . D ^- N A M O W () R K S 




6 Siemens VerticarWater Wheel Generators, each 8200 H. P. Necaxa Power House Supplied in 1905. 

\\r havf supplied or on onlcr ('nnada amnuj;st many ol her.- tlu- loll. .« in..; (n'ornit..!- : 

1-4000 K. 
1-2500 K. 
1-2000 K. 
3-2000 K. 
2-1500 K. 
1-1500 K. 

.ott.m mil 

W. Edmonton 1-800 K. W. Canadian Collieries 

W. Dominion Coal Co. 1-800 K- W. Dominion Coal Co. 

, W. Edmonton 2-750 K. W. Medicine Hat 

W. Dawson City 1-750 K. W. Edmonton 

W. Regina 1-750 K. W. N. S. Steel & Coal Co 

, W. Lethbridge 1-700 K. W. Canadian Collieries 

nn.Iertake the complete e.inipment ..t pulp and paper mills. 

Is. wi.ollen mills an.l elei-tiical plants of every .l.s.ri].ti..ii. in. t.. an. I m hi. 

2-500 K. W. Winnipeg 

2-500 K. W. Port Arthur 

2-500 K. W. N. S. Steel & Coal Co. 

2-400 K. W. Regina 

1-400 K- W. Lethbridge 

1-400 K. W. Yorkton 



llieries. steel works 
110,(10(1 volts. 

Siemens Company of Canada Limited 










February 1, 1913. 

076, compared willi $li;5,42S; packings and wra]ipiiisjs, 
^l.l;n,072. against $1,2:!!. 797; milllmard and wood jmlp 
board, .$3:i4.7()8, compared with $2rjO,272 in Deccmlicr. 
1911. Tiu'iiing to tlic Jiritish exports for the same 
month, printings readied .+702,268, compared Avitii 
$701,448 in December. 1911. Of these totals !i«35,77:i 
worth went to Canada, compared with it^83.093 in De- 
cember, 1911. Writings wci-c exported to the extent 
of $81,216 ($2.r>21 to Canada), as $91,897— 
the exports to Canada .showing a reduction equal to 
$307. T^nenumerated papers rose to $26,701, compared 
with $23,649 in December, 1911, and Canada received 
$1,318 worth, an increase of $514 over tlu' eoi i('s])ond- 
ing period in the previous year. 

The wood pulp market is lii'in and snlphitc has ad- 
vanced. Bleached may now lie quoleil at $;").">. 20 to $')9 : 
easy bleaeliing, first qvality, $48 to $48.25; strong qual- 
ity," $39 to $39.25; soda unbleached, first quality, $38.25; 
st'rong unbleached, $38.25 to $38.50. :\leclinnieal is 
also (|Uoted at a higher i)rice since tin- closi' oF the old 
.year, iiiue, 50 per cent, moist, being about $5.25 jo 
$5.50 promjtt and pine dry $19.25 to $20. All prices an' 
(pioted c.i.f., London. .Manchrster. Preston and Cran- 
ton. If is fully anticipated in London cireb's that sul- 
)ihitr will rise higher in the near future, as niak-ers in 
the Euriijii'aii centres are realizing a considci'alile in- 
crease in tile fiKt III' production. Heretofore ciiiiqu'tit ion the mills helped to keep down the prices, but 
the experience of Norwegian, SA'redish. and Finnish 
makers in addition to the Germans, lias taught them 
that it is not congenial to good ])i-iilils a1 the end df tlic 
year. Narrow margins at the closi' of 1912 ai'c flic 
complaints now from Scandiiia\ia. 

A significant document appears in "Faniiand, " the 
trade journal of Norway, from the Riordon Pulp & 
Pa|>er ('(unpany, Limited, to the Canadian agent in 
Norway. It says that all the output of chemical wood 
l>nl|) in Canadian mills is sold up for this year, and the 
attention of the Swedish Export Association should be 
called to the matter so that they may understand the 
market better when selling in Canada — "That is, they 
can get vrry good prices in the States for any sulphite 
that they may yet have to dispose of," concludes the 
letter. II slidiild li.' recorded that the United States 
buyers arc already in the Scandinavian market for 
l'.n4 re(piirements, but sellers owing to the firmness of 
I he market and the cost of raw materials are seeking 
an advance in prices on any deals that might be effect- 

Dni-ing December all countries exjiorted to the Bri- 
tish markets mechanical wet to the extent of $256,722, 
com|:ared with $174,786 in December, 1911. Of these 
totals Canada contributed $29,314, as against .$5,529 
for the corresjjonding nmnth in 1911 — an increase of 

Tlieie is a large demand for bleaching powder and 
makers cannot keep up the supply with satisfaction. 
The ruling price at present is $24.50 for export f.o.b. 
Liverpool. China clay is also scarce for export and 
complaints are being received from America of a short- 
age. Rags of all grades ai'e keenly .sought after. Since 
the beginning of December u]) to date, January 23, 
('anada imported 350 tons of rags and paper stock 
fi'(nn British ])orts. 





Beating and Washing 

Paper Mill Machinery 




Lawrence Centrifugal Pumps 


Pulp and Paper Magazine 


A Semi-Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Science and Practice of the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing 
Industry with an Up-to-date Review of Conditions in the Allied Trades. 

Published by The Industrial and Educational Press, Limited 

243-4-5. Confederation Life IJtiildintr, (Queen St, Entrance), Toronto, Ont., Telephone Main 6377. 
' 34B, Board of Trade Hldg., Montreal, Que.. Telephone Main 2662. 

Editor. A. (!. ^IiTxtyre, h.a., b.s<-. Assoc. Editor, F. Page Wilson 

Published on the 1st and 15th of each month. Changes in advertisements should be in publishers' hands ten days before date of 
ssue. The editor cordially invites readers to submit articles of practical interest, which, on publication, will be paid for. 

SUBSCRIPTION to any address in Canada, $2.00. — Elsewhere $2.50 (10 ShiUings.) Single copies, 20c. 



No. 4 


The editor.s of the Pulp and Paper Magazine cannot 
refi-aiu from using these eolnnms to express their 
warmest thanks and hearty appreciation of the enthus- 
iastic reception accorded this journal hy the industry in 
Canada, the United States and Europe. Since its en- 
largement on January 1st we have received hundreds 
of letters of a highly complimentary character. 

For this encouragement we are very grateful and 
t assures us that we are serving an industry whose 
appreciation of serious efforts is most ready. We be- 
lieve that this Journal is giving its clientele very much 
more than can be found in any other medium serving 
the field. 

For the mill man our technical articles are first hand 
and extremely practical. For the trade man our mark- 
ets and news are "red-hot." but the advances .so far 
recorded are but the initial step in the development 
and exi)ansion which we contemplate. 

Our staff of correspondents throughout Canada are 
being sleeted gradually and with great care, and we 
hope to keep in such close touch with the industry that 
the slightest movement will be immediately noted and 
conveyed through the magazine to its readers. 

We tender our hearty thanks to the many warm 
fi-iends in all parts of the Dominion as well as in other 
cnuntrics who have encouraged us by the expression 
iif thfii' irood will. 


Tiie ra|)id growth of news jirint mills in Canada and 
their establishment on such an enormous scale, has led 
some to (jnistion the wisdom of Canadian cnteriivise 

:iiul advance in this regard. TJiese have usually, how- 
ever, been those who either are jealous for economical 
reasons, or are ignorant of the resources of raw mater- 
ial, as well as the world's demand for News Print. 

The world's consumption at present is eight million 
tons a year, six and a half million tons of which is 
made from wood pulp, it is estimated that at the 
present time consumption is increasing at the rate of 
3% per year, which means 200,000 tons annually, or 
660 tons daily. Such an enormous figure distributed 
over the entire paper-making world would but pro- 
vide a good healthy development, but we may well 
ask what will be the soui'ce of the supply for this in- 
crease, especially after a few j'ears. 

No country has such resources of raw material in 
pulp wood as we have. The Province of Quebec alone, 
Mr. Sweezey estimates, could more than meet the an- 
nual increase. IMany of the leading paper men. both 
in Canada and the United States, are outspoken in their 
belief that the News Print industry of this continent is 
rapidly moving north. Sir Lomer Gouin has stated 
that he purposes to make the Province of Quebec the 
News Print centre of the world, and to that end he is 
bending every elTort and guiding the policies of his 
Government. The embargo of two years ago. as well as 
the present lifting of the same in certain particulars, 
are but further stejis towaril tlie realization of his 

Many will label this curious fancy, but the study of a 
few figures will readily show them that it is not only 
a possibility but a probability of the future. Other 
countries are manufacturing to the limit of their re- 
sources. Scandinavia cannot increase; the United 
States is already depending, to an enormous extent 



F(4)rnarv If). 101:? 

on Canada I'm- hrr inw material, and Canadian wood a scheme to bcnelit certain Canadian mills witliout a 

pulp in Eiii;lan<i is Ihi' most common raw material in correspondiiifi' advanta^n- to American holders of 

]irint mills there. lands. 

The inci'case in l(innat;-e of iini- mills din-in^;- the last \u the iin'antime. ( '<inai|ian paper mills a '-e not 

year has iiccn very far in excess of this iiatni'al ineie- \vorr\in^. as is shown liy the interviews appearing in 

ment. hut. as this does not iii-omise 1o he dnplieated. our .\Iontreal correspondence. Moreover, there is a 

duriiit;- the present year, the conditions will nadils' more oi- less ^^eneral lielief that when the Democrats 

adjust Ihi'iiiselves. even thoujtj'h at present tliei-e is a come into fnll ]>owci- they will make a radical revision 

slight tiuri'y ill the nnirkets. We ai-e douhl less dest ined in the entire tariff, which only accentuates the idea, 

to take the major shai-e in the annua! increase in the stated in a recent issue that, all things considered, i- 

News Pi'int of the woi-ld. would have been l)etter for the (-Quebec Governmei.t 

to have held pat a little while longer. 


Great interest is lieing manifested in the oi-iiaiii/.a- 
tion of a pulp and paper association of Canada, as |)id- 
posed in the last issue of this magazine. Apart from 
the direct value of such an institution foi- thi' reasons 
quoted at that time, it would undoubtedly he of hem-tit 
ill othei- ways. For instance, as one corresjiondent 
remintis us. there would be nuich more likelihood of 
the various governments activel\' assistinf>- in ap])lying 
technical education to the pulp and i)aper indnsliy. 
establishing forest products laboratories, etc.. if the 
manufacturers would take united action, and such 
action could be made thoroughly represeid alive li.\ a 
strong associaticm better than in any other manner. 
We hope to be able to record shortly some detinile pro- 
gramme in connection with the proposed organization. 


As a residt of the opinion exjti'i'ssed by Seci-et.iry 
MacVeagh. of the U. S. Treasury Deaprtment. to the 
effect that Quebec had not actually removed the re- 
strictions on exi>oi'tatioii of pulpwood from Crown 
lands, President Taft. in whose hands the iriatlei' had 
been left, tlenied the right of free entry of Canadian 
pulp and i),ii>ei- made from such wood. Both the Presi- 
dent and thi' Secretary agreed that the ]>rimary jmr- 
pose of the one operative clause of the Heci])rocit\ 
agreement which abolished the duty on wood pulj) and 
paper provided that Canada did not restrict expoi-ta- 
tion on wood, was to induce Canada to remove such 
restrictions so that wood could be freely impoi'ted into 
the United States for manufacture into paper. The 
contention of the United States, therefore, is that the 
Quebec Government's recent action does not in reality 
remove the restriction complained of. inasmuch ,is the 
export of pulpwood is still banned, and that therefore 
free entry for the product of Crown lands wood can- 
not be granted. Largely this result has come about 
through the protests of the American Pai)er and Pul]) 
Association and large United States paper interests 
to the effect that the Quebec Government's policy was 


As exi)lained in I hi' last issue, which no fault should 
be found with the objects which the New Brunswick 
(fovernment had in mind when it framed its new timber 
regulations, yet serious complaint may be made as to 
the manner in which they work out. which is not to the 
best interests of tiic [>rovinee as a whole. It would 
appear that tlie icguiations have been made largely 
at the behest of important lumber interests holding 
large areas of Crown lands. The lumberman as a rule 
looks upon the cutting of imljjwood as the first step 
to the destruction of his industi-y. whereas, as a matter 
of fact, thei-e is no reason why the sawmill and the 
pulp mill shoidd iiol Huurish side by side. Compari- 
sons are odious, but experience in other provinces 
serves to slion- that a pidp and paper industry, with 
its expert labor of various grades, brings in its train 
a development of much larger importance to this coun- 
try at large than the average sawmill. 

The Provincial Government, however, seems to favor 
the idea of the lumberman and as a result the cutting 
of pulpwood under the regulations is practically for- 
bidden. Even in the north-west corner of the province, 
notably in the county of Madawaska, where the timber 
giowth is small and stunted, permits to cut are refused. 
not because the wood is looked upon as of value for 
timbei-. but simply because it is feared that if once a 
stai-t lie made in cutting this for pulpwood. it will be 
the thin edge of the wedge for the cutting of other 

The result of this policy among the lumbermen is 
that they go on cutting logs smaller and smaller each 
year, with a ]u-oportionately growing percentage of 
waste, because in sawing small logs the quantity of 
slabs, edgings and small stuff' left on the tops to rot in 
the bush mounts up nnieh more rapidly than in the case 
of large logs. 

We would respectfully bring 1o the attention of the 
New Brunswick Government the fact that the differ- 
ence in revenue derivable from the conservative cut- 
ting of pulpwood. as compared with a purely- sawlog 
policy would be very materially in favor of the pro- 
vince. In the one ease it is a crop which takes forty 

FfbriiMi-v lo. 1913 



to tort V -rive years to mature ; iu tlie other a crop requir- 
ing only say twenty-five years before harvesting, and 
ill the ease of pulp there would he in addition a cer- 
tain quantity of sawlogs, saj- 25 per cent. As we see 
it. the lumber industi-y would suffer practically, not at 
all. while the province would in addition benefit from 
tlie erection of pulp and paper mills, with all the de- 
velopment of thriving eommuiiitios to which they give 

the request will he acceded to. Argentine books, which 
are admitted duty free, are printed abroad. 


The openings for (.'anadian paper and trade in gen- 
eral in the Argentine Republic are reported on good 
authority, to be most promising. Recently imports 
from the United States have advanced at an exceed- 
ingly rapid rate, which will of course, prove a slight 
handicap, offset, however, by the very rapid growth 
of the total trade in that direction. 

There seems to be no reason why Canadian manu- 
facturers should not catch a considerable share of this 
trade. There is no question of the quality of the pro- 
duct or of the adaptability of manufacturing condi- 
tions, so it resolves itself into a problem of selling 
methods and inclination. 

Tht- advantages of this marliet are nunn'rous. such 
as the possibility of confining the entire business to 
one city. Buenos Ayres, with a population alone of a 
million and a half. Recent tightness in money has of 
course been felt as elsewhere, but the present pros 
pects are very rosy for the next buying season, and 
heavy orders should be recorded. 

There is no doubt that this offers an opportunity 
which at present is very good, since consumers in the 
Argentine prefer made goods. Their terms of 
credit are somewhat inconvenient, but the credit is 
good and banks are willing to advance money on ship- 
ping papers. 

Pri/it paper is being imported into Argentina in in- 
creasing quantities and has now attained the substan- 
tial figure of 27.460 tons, representing an increase over 
1910 of 3.860 tons; 10 years ago the imports were 
barely 4.500 tons per annum, but to-day the Prensa 
newspaper alone consumes 13,500 tons per annum, and 
this year the number of daily papers has been further 
increased by the addition of one or two new papers, as 
well as several late editions. 

The customs duty on printing paper for newspapers 
has been reduced from 21/^ to 2c gold per kilo., but 
notwithstanding the reduction the revenue derived 
from this source shows a substantial The 
<luty on paper for general printing is 4c gold per kilo . 
and on wrapping paper, etc.. 8c per kilo. 

The value of the paper used for newspapers being 
only 6c. gold per kilo., the duty is considered exces- 
sive, and a petition has been presented to both Chamb- 
ers of Congress for its reduction to Ic. It seems doubt- 
ful whether, in the interests of the local paper mill. 


In contravention of Dr. Fi'iiiow's tlisparagiug com- 
ments on soil and timber conditions along the line of 
the Transcontinental Railway in Northern Ontario, 
Hon. W. H. Hearst, Ontario Jlinister of Lands, For- 
ests and Mines, draws attention to the Report of the 
Survey and Exploration of Northern Ontario, 1900, in 
which were published the opinions of ten exploration 
parties sent out by the then government of the pro- 
vince. Each of these parties was in charge of an ex- 
perienced land surveyor. To each was attached a 
skilled land looker and timber estimator, and also a 
geologist. These parties traversed by canoe and on 
foot practically the entire region assigned to them for 
examination. A summary of these reports showed that 
the great claj- belt extends from the Quebec boundary 
west through Nipissing, Algoma and Thunder Bay dis- 
tricts, and contains, according to the estimate. 15.680,- 
000 acres of good land, "nearly all of which is well 
adapted for cultivation," The estimate of the explor- 
ations showed unbroken good land nearly equal in 
extent to three-quarters of the whole settled portion 
of the Province of Ontario south of Lake Nipissing and 
the French and Wattawa Rivers. Since this report 
was made further and quite extensive surveys have 
been carried on in that i-egion. The result has been 
that the original estimate of sixteen millions of acres 
of good land has been increased until, in the opinion 
of those who are well qualified to judge, twenty million 
of acres is nearer the mark. The quantity of pulpwood 
contained in the region under discussion, according to 
the estimate made bv the above explorers, was 228,- 
000.000 cords of spruce, .jackpine and poplar. 

When doetoi's differ it is hard for the mere public to 
decide. But it is evident in view of the thoroughness 
with which the work of the exploration parties was 
carried out, together with the opinions of those who 
have since traversed the territory, that it contains 
wonderful resources both as farming and as timbered 


A movement is on fool among some of its leading 
members to dissociate the Canadian Forestry Asso- 
ciation from the Forest Branch of the Dominion Gov- 
ernment, the two bodies having ui> to the present 
worked in unison. Beneath the feeling which 
jM-ompts the movement, there is no indication of jeal- 
ousy or irritation, and indeed the entire association is 
ready to acknowledge the debt of gratitude which it 
owes to the co-operation of the Government. Those 
who favor the divorce point to the fact that there are 
nlread.v ten or twelve agencies at work in the Do- 



Febi-uai-y 1.',. WV.>, 

minion lookiiiii tVoiu one viewpoint ())■ another, to the 
protection of forest resources ami thai this important 
work should l)e better mapped out and systematized; 
also that the ('anadiau Forestry Association should he 
a purely voluntary, private body made up of citizens 
of Canada, who should be able to feel free to criticize 
the Government should such a course be deemed neces- 
sary. We believe we voice the general feeling when 
we say that, so far as the Forest Branch is concerned, 
no occasion for such criticism has arisen, also that so 
far nobody has felt injured through any idea of re- 
straint as regards the close connection of thi' two 
bodies. Everybody acquainted with the facts will 
acknowledge on the other hand that it would have been 
extremely difficult, if not impossible for the Associa- 
tion to have carried on its work, even so efficiently as 
it has done, had it not been for the ever-ready co-oper- 
ation and assistance of the Governnn^nt. Whilr un- 
doubtedly it is well that the Association should con- 
tinue strengthening its position, with the ultimate aim 
of standing alone and independent, we believe the 
majority will concur that such time has not yet 


In the United States a tendency is noticeable toward 
curtailing the numbei' of colors of colored papers, 
which now acts as a liurden on the manufacturer and 
dealei'. With the pri'sciit large number of different 
brands on the market, togethei' with the fact that these 
have to be kept on hand in a dozen or so differei:t 
colors and Aveights, the question of storage romu in-- 
comes difficult. Who is to blame tor this condif io;i 
does not much matter. Perhaps the joliber who des res 
to accommodate a faddish customer is responsible bvit 
the manufacturer wishes to meet all competition an.', 
naturally sometimes goes a step further than united 
wisdom would indicate. Anyway, the matter is to be 
discussed at a meeting of the National Paper Trade 
Association, and perhaps some feasible way of oven'om- 
lug the difficulty will be discussed. 


A few days ago one of the largest Pook mills in 
Canada was forced to bring in a number of ears of 
Book paper from across the line to meet the orders 
which it had in hand and could not hope to till under 
the present mill capacity. 

This seems to be one branch of pajier making rather 
promising, considering the great expansion in this 
trade, and the limited capacity of our Canadian book 
mills. News Print seems to have been the premier 
attraction to capitalists looking toward paper invest- 
ments. We venture to suggest that in the near future. 
. indeed at present, the best returns will lie rathei' in the 

direction of tlir higher class papers than in News Print, 
which has possibly developed as rapidly as a healthy 
industry should. It seems lamentable that there is not 
in Canada enough book toiuiage to meet our own 
I'equirements. The situation will doubtless tend still 
more in this direction as time progresses unless new 
developments arise. It is understood that two fairly 
large mills are now jtlanned for Quebec province. 
There is no doubt they will find the field open and- the 
niai'ket i-eady to absorb lliei)' output. 


That exjwrts of ('anadian print jjaper to Australia 
are declining is shown by the statement of the Cana- 
dian tr.ide commissioner at Melbourne to the Trad(= 
and ( 'ommci'ce Department. ■'The ti-ade discloses the 
fact."" he states, "Ihat Canadian print paper is not 
maintaining- the ]iosition held in fomner years. The 
cause of diminishing values is hard !o define in \ie'\v 
of the marked expansion in the indusii-y. More profit- 
able domestic business and the demand in markets 
where there may be less eonqietition than in Australia 
are likely factors in the results arrived at. As printing 
paper is duty free the competition is upon an equal 
footing, but in (|uoting upon a c.i.f. and e. basis Conti- 
nental shipeprs likely obtain a more favorable freight 
rate. Manufacturers should be impressed not only wdth 
the extent of the Australian requirements of paper of 
all classes, but also, excluding printing paper, with the 
comparatively small benefit Canada derives from this 
constantly increasing trade. Canadian paper no.-irds 
are being introduced, and the outlook foi- increased re- 
turns is promising." The total Canadian export of 
])rinting paper in 1911 was $666,015. as i-ompared with 
$ri.S:5,0ri.') from the United States. 


In this issue we en mm cure a series of articles b.y Mr. 
Schlick, a paper mill engineer, recently come to Can- 
ada. He has had wide experience in the manufacture 
of straw papers in Holland, and will write a series of 
four or five articles covering the entire field of the 
uses of straw for paper making, both for box board 
and writing paper. This is one of Canada's most flag- 
rant wastes and it seems to us most timely that a good 
discussion of this .subject should be brought before the 
attention of our readers and the public in the hope 
that it may prove some incentive to development in 
that line. We are pleased to note that already one 
mill will soon connnenee erection at Medicine Hat, but 
the field is very wide and there is not the slightest 
doidit that ample opportunity in markets as well as 
i-aw material is open for development of this nature. 

■liriiarv 1."). IDl:! 

P r I. P AND 1' A P E R M A G A Z I X E 



One of our estceined American eontcinporaries eon- 
tains the following leading article for February 1st: 

■"Now in regard to the International Paper Company 
in the Dominion of Canada? Don't think for one mo- 
m.^nt that it is not now and has been for some time 
iiis.'alling itself there where it will be a power in a few 
years in the ground wood pulp and the new's paper pro- 
jwsition. It owns two great water powers there already 
and it owns very large timber limits, and when it gets 
Imsy in the Dominion of Canada it will come very 
near showing the Canadian news paper manufactureis 
what it costs to manufacture news papers, and what 
dnil.v newspapci- iiutilislu rs shall pay for it." 

The tone is exactly typical of the attitude and policy 
of ihis corporation towards its con.sumers and is one of 
th>' most disturbing factors in the strained relations 
lietween the newspaper men and the guiding spirits of 
the International. This enormous organization of old 
and new mills has been gathered together and taken 
foi'emost place in the print markers of I'nited States. 

As was anticipated, Mr. Philip T. Dodge, president 
of the ilerganthaler Linotype Company, has been 
chos. u as the new president, succeeding ilr. Alonzo N. 
Bui-bauk. who remains as chairman of the Board of 
Directors. This insures the present policies and plans 
of the company being carried out. One of the most 
n()tal)le of these has been the cutting down of the print 
output by some four hundred tons daily and running on 
lower grades of stock, in the older and more out-of- 
date mills, of which they h:!ve a number. Included in 
them, however, is the ])olicy of extending into Canada, 
whicli they are doing <it the present time, in a vigorous 

As our contemporary states in the above (juotation. 
ali-eady iwo locations have been secured on this side. 
Doubtless he refers to the Grand Falls. New Brunswick, 
scheme, in which Sir William Van Home is interested 
with the International, and the (Tasi)e propei-ties at 
Gaspe Harbor, in which ^Mr. H. A. Hil.vard, of Dalhousie. 
.md ;Mr. Brackley. manager of the iliramichi Lumber 
Company. Newcastle. N.B., are interested. This latter 
lirm has for some time been supplying wood to the In- 
ternational mills across the line. These two develop- 
menis promise to go through, but each has many diffi- 
culties. The Grand Falls power is a most expensive 
drvi'lo|)nient. They have a swift river for some miles 
above the site which will give them trouble in stopping 
l:>gs. but till' worst featui-e is that a drive of two and a 
half million must Grand Falls within a very few- 
days each spring to catch enough water to get to Fred- 
ericton on. This means difficulty for a plant at such 
a location separating their fifty millions in an impos- 
sibly short space of time. The industry will watch with 
interest their solution of these knotty problems, which 
in any ease will make the wood cost at the mill high. 
The plant at Gasp.' will have onl.v second rate shipping 
facilities, and has the disadv.intage of a dit^icuH coun- 

try to manufacture in. All of these difficulties can 
readily be overcome by good bu.siness and engineering, 
but nuist in any case tend to raise the manufacturing 

We most emphatically challenge the International 
Paper Company, as the above correspondent points out. 
to show us any wi-inkles in eo.^ts of print manufacture, 
especially if they propose to do so in either of the two 
locations above mentioned. 

Our modern nrills are rapidly closing up the old and 
out-of-date small plants of the United States due 
mainly to an inefficiency developed under their tariffs 
which offered no incentive other than increased pi-ofits. 
which is not always effective toward employing more 
scientific methods. 

("anada has to-day the finest print mills in the world, 
I he most modern equipment, the of i)aper-makers, 
and business men guiding the policies of her indiLs- 
tries, whose allotment of gre.v matter a^'erage.s with 
the best. We do not worry about the International 
itself Extending to our side of the line, but their policy 
of antagonizing the consumers of their own product is 
something foreign to us and may it ever be so. Our 
mills and publishers are on the best of terms, both 
optimistic and prosperous in united efforts to make 
Cmada a thriving industrial nation. • 


China clay shortage is now being felt keenly in 
I'nited States, and will doubtless soon spi-ead else- 
whei-e. The increased denrand as a paper filler, with 
the calls in other lines, together with lower shipments 
from the China clay district of Cornwall, in England. 
seems to be the explanation. The Great Western Rail- 
wa.v. which serves that district, is dilatory in providing 
an.vthing like adequate facilities for shii)ment to the 
Port of Fowey. 

Many pi-oducers are overstocked and find it hard 
to keep enough capital in hand to operate their pits 
and linha.vs. Three hundred thousand dollars is now 
being spent in increased facilities, but is wholly inade- 
quate to meet the rapidly growing demands of this 

This aggravated situation calls to our notice the fact 
that our industiy is mainly dependent on one sour-ee 
for its supply — a most undesirable circumstance for 
the trade. And we have every promise that the supply 
from this source will l)e taxed to its limit to meet these 
rapidly growing needs. Canada imports yearly aliout 
3ri0-40() thousand hundredweight. 

The present situation, which promises to grow more 
acute, especially in Tnited States, oft'ers an excellent 
opportunity for the (^anadian exploitation at St. Remi, 
descrilied in last issue Ii.v ]\Ir. Jas. A. Ross, their con- 
sulting engineer, and for the Canadian talc at Madoc. 
Immediate expansion would find a read.v nrarket in 
I'nited States and Canada, where jiaper-makers are com- 
plaining bitterly of a shortage. The facilities of English 


]" r 1. 1' A X 1) I' A 1' !•: i; af a (i a z i x k 

Fcl.iMiarv 1.'). 1913 

producers are iHi1"i'ionsly iiia(le(|ii;ite t(i cope wiili the 
present or futlliv ileinaml. A Inotliold now allallied 
for tlie Canadian ])rodiH'l in I'liited Stales and at Imnie 
Avonld soon enable the tale and china cla\- iiitei'i-sts 
here to strengthen themselves and seek tin' fdr^'iKH 
markets as well. French and I'nited States clay is in 
very little demand, and Canadians here liave a uni<iui- 
opportunity to take an important place in the workl's 
markets for other paper-nnddng- i-aw materials. 


The i)hcn(nnena] and sulistantial growth to such 
large proportions of onr Canadian pulp and pajiei' in- 
dustry has developed new problems for the paper- 
maker and for those in charge of the consei'vation of 
our national resources — conservation in its hmadest 
sense of utilizing the enormous waste by which Xatnre 
is disgraced and economy mocked. Th(n'e is. in mir 
industry, much that might lie saved or turned into moi'c 
useful and valuable products. There are many low 
grade woods now destroyed which might be turned 
into a basis for a thriving industry. There are prob- 
lems and trouble varying w'ith conditions which cannot 
be solved by the manufacturers with the local technical 
skill and meagre facilities available. There are varia- 
tions in modes of manufacture which a large plant 
seeking dividends rarely ever feels like experimenting 
with, such as the numerous facts which have lieen found 
out regarding grinding in the investigations at Wausau, 
Wis., by the United States Government. There are preju- 
dices of managers and superintendents to be ovci-come 
by dollars and cents arguments. There are ingrained 
habits and methods leai'ned during apprenticeship 
which, though often unscientific, wasteful and ineffi- 
cient, are exceedingly hard to remedy or alter. All 
this and much more is a becoming field fm- such a (lov- 
ernment establishment to plough. 

A number of things have contributed to make the 
work at Wausau a success : 

1. It has been carried on, not only with the support 
but under the direction of the industry, through a com- 
mittee of the American Paper and Pulj) Association. 
This committee, composed of such varietl interests, has 
so guided and advised the conduct of the work that every 
cent invested has brought a direct monetary re- 
turn to a host of mills. There are a lai'ge number of 
plants now operating on a completely reorganized liasis 
along the lines of the revelations of the work at the 
Forest Products Lal)Oi-atory. All on an improved fin- 
ancial basis. 

2. The men in charge have not been theorists anxious 
to determine the obscure chemical properties of cellu-, but practical chemical engineers, w'ho know good 
piilp from bad and interpret their scientifie work in the 
light of commercial possibilities — real dollars and cents 

• men. For frecpiently such CJoveriuuent enterprises 

gr.adujdly beccnne a retired ha\en lor eecciilric and 
imp.raetical Fossils to pnrsne unmolested and at public 
expense some pet iIkmu \ <ii- loibby of iinl\ tritliiig value. 
True seientitie imestigation is the basis of all oni- in- 
dustries, but the present iieed is foi' a practical aiqilica- 
tion of such knowledge. hitliei-tn held too much as the 
cherished jirojierty of the few. More science lies in the 
ai)|)lication than in tin- discovery. 

The initiative in the present instance is being taken 
by Mr. R. H. Campbell. Dominion Director of Forestry. 
to whom the credit must belong if such a step is ar- 
ranged fiu-. The piilji and paper interests, as a body. 
at least, who should be the source of such movements, 
might have had something of this nature earlier if an 
agitation had been started. Tlu^ Dei)artment of For- 
estry and jMr. Campbell ai-e siu'cly earning the grati- 
tude of Canadian pulp and i)aper men for their timely 
interest in this connection. This seems one of the 
nuuiy instances where a Canadian Pulp and Paper 
Association could, by united action, have served the 
industi'v as the American Papei- and Pulp Association 
has. To w horn has the Department to go but to the in- 
dividual interests thenkselves. Tliijs is a conddtion 
which should not be and which, let us hope, will be 
remedied by the organization of such an association. 

The location of such a laboratory is also being dis- 
cussed, and unauinuius choice seems to fall on Mont- 
real on account of its central location and the many 
pulp and paper interests located there. A further argu- 
ment has been that the Mc(iill rniversity has done 
more along this line than an\- othei- institution in Can- 
ada, and the ste|i. tlumgh short, was in the right direc- 
tion. In (lernuiny nearly all the large universities have 
sonn' industrial exi>erimental laboratory supported by 
the Government. This suggestion must appeal to all 
interested in the advancement of principles in the indus- 
ti-y. Let us hope to see. very soon, a laboratory of size 
conunensur;ite with the i>restige of our iudustiw. Mean- 
time each can assist in the agitation and support the 
leader in this forward step. 

As the question of who shall be responsible for the 
carrying on of the laboratoi-y', we think that the Domin- 
ion (iovernment itself sl'.ould undertake tlu" work. We 
ne(^il not go lengthily into this matter. As there was an 
exhaustive ;irticle on the same subject in our Ajiril, 
1912, issue by Ml'. 11. R. xMacMiilan, but brietiy sum- 
marized, there ai'e se\'eral reasons why this wurk can 
best be handled liy the government. The govi-rnnieut. 
can more readily secure confidential and important trade 
infonnation than can a private individual. Work car- 
ried on by till' go\ci-iimeut would be known to be disin- 
ti'rested and impartial. \'aluable results secured by the 
government would tpiickly aiul freely lie madi' axailable 
to all persons, and the good results would be more wide- 
spread than if the same infoi'ination had lieen secured by 
pri\a1e individuals. The lie-t wi i-k can only be done by 
a central and perniam-nt iirganizatioti. Such an organi- 
zation would be more likely to lie developed by the gov- 
ernnieiU ihan by a priwite indi\idnal. 

l''rlii-iiMi\ 1.".. nil: 

!■ r I, I' A \ I) I' A i> 1-; 

M A <; AZ F X E 




liy Lro Sell lick. M.E. 

I 111 vii'w of tile ciHU-iiinus tield for straw j)!!!]) iiiid 
paper inamifactin'c in Canada, the editor has arranged 
with Mr. Schliek for a series of articles giving a com- 
jilete discussion of the pi)ssil)ilities and process. | 

Considering the enormous quantities of straw lieing 
wasted during the past years in the Dominion, it is no 
Wonder that the modern Canadians are realizing the 
((ualities of straw as regards its value for pulp and 
j>aper making pur])oses. 

Jn fact, hotii westei'u and eastern farmers and vn\n- 
talists are highly interested in the manufacture men- 
tioned and the writer thinks it therefore advisable to 
plac before the readers of this journal an article deal- 
ing with the conversion of straw into pulp. 

The manufacture of strawboards and sti'awpai>ei- has 
been developed long before the manufacture of chemi- 
cal wood fibi'e was invented. 


To manufactuie boards and paper from straw, all 
l-inds may b.^ employed, as wheat and rye. oat and bar- 
le.y straw. Rye and wheat straw are giving the best 
and largest fibres of good felting powder. Oat straw is 
something more difficult to digest, on account of the 
husks, and gives a somewhat weaker pulj) than the 
one of wheat and rye. 

Barle.v straw ranges below the oat straw and its 
filires possess the smallest felting power. 

Some manufacturers prefer, therefore, to mix ditfer- 
ent kinds of straw and digest them together in propor- 
tions. Other manufacturers treat the straw separately, 
according to its hardness, and mix the pulp later on. in 
order to get an equal quality. 

The .\ield obtained from straw in pi-oportious of 
e(iual (piantities of rye. wheat .oat and barley, ranges 
1 etweeii HS and 42 per cent, of air dry pulp. 

The old Fieneh sy.stem was to treat the sti'aw in 
leservoirs ui;h 10 per cent, of lime, for about ten days, 
until the material w&s softened, then converted into 
lioards and papers. This system, however, requires 
much labor, space and time, as it has not yet come to a 
\ I ly prosperous development. The writer saw it in 
use in small French board and paper mills, producing 
two to eight tons of straw boards per day. 

We have to consider two systems of manufacture. 

The tirst and mostly used one for boards and yellow 
lapers is to digest the straw during three to four 
liours under |)res.suie in rotary boilers, with (i to 8 per 
(•(•Ml. of lime. 

The lime boiling process gives the pulp its sjiecifie 
yellow coloi-. 

The lime, serving ;!s a loading material, remains part- 
\y ill the pulp. 

The other process is the manufacture of high-grade 
libached straw pulj) after the .sulphate process. Pulp 
ol the latter is. of eourse. more expensive to manufac- 
ture, but renders best services for the manufacture of 
writing pa|)er. as it gives the paper a bettei' qualily. 

\Vi- will go over both systems of manufactur<' ^t ni- 
ing with some notes about raw material. 

Preparation of the Straw. 

New mills will have to con.sider that the straw has to 
be stored after the harvest time in quantities, allowing 
them an uninterrupted working the whole year round. 

Therefore, the Dutch and most economical practice 
is to press the straw on the form in balings and wrap 
the latter in wires. 

The compressed surface of these pressed balings pre- 
vents the straw from getting wet and useless. 

These balings may be easily transported by rail and 
stored for many months. 

The first step in the manufacture is the cutting of 
the straw in lengths of Vo inch to 1 inch liy means of 
a straw cutter. 

^Modern cutters are built for large capacities and 
work up five to twenty tons of .straw per hour. 

There are. however, larger machines of a high capa- 
city, and it is always preferable to install machines of 
this kind as large as possible. 

liargc units have a higher mechanicM] eflficiency. save 
time, labor, space and power, though their price is 
Nomcwliat higher. 



Fcl)i-ii;ir\' 15. l!)lo 

(|ii('sti()ii ill installing an 
s tilt' inachiiic etSeii'iit .' : 

laratiis must 

. lldW llllK'll 

The I 
does'il cost .' 

An efficient machine is an imprdxcd machine, and an 
improved machine has cost a lot of money to design 
and test it. Therefore it has to cost more. But it al- 
ways pays for itself. This principle has ])eeu a secret 
to many manufactureis, who have figured out that the 
one type cost $2,000. two $4,(100. Imf the machine of 
improved design $r).000 for the same output. The>' 
went and bought two small ones, saving, for the mom- 
ent. $1,000 and paying ten times more for lahor within 
a couph' of years. So much about efficieuc.w 

The straw cutter in figure 1 is connected to a fable, 
upon which the straw is placed. The table is provided 
with a conveying system, bringing the straw between 
a press, the latter consisting of two teethed i 
straw is held and transported by means of the r( 
mentioned, to a revolving disc, titted with steel kni\' 
the latter cutting the straw in equal pieces. 

Straw contains generally 1 per cent of grain am 
special sieving device is connected with the straw cnt 
ter in oi'der to screen these grains out. 

The straw is now read.v to be elevated in bins abo\-i 
the rotary spherical or oblong boilers. 

So-called straw cutters ha\e been built with sma 


A rough chccd^ of liiin' solution sufficient for the 
manufactuie of .\cllow oi'dinary Ixiaids and pai>er is 
to dissol\-e jiiiwdercd lime in water, and to measure its 
densit.v. lint the mi.Ktiii'c of lime and water has to be 
well stirred up, if not. bad results will be obtained. 

Take a graduati-d glass of a volume of a))out IVi; to 
2 litei's. and determine its weight carefull.v: then pour 
in it some of the lime water you are using, until the 
one liter mark is reached. The amount of lime (CaO) 
in erjiiiimes per liter is then found by weighing again 
glass with limewater. 

1 liter 

1 liter 



CaO in 





















efficienc.v, in ordi'i- to remove the knots from tile straw, 
but careful tests have shown that the.v are not of much 

Although it may be possible to design a more success- 
ful machine, the latest straw mills ai'e, in most cases, 
not eciuipped witli such dustei's. but Ihi're :Wi- excel- 
lantly Imilt machines to reclaim 1 pi'r ei'iit, of the 
grain contained in the straw. 

The quantit.v of husks has been determined b> care- 
fully weighing a certain quantit.v of raw matei'ial. cut- 
ting out the husks with sheers and weighing the re- 

It has been found that wheat contains 9.7 per cent, of 
husks, rye 8.8 ])er cent, of husks, the dust and sand 
amounting to ;! jier cent, of the weight of the straw. 

Because it is impossilile to remove all the liusks be- 
fore the boiling process, they are successfull.v screeneil 
out on flat strainers, the latter being jilaced before the 
board or paper machine. 










] .") 










1.5! » 


lit ... 













..;... 12(10 




5 degrees (', •■ 




K.^lii-uarv l."). TIM 



Lime Preparations for the Manufacture of Lime 
Treated Pulp. 

Tile |)ri'|iiiriiti()ii of lii 
stort-y .iliovc the di'^'cstc 
quird is six Id rii^lil pr 
straw. Till' i|u;in1il\ i>\' 

l\r li:is 1(1 I),' diini' ill tlic 
'i'lir (|iianlil\' 111' lime re- 
•rnt. Ill' till' weight of the 
lie wliicli can he dissolvi'd 
in water is ri'latively small to tlir <|uantity of lime 
needed to dige.vf the |)ulp. A large quantity has there- 
fore to be kept suspended in the water and this lias to 
he done hy menus of an agihitor. Hut. being very 
difficult to pump siu-b a lye special chests with agitat- 
ors have therefore to br iilacni above the digesters. 
Here in a comiiartment tlir lime will he cleaned and 
weighed. The cleaning is done by means of a long 
trough provided with baffles and a rotary sieving de- 
vice. Where limestone is cheaj) it is advisable to biu'n 
it in kilns near the mill. In burning the lime in the 
mill the manufacturer is sure to obtain an eijual (luality. 
is sure never to get half-burned lime and saves besides 
a good deal of money. After the limestone is burned 
it has to pass a ball mill where the stone is ground to 
powder. It is. of course, a matter of calculation as to 
wheihei' the kiln will pay and depends on the amount 
of lime needed pel- '24 hotu-s. 

The Digesting Process. 

For digesting straw pul]i with lime rotary spherical 
boilers as well as oblong cylindrical are employed. In 
order to save steam the digesters are to be connected in 
series of four. The time of hoiling employed is to be 
taken according to pressure used, and ranges between 
four and six hours, that means if four digesters are to 
be emptied in 24 hours. Before dumping one boiler its 
steam will be blown over to its neighbor, having been 
filled. The stean: pressure employed ranges between 45 
and 75 lbs. gauge pressure. Long cooking time in con- 
nection with low pressure gives the strongest fibres of 
best felting power. Shoi't cooking with higher steam 
pressure gives a softer and shorter tilu-e. Rotary spehri- 
cf.l boilers contain fnnu 1.500 to 2.000 lbs. of straw, and 
I'evolve with one-half to two I'evolutions per minute. 
The hollow steel journals are connected with water 
and .Sitram pipe lines. According to the cooking time 
i-mployed the boiler has to be tilled so far with lye 
that the condensing water may find room enough. In 
revolving the boiler the straw keeps constantly fric- 
tioning and rubbing in itself to the advantage of digest- 
ing, but also mixes and etiualizes the lye. The sus- 
pended lime goes more and more in solution and the 
digesting progresses until the steam is shut down. 

Large pulp mills, howevei-. employ nowadays rotary' 
oblong boilers of the type figure ^\vo illustrares. The 
eapaeity of this digester is considerable and ranges 
between 6,000 and 8,000 lbs. of straw. This kind of 
digester is preferably blown off in lauks. Because it 
is necessary to blow off with 25 to 45 lbs. sicam i)ress- 
ure. hut also to utilize as much heat as possible nu'n- 
tioned, washing and blow-oflf tanks ai'C nro\ided with 
a waterpower system to condense the >»team. The 
steam is also partly cari'ied to the condensers. 

Before closing this chapter let me say that it is im- 
possible to treat wheat straw grown in Manitoba in 
the same way as straw grown in Ontario or Quebec. As 
different as the (piality of the grain, as different is the 
quality of the sti-aw. Climale, bottom, and time of 
harvesting influences the quality and hardiu'ss of the 
straw consideralily. aiul with them the digesting. The 
l)ractic"al itulpmakei-. however, will overconu' these 

Preparation of the Pulp. 

The Dutch and Gernuiu i)ractice to jjrepare the 
straw pulp is to convey it to large kollergangs and to 
beat it in thei-e until the fibres are loosened. Large 
kollergangs have a capacity of five to seven tons daily. 
need 10 to 15 horsepower and revolve with 12 to 14 
revolutions per minute. Enclosed cut shows a modern 
kollergang with high trough, and is underdriven 
Stones are nowadays used in granite or basalt. The 
pulp is treated in the knllergangs during 20 minutes 
to three-cjuarters of an hinir and conveyed to beaters. 

The beating time in a modern beater is to be considered 
very short and is not longer than 45 minutes. The 
beating has to he done with large knives at a low speci- 
fic pressure. The modern beaters are very different in 
the design from the common constructions. The bot- 
tom has to be inclined. This inclination of the bottom 
of the tub is such that the pulp circulates very rajiidly 
in the tub. It saves not only power, bur needs no 
stirring up. 

It is evident that in order to transport lb.' pulii 
its low traveling speed has to be speeded up by the 
roll to the velocity of the latter. This ainoiuit of 
power is theoretically constant for a certain amount of 
pulp in a certain time after the I'oruuda 

m V- ^- je 


The better the efficiency of the roll as a transiwrta- 
tion wheel the less power is required to bring the pulp 
in uK)tion. The centrifugal force gives the pulj) a con- 
siderable pressure behind the roll aiul if this pressure 
is used in the right way the velocity of the pulp in the 
tub can be increased considerably. In increasing the 
velocitv of the pulp in the tub it enters the si)aces of 
the roll with a larger velocity and therefoiv 
the power consumi)tion of the beater. 

In the continuation the writer will treat the continu- 
ously running pulp perparing system. 



FcliniMi-v IT). 1913 


l!v ll,iii-v A. Miiddox. 

Printers nccasioiially cxjicriciicc trdiililfs willi paper 
consequent upmi the retention therein of residues fi'oiii 
certain of the chemical processes which tlu' nuiterial 
undei-o'oes in its transition to the finished staj^e. Litho- 
i;i-aphers are the cliief conii)laintants, for their methods 
of ])i-oduction are based on eliemieal interaction, whilst 
they use color inks which in many easrs ai'c suhjcct to 
reaction under certain conditions, rnforlunatdy. the 
printer is far too ready to shelve the blame foi' much 
of his own faulty workmanshij) ui)on the i)aper-maker. 
One thing is certain, and intellectual ]irintiM's realize it, 
that better and cheaper printing pa]iei' is now tui'ned 
out than ever before. At the same tinir i1 is proliahly 
true that cheaper and nuieh woise iiajirr nni\- now In- 
produce than hitherto. The buyer himself, if he 
knows anything at all about the commodity he hnys. 
nuist be aware that the price he pays governs flic (piaU 
ity of the product. If he wilfully jnirchas.'s p.ipci- al a 
price inconsistent with (piality and eharartci-. hr lays 
up immediately a store of trouble for the pi'intcr. We 
restrict ourselves uuiinly to lithographic jtapers in these 
comments, the letterpress printei' experiem-i's Hi lie or 
no difficulty with any gratb' of stock. 

There are certain defects in papci- wliicli make them- 
selves known immediatel\' the job eonnuenees running 
on the lithographic maehine. sueli as fluff. Inil oi- loose 
fibi-e and loading, uneven eutling. \ariation in linish, 
weak or soluble coating, creasing, cockling, etc. For 
these and like defects, the papei'-maker is eei'tainly to 
blame and geiu^i'ally i-eceives it. So far as elii-cnno- 
lithography is concerned the paper may lie seriously 
defective in a manner which does not e.\ert its influence 
until the pi'inting has lieeii compli'led. Or again, the 
development of the Iroulile may be so gradiuU, yet 
occur during the |)rinting, that the lithographer fails 
to perceive the efl'ect until too late. Cases of this de- 
sci'iption hajijicn more ot'ten than is generiilly thought 
and are due mainl\' In chemical residues in the pa|ier 
reacting with aftinilies in the ink. A consideration of 
the factors on either side may thus pro\e protilaMc to 
hotli ])a]ier-makers and litliographeis. 

In lithography, an cxteiisix'c range of ditfei-enl 
classes of ])aper arc called into use. including, in addi- 
tion to ordinary chi'oiiios. enamels, litlios and S.( '.s. 
such grades as gi'ease-pi-oof. \egetal)le parchment, 
flints, surfaced coloreds, cliei|ue paiiers, pasteboards, 
etc. The paper-maker will undoubtedly admit the 
pi-obability of certain of these varieties containing resi- 
dual chemicals, in however slight a degree, from the 
special treatnuuit which several of them necessarily 

Chief amongst the offending residues may be men- 
tioned alkalies, acids, sulphur, suljihidcs or suliihur 
coml)ination.s, traces of antiehlor. iron or lead im|)uri- 
ties, organic residues from mcch.-inical wood. On Ihe 
printing ink side we have suliiliiir. lead and iron c(nii- 
pounds, chrome, alum, and mercni-ie Imdies. while the 
surface from which the printi'd iinpression is i'ecei\-ed 
may 1)e either carlionate m- lime and iiiagncNi.a. zinc, 
aluminium or iudiarublier. 

Asa general I'ule. printing paper. ,i ml especially litlio 
stock, is turned out in a iieiil ral state — that is. \'\-['v from 
any trace of either IVce ai'id oi' alkali. Consiilei-ing 

that lilirous papei-making material is al first siilijecled 
to a somewhat severe alkaliiu^ treatuu.'nt and later en- 
counters acids in one form oi' another, it is possible that 
occasionally nmkings of pajier are not entirely free 
from chemical residiu'. I'eihaps the most common, and 
certainly the most injuiious form of residue, is sul- 
phuric acid. This may lie introduced into the paper 
in various ways. If the lileaching is hastened by 
means of dilute IL.SO^. inefficient washing or badly 
calculated proportion of antiehlor results in free acid 
in the finished stock'. Au'ain. the precipitation of resin 
is effected by addition nf aluminium sulphate. The 
resinate ma\- have a fi'ndcncy to set free- traces of sul- 
phuric acid from the suljihatc, which M'ould then find 
theii' way thi'ough to the finished product. Gi'ease- 
])r-oof papers are sometimes parchnu^ntized with sul- 
|ilinric acids, traces of which may remain unless accur- 
ate neutralization is etfccted. Another source of free 
acid is blanc fixe, used as loading and for coating mix- 
tures, lacing artiticiall\- )irepai-ed by treating a solu- 
tion of barium chloride with Ib.rtO^ or AL(SOJ'' there 
is a danger of free acid remaining as the results of in- 
efficient washing of the precii>itate. The most simple 
test for free acid in the paper is to make up a solution 
of Congo red in watei', a dro|> of which applied to the 
paper will turn l)lue in the presence of free acid. Alum 
has a tendency to react as an acid, and if present in 
excess, as it may easily be, in the case of coated papers 
particularly. ma\" be regarded in exactly the same light 
as free sulphuric acid. Alum is added to the sizing for 
full-sized |;a]>ers. while if is also ,i common constituent 
of the coating solution for clii'iniio and bright enamel 
stock. It must lie I'liiiark-ed. however, that alum does 
not test acid to ('ongo red, lint it reddens litmus paper 
or solution. Another tot for free acid may i)e men- 
tioned, wliieli can lie used i|uantitatively. Strips of 
I he paper to known weight are extracted in warm 
water. The extract is then titrated in the usual man- 
ner with ilecinormiil potassium hydrate, in the presence 
of pln-nol phthalein as indicator. The jjhenol j)htha- 
lein is itself coloi-lcss. hut with alkali it changes to an 
intense red. wlii! ■ it ;iss\unes its former state of eolor- 
lessness on aildine acid in excess. From the number 
c.c.'s of piifassinm hydrali' ri'quircd. the amount of 
free acid may be c,i Iculated. 

Tile elVecf which IVcc acid in the [lapcr has u]ion 
chromo-lithography is serious in the case of certain 
pignuaiTs, but the first reaction is probably upon the 
p<rinting surface. Thi> basis of lithography is the separ- 
ation of the ]irinting surface into two areas, the one 
which is reipiired to create an ink impression being 
prepared to be sensiti\'e to greasy compounds, hence 
water-repellaut, while the non-printing area must re- 
fuse gi'ease and receive and retain moisture, i,e., a tilm 
of water. The eti'ect of acid upon this is to attack both 
areas. ci-eating a scum upon the non-printing area and 
eating away the edges of the printable area, ^luch 
trdiible and inconvenience nuiy thereby be occasioned 
fill the liiliogranher. In the ease of coated papers car- 
r\iiig a lillle acid augmented by a badly-lixcil clay sui-- 
fai'c. the powder (lelaches and tills llu' pores of the 
]ii-intin<i' stone or plate, with disaslrouis results to the 

February 1.'). 1913 

P T' L P AND I' A I' E R M A f! A Z I N E 


Ciiiiiiiiir MOW 10 tlie pigiiieuts. ultrainai-ine is partly 
liliMclifil ill llif iH'esence of acid, thf effect beeoming 
visible only afli'i' the printing has been completed. 
Pure blue (from green and eaustie soda) is affected in 
like maunei-. while many of the cheaper aniline coloi-s. 
which are largely introduced into poor inks, would 
i-apidly deteriorate in the presence of free acid. The 
.same reasoning ai)plics to certain of the lake com- 

Cases have occurred in which chromo {)rints executed 
with vegetable or organic coloring materials have 
greatly degenerated in color value, although appar- 
ently both the paper and the inks were quite reliable. 
The basis of such trouble is u.sually the presence on the 
paper of residues from the bleaching process. The 
active agent in the whitening of the pidp is chlorine in 
a free state. It is but rarely that the lithographer has 
to deal with ])ai)er containing traces of chlorine, al- 
though it is (piite possible that evidence of it may be 
detected in a paper dii-eet fiom the machine. Chlorine 
is so sensitive to reaction that it either immediately 
escapes from the papei- on exposure, or else combines 
speedily with bases in the paper to form such salts of 
sodium or aluminum chloride. If. however, there is 
.some suspicion of a lileaehing agent in the finished 
paper, it makes itself visible by weakening the color of 
the print or creating a piebald appearance. Free chlor- 
ine is usually tested for in the following manner: A 
portion of the paper is extracted with cold water in a 
test tube and to the extract is added a solution of 
potassium iodide and a little starch litjuor. In the pres- 
ence of free chlorine a blue coloration is produced. 
Residues of bleaching powder and traces of hypochlor- 
ites are capable of exerting a most disastrous influence 
upon chromo-lithographic work. They also have a de- 
cided tendency to rot the paper and cause it to go 
black in color. 

Iron spots or compounds in the paper may be pro- 
duced during manufacture in various ways. Scraps and 
particles often become detached from the knives and 
bars of the breaking engine, beaters and refiners, which, 
however, may be composed of alternative composite 
metals, as brass, copper, phosphor-bronze, etc. Iron 
and other metallic impurities also result from rusty 
stuff chests, waterpipes and tanks, sand catchers and 
strainers. Jloreover. the water supplied to the mill 
may be rich in iron salt.s — a grave fault. Again, the 
I>o(.rest grades of ahuninium sulphate contain sufficient 
iron to injure a good class of printing papei-. 

The spots and stains are usually developed and 
intensified during the drying, particularly if the web 
comes up damp and meets too sudden a high degree of 
heat. It is <|uite possible, however, that the paper 
may come to the lithogi-apher apparently pure. The 
trouble is then encountered when a development of 
dark spots black, chocolate, buff or bright in color 
with certain pigments sets in. These spots develop in 
color during the drying of the pigment on the pajier 
ami intensify progressively. Such pigments as Najjles 
yellow. Chinese yellow, eai'mine, scarlet lake, orange, 
mountain blue. etc.. react with iron and are therefore 
eertam to create trouble if iron is present in the pajier. 
Again, such mercuric iodide pigments as geranium red 
and scarlet iodide (pure scarlet! would sjieedily be 
■ iffeeted by traces of ii'on. AVhen chemical reaction 
with the pigment sets in. the disfigurement of the sheet 
IS intensified and liecomes most obvious, .\pai-t from 
its presence in this foi'm. iron nuiy also lie present in 
the pa})er as a compound with resinous and fatty 
matters, oi' in combination in excess with the clay 

added to the i)eater. The result of its introduction in 
this form would be the development of a dirty yellow 
tinge in the stock. 

A test for iron in paper may appropriately be added. 
Digest thoroughly a portion of the suspected paper with 
a solution of hydrochloric acid to which has been added 
a drop 01- two of nitric acid. After complete extraction 
of any possible iron a little potassium ferrocyanide 
solution is added to the extract, which turns to a blue 
shade corresponding in intensity to the amount of min- 
eral present in the paper. 

Amongst the most damaging forms of impurity to 
be found in paper for lithogi-aphy is sulphur, in the 
form of sulphide. It is principally to be found in the 
cheaper grades of paper containing poor sulphite pulp. 
Sulphur residues result from inetificient cleansing of 
the pulp from the bisulphite boiling liquors. Other 
ways by which sulphur compounds are carried forward 
into the finished paper may be mentioned, for instance, 
excess of bleach li(jnor are in many mills neuti-alized 
by means of antiehlor. Sodium thiosulphate usually 
forms the antiehlor. and if used in excess there is a 
tendency for precipitations of sulphur to remain upon 
the fibre. It is also possible that the water used at some 
stage in the making of the paper may have become 
contaminated by sulphuretted hydrogen from decom- 
posed organic matter. The influence of H.,S upon 
lead compound is well known, and as many of the 
lithographer's pigments contain lead it is most disas- 
trous to encounter paper with traces of sulphuretted 

Cases have occurred in which traces of sulphur 
compounds have been introduced to the paper through 
the coloring matter employed for dyeing. Ultramarine 
contains sulphur as a component part, usually so bound 
up that it cannot act separately. Extremely poor 
grades of the color, however, have often a small pro- 
portion of uncombined sulphur which might easily find 
its way into paper dyed with, the color. 

The chief eff'ect of sulphur compounds in paper is to 
blacken the pigments which contain lead or copper, 
while they have a deleterious influence upon many of 
the aniline coloring matters from which are pi'oduced 
a consideral)le numbei- of cheap pi-inting inks. The 
lithographer's coloi's affected by sulphides or sulphur 
residues are: Naples. Chinese, chrome and patent 
yellows, verditer. mountain and intense blues and 
orange chrome. Bronze powders, which contain a 
I irge anu)unt of copper in their composition, are rapidly 
blackened when in contact with reactive sidjihur bodies; 
hence, the paper which is sold for interleaving br(Uized 
work should be free from traces of sulphite liquoi's. 

Sulphides in papei- may be detected by the character- 
istic smell of rotten eggs which is ci-eated when a por- 
tion of the stock is gently warmed in a test tube with 
weak sulphuric acid. Another test is to bring a piece 
of filter paper soaked in silver nitrate over the mouth 
of the tube containing the suspected paper in sulphuric 
acid. If sulphide is present in the stock a metallic de- 
I^o.^it will be foi'med on the filter paper. Soluble sul- 
phides and suli)hites may be detected and ijuantitatively 
determined by the usual nu'thod of cold water extrac- 
tion and titration with deeinormal iodine S(dution. 

Alum in coated papei- occasions miu-h ti-ouble to the 
'ithographic printer. We have already i-emai-ked upon 
alum and its acid-like i-eaction ujion pigments: but 
when present in excess in the coating mixture apjilied 
to the body paper for chi-omos and enamels, it has an 
even more serious reaction u|>on the stone from which 
the impression is printed. 



Fe!)niai-v l-J. 191:1 

Aliiiniiia. coiislitiitrs aliimt 40 per cent of kaolin oi- 
China clay, while ;iliiiii itself is fi-e(|ii('iitly added to the 
glue as a |ii'('sei'\ati\ e. althoug'h formalin is preferalile. 
Tlie preseiR'f (jf exc-i'ss of alum to fr(.'i' alumiua in the 
coating is rapidly asserted whilst the paper is being 
printed. ])articularly if the eoating film is at all loosely 

fixed or incli 1 to soluliility. Pai-ticles of the powder 

heeoine ilel ached and hulee in the pores of the printing 
surface, 'i'liis elogging ei-eates trouble with the inking 
and damping arrangements and in a short time reaels 
with the surface constituents of the stone or metal plate 
used for printing. Alum water is ■ of the litho- 
grapher's dopes for creating a very sensitive surface. 
With incautious usi'. it carries this elifeel too faiv and 
causes other parts of the surface to take iid< ami print a 
scum. 'I'his is precisely what hap])ens when a eoale<l 
jiaper containing excess of alum is being j)rinted. Dirt 
and scum and the printing surface becomes tilled 
up. The trouble is one of the most frequent which 
are encountered when woi'king on coated stock, hence 
it behooves the maker to carefully conti'ol the eoatini;' 
of lithographic chromos and lirighl enamels. 

As tile papei'-makei- is well awai'c, the most probable 
reactiini of printing |iapei's which ai'e othei-\vise than 
neutral will be alkalinity. Excepting those papers 
produced IVoni sulphite boiled mati-rial, the majority of 
the processes wliicli the raw stuff undergoes are strong- 
ly alkaline in their nature. The water supply. Itoiling. 
bleaching, casein sizing or coating mixture may any of 
them b'avc traces A\hieli become c\-idcnt in the finisbiMl 
paper. So<linm siil|!hate used ,is an :iiiliehloi- afti'r 
l)leaching also leatls to alkalinity. Casein, dissolved foi- 
iLse in such alkalies as caustic soda, ammonium or borax 
although usiuilly well cleansed frcuii residue may yet 
impart alkalinity to papei' sized with it or ))earing a 
coating containing it. To the color pi-inter the presence 
of alkaline bases is disastrous, for several of his jiig- 
ments are extremely susceptible to their action. E.xcess 
of caustic soda or potash rapidly atta(d<s and destroys 
the shade of Prussian blue, whilst ammonia (which may 
be met with in coated papers) effectively bleaches this 
color. Pigments containing acid are instantly changed 
in hue Avhen the paper has an alkaline reaction. The 
chrome series of pigments, which constitute a very 
important range to the lithographer are deepened or 
reddened by alkalies. Borax posessses a fading action 
on many coloi-s, but is less vigorous in its attack than 
any of the afore-mentioned bases. 

In conclusion, a few remarks may be aclded e(uicerii- 
ing the effect of organic residues in i)aper upon i)riiiting 
inks. It is the printers' own fault in almost all cases 
where he works on a i)a])er containing mechanical wood 
pulp. Evidently he is trying to effect economy liy the 
use of cheap stock. However, small may be the jiro- 
portion of ]\I.W.P. introduced to the pulp there is in- 
stantly embodied the elements of destructive organic 
reaction. The lignin and other foi'eign matter now 
incorporated, absorb oxygen, and the paper loses its 
tone. Incidentally the inks are changed in hue and 
often almost entirely fade away. The remedy is ob\ious 
and remains with the lithographer. 

If glue constitutes the binding adliesi\i' in a coating 
for chromo stock, it should lie pure and of high gr.ide. 
The poor qualities are apt to contain oi-gaiiic residues 
which attack color pig-iiients. Again, the smell emitted 
is most obnoxious. 

During the bleaching process certain organic iion- 
eelluloses in the pulp become transformed and in an 
active state find their way through to the finished paper, 

where I here is cvi-ry piobability of reaction with the 
litliograiilier's colors, iiarlicnlarly the aniline series. 

The more the paper-maker understands the troubles 
which the printer daily encounters with the paper he 
uses, the better able will he be to cope with them and 
offer for the high-grade work a class of stock carrying 
a guaranfei' of ]>iirity and security against any froubh' 
from jiaiier vei-sus ink. — "i'apcr .Makers' ibjntldy -Joui-- 


The inti'oduction of the cheap, so-called "bond"" 
papers in this country a few years ago has worked more 
injury to the manufacturing printer than any othei- 
I aper stock ever presented by the paper joblier, accord- 
ing to a printer whose name cannot be given. 

it should be ]ilainly stateil that "bond" [lapers can- 
not be made by the manufacturer and sold by the job- 
ber for a less pi'ice than 11 cents a pound, 

■^'et in the face of this statement the market is glut- 
led with innumerable so distant liond ])a|iers and all 
wci'ldng to the detriment of not only the jobber, but 
the manufacturer of printing. 

Xo (hnibl the latter has discovered the important fact 
that these elit ap sulphite stock papers are the greatest 
enemy of type ever introduced, as by their harsh sur- 
face and inequality of their makeup, t.vpe is mad? to 
suffer — likewise the bank account of the printer — and 
the typefounder is the gainer. 

According to this observing printei'. if the printers in 
using these cheap papers do not take into consideration 
the wear and tear on type — here is where depreciation 
of type cut a figiu-e — and refrain from charging it into 
the job. they are the loser in every instance. 

Every job cannot be electrotyped. and granting that 
it can. what would be the "life"' of an electro from 
hairline t.vpe. the type called for and used so often 
in work sjiecitied on these cheap bonds. 

Many printers have taken up this matter with the 
purchasers of jirinting and secured their consent to use 
a "flat" paper in lieu of these six-cent sulphite bonds. 

Let the printer take this matter well to heart for 
mutual pi'otectioii — the customer as wel' as himself. 


The clever design'; on eii\-clope done in two and three 
colors that will ajipeal to the eye may soon replace the 
ordinary wrapping paper for the small items purchased 
in the department stores, is told by one using with suc- 
cess foi- more than a ,year. While the expense is greater 
than for the ordinary lighter weight wrapping paper. 
the benefits deiix'cd are iii.iny. 

"It is obxious that the envi'lo|)e> we use are \ > ry 
satisfactory, especiall.v to the women shopjiers, as they 
make a vi'ry neat package. Furthermore, they facili- 
tate the work of our clerks, as it is nuich easier to 
jilace such items as luuulkerchiefs, trinkets, etc., in 
one than to use wra]iping paper and tie with twine. We 
have made it a practice to vary the style of figures that 
appear in cobu's. In the various sections where the 
enveloju's are used we find it advisable to assemble the 
(liifeient varieties so that customers may iuive their 
attention called to other departments. AVe would not 
care to state the quantity used of these envelopes. An- 
other feature that we have introduced is to have a mod- 
est card on wrapping papers." 

F,'hrii,Mi-v 1.'), l:il:i 

p t; r. p A N D I' A p J-: k m a g a z i x e 



By .Jai 

Tlir (•(iiiili)i(iii of the water available for the use of 
tlir papei-iii.ikei- is a subject of tlie j<reatest iinportanee 
to him. So ileiieate ai'c cliemieal reactions that a great 
deal of material may lir sjjoilt (though the eflPects 
may not lie at first visilile i owing to the salts in the 
water eoml'ining with the ingredients of the pulp. Even 
rain water, which is considei-ed to i)e the purest form 
of the fluid, is often liberally charged with carbonic 
acid fcarbon dioxideY. derived during its descent 


iliroudi smoky or liri'ath-ladi n distriels: antl this L;-as 
is a very potent one in many ways. 

\V hat 'ver may be the original source of the watei- 
used in a mill, it must have passed through, or over. 
gro\ind from which it is possible for this medium to 
exti'aet such substances as lime, magnesia, iron, and 
sui])l.uric .icid. Organic matters, such as vegetable 
deiiris. ins:'cts. animalculae and flinty diatoms are gen- 
erally filtered off. If any are present they can be 
• asily detected l)y looking through a glas-s jar full of 
the tested water stirred up. 

Hard wafer generally consists of two kinds: those in 
which temporary hardness, and fixed or ]);M-maneiit may be found. Sometimes, however, both 
conditions are met with in the same liquid. The first 
i-i that \\bii'c a fur or deposit occurs when water is 
I Old!, til;' salts in this case being pi-ecipitated oi' re- 
m(i\-ed. The second kind does not fall when boiling 
IS adojjted. and so ma\' prove Iroublesome for mam- 

I'enipoi'ai'y liai'dness is d\ie mostly to the jiresence 
"'' ehalk. i.e.. e.irbonate of lime or calcium. This 
eonstitules rhe fur or crusi over the lining of boilers. 
I'i'i-manent hardness is caused i)rinci])ally by suljih.ite 
"t lime, chloride of lime, and magnesium salts. 

I hr relative amount of these impui'ities may be 
iiseertained liy ^\i,\v\y evaporating a glassf\d of the 
watc'i'. le:i\iiig jt in a w.irm room for a few ila.\s oi' 
\veeks. All llie salts, ete.. eoiitained in it will remain 

cs Scott. 

behind aftei- the wat.'r has vanished: and this residue 
eaii then be measured anil compared with the total bulk 
of the water. If this sediment is treated with a few 
lirops of hydrochloric acid (spirit of salt) any chalk 
or carbonate of lime present will be revealed by briskly 

For testing hard water, a little pure white soap is 
useful. This should be dissolved in alcohol (spirit of 
wine) and then be added to a glassful of the water. 
If any hardness esis-ts it will be disclosed by the sudden 
milkdness which follows, and according to the amount 
of the mineral salts acted on will depend the intensity 
of the opaipie whiteness. Soft water will exhibit no 
change dui'ing the soap test. 

An oleate is formed by the reaction of lime, mag- 
nesia, etc., salts and soap, in hard water. Magnesia is 
disclosed as a dense white precipitate or deposit where 
carbonate of ammonia, and phosphate of soda, are to- 
gether dropped info .some of the water while boiling. 

When lime water (i.e. milk of lime) is added to water 
esmtaining carbonic acid gas (i.e. eai-bon-dioxide) a 
precipitate occurs; its scantiness or abundance denot- 
ing the corresponding (piantitly of the gas. Carbonate 
of lime (chalk) is produced by this method. 

A milkiness is obtained when a few crystals of oxalic 
;icid are dissolved in water containing soluble lime, 
the acid combining with the salt to make insoluble 
oxalate of lime. 

Sulphur can lie detected bv im-ans of mcreur.\'. a 
globule of which should be corked uj) in a tube of the 
suspected water, the whole then being allowed to 
remain undisturbed for some time — the longer the 
lietter. The sulphur present will unite with the mer- 
cur.v to compose a sulphide of the metal, which will 
have a dark appearance. Upon shaking it up, the mer- 
ciu-v will a.ssume a silvei-.v gi-e.v aspect, instead of the 
usual glistening one. 

Iron ma.v be tested for b.v jiouriug a few drojis of nut 
g.ill tincture into the water. (This substance contains 
gallic acid wbii-b in combination witii ii'on salts forms 


some commercial inks). Tlie iron in the water will 
c:iuse if to become dark grey, or deep black, tile iiiten- 
sily of the line varying willi tlie amount of the metal 


The test Utr free siilpliurie acid, or aii.\' of tlie snl- 
pliates wliirli I liax'e illustrated, eoiistiliites a xcr.v re- 
markable series of modifications, and lias I n detail- 



Februarv 15. 1913 

eel lice;uisc thr reader is quite f;iiniliar with the suh- 
slanees usi'd. Sulphate of barium, for instance, is thi' 
loatlei- known as permanent wliitc. or hlauc-lixe. 

If a \vat(>r has any sulphuric acid in it, even though 
only mere traces are pi'esent. or is tainted with a 
soluble sulphate, such as sulphate of magnesia, these 
chemicals can be i-eadily discovei'ed by adding a small 
(piantitv of barium ehloi'ide to the water. Streamei's 
of ni:lky ]fi-iM'ipitatc of barium sulphate will oceiu' 
This salt is (|uite insoluble in watei' and in niti-ie aeid. 
All the aeid can be lemoveci by di-o])])ing in .iddilional 

Figure 3. 

cryst^ds of tlie hariuni ehloi-ide. Of course, if no sul- 
phuric acid is present, either in a free slate oi- <'ombincd 
with a base to form a salt, no pi-ecipitale will a|>|ieai- 
when bai'ium cb.loride is drojijied in. 

Tin proccdui'e of the i-eaclioii is as f(illows: ISariuin 
cliloridi- is a i;lassy-lookiiig, flaky salt, which ean be 
made to ei-ystallize into four-sided plates. The com- 
mercial gran\d"s are id' m;iny shapes. ] i)lace one 
of these tiny pieces on a glass slide: and then let fall 
upon it some water which has been faintly iin|iregnated 
with sulphuric acid. Inslantly there is visible a milki- 
ness. which, upon mtigiiilication. is found to be due 1o 
the sudden creation of multitudes of specks of the kiiu.l 
shown in Fig. 1. These range from almost invisible 
round ones to needle-shaped specimens, which cross 
one another as minute stars, rosettes, etc. When, 
therefore the cloudy or milky i)recipitate is seen by the 
naked eye in a glass of this water, the turbidity con- 
sists mostly of floating and gyrating rosettes, and other 
figures, composed of bai-ium stdphate. A selection of 
the 'Tystals so s1rangcl>- and iustantam^ously formed 
is gix'en in Fig. 2 on a larger s<-ali': 1h(> diameter — top 
to bottom — of the bhud-: groiuul corresponding witli 
the width of an avei'agc j)apei- fibre. 

Wlien the barium (ddoride is added to the sul])huric- 
acid-contaminated water, the chlorine gas of the chlor- 
ide is driven out, and the acid <'ondiiues with the bar- 
ium, thei'cliy making sidphali' of liarium instcid. 

Coiiip.-ire these crystals ol' bai-iiini sulphati' with the 
n(u-mal commercial iiowder. which is illvistratc^d in Fig. 

3. The latter consists of wedge-shai)ed granules; and 
tliough small, are huge when viewed side by side with 
the result of the test. 

1 ha\e said that the barium sulphate precipitated is 
not soluble in niti'ic acid. 1 added a drop of this aeid 
to the water containing tlie newly-made ]}recipitate of 
barium sulphate. Fig. 1. after the lai'ge chloride crys- 
tals had dissolved away; and there were instantly 
fornuKl hosts of cubical and kindred crystals of the 
kind shown in Fig. 4, these presumably constituting 
insoluble barium nitrate. Similar objects can be ob- 
l.iiiied by adding dilute nitric acid to barium chloride 
w hen no sulphuric acid or sulphate is present. It is 
M'ly curious to see the rosettes and needles of Fig. 1 
rapidly rearrange themselves into the designs of Fig. 

4. liy the way. all these objects are movable, and ean 
Ih' made III Iniiible about in the drop of water by tilting 
the microscope, and therefore the slide they are on. 

It may be advisable to point out that a precipitate 
is no! always uecessaiily a noticealile bottom sediment. 
It nuiy remain susi)ended throughout the whole body 
of tile water in the form of microscopic specks, which 
give the licpiid an o])aclty or turliididty. Sometimes a 
precipitate will curl upwards gracefully as cloudy 
cui-rents from the bottom of a vessel of water, and then 
i.ipidly subside. leaving the medium clear. At other 
periods the precipitate will float on top of the water. 

Almost any ground oi taji water will leave white 
films or smudges if a few drops of it are spread over a 
sheet of glass and allowed to dry otf. These white 
deposits represent the various salts. Some of them are 
very curions when magnified. In Fig. 3, for instance, 
are shown the details obtained in this way by ev^apoi-at- 

<' . ^. . 4 

^ . 

. ^ - "^ ": 

Figure 4. 

ing a small ijuautity of moderately hard water. Very 
minute crystals occurred, and these are shown between 
the dozen large granules of barium suljihate. 

The purest water is that obtained in districts where 
millstone grit and granite rocks ahoiuid. That which 
goes through chalk is exciUeiii so far as freedom from 
organic nuitlei- is present, but it is liable to become 
very hard.— The Paper-Maker and British Paper 
Trade .hmrnal. 


P I' LP AND I ' A I' I-: R .M A G A Z I X E 



W. I'.OVI) CAMPUKLI.. ll.Sc. 

('iijil In >ii l;irj^<'ly used loi- all str;nn iMisiiij; purposes 
lliat it liMs almost Ijt'coiiu' tlu' universal fiu'l in tliis 
cciniUiy. yet it is liy no means a satisfactory (inc. both 
hy feason of its own inherent ])eeuliarities. and because 
there is so much dirt palmi-d off as coal. Concerning 
the first of these drawhaclss. we are almost helpless. 
Until we can find something cheaper and better to burn. 
or some benevolent scientist finds means of using the 
energy of the sun. direct, we must go on wasting almost 
ninety per cent, of our coal to use the other ten. But 
we can make the best of our present knowledge and 
Mpieeze just a little more work out of what we havi-; 
and we can ])revent ourselves being imposed upon by 
the dealers who would sell us dirt in place of fuel. 

The buying of coal is. in too many cases, left entirely 
to an economical purchasing agent who is very liable 
to base his ideas of economy solely on price. This is 
generally where the trouble comes in and unfortunately 
may exist for an indefinite pei-iod without notice, but 
it attects the profit and loss account none the less foi' 
that. To the i)urchasing agent generally, coal is just 
coal — or possibly he may distinguish two kinds of coal 
— good coal and bad coal. Calorific values aiul H.T.C's 
are Greek to him. That is only natural: his thoughts 
Mre in dollai-s and cents, and until any such terms can 
iiK-an anything to him. they must be translated into his 
language. A suggestion along this line is the i)riMcipal 
purpose of this article. 

Coal, says the book, is a mineral made up of volatile 
liyilrnearbons, fixed carbon, and a variable amount of 
asli. These constituents ai'e in various proporti(ms in 
different coals, and if is their variations that the buyer 
must oliserve when purchasing his fuel. The actual 
value of the coal is bound up entirely in the fixed car- 
b.u and the hydrocarbons. The ash is dead weight 
which must be paid foi-, and handled, and carted away 
again for no purpose at all. It needs no great power 
of reasoning to show that the amount of this ash is go- 
'iiS to be very impoi-tant. A coal of 10' < ash selling 
at :i<4.0() will be worth about the same as one with lo'^ 
ash at .t:5.78. or (me with ">'; ash at ^^i.'l'i. That is sup- 
posing the combustilile ]>art to have the same heating 
value in each ease. This woidd be approximately true 
if all till' <-i.aN vreic from the same district. The 
value of the com bust ibh' pai't dcpcliils on tile ration of 
the volatile mattei' to the fixed cai'bon. so that if we 
determine these we ai<' in a fail- way to know the real 
value of our coal. One thing nuire remain.s — all co.d 
carries in its composition a certain amount of moisture. 
This does not mean the watei' that may get on it dur- 
ing transportation, though that counts up too. But. in 
the coni])osition of the coal itself, there is usually from 
two to five |)cr cent, of moisture, sometimes more. To 
put it another way — if coal is .'f;4.00 a ton. then from 
M to 20 cents a ton is paid I'oi- watei-, which is worse 
than useless. Having found the moisture content, vola- 
tile combustible mattei-. fixed carbon and ash. it remains 
to put these in a shape wlici-c they can he used to com- 
pare ])riees. The formula iiki.n be expressed in a curve, 
thus : f See curve ). 

This gives the luimlier of heal units. (l'..T.l'.. (U- 
I'li'ilisli Tliei-mal I'liilsi in one pmunl of eonilnistible 
matter. Ki-om this, the niimbei- of beat unils in a pound 
of coal can be found as follows: 

Heat units in 1 lb. coal 
( 100-7t-ash-'/c moisture) 

= I li.T.r. from 


These heat units are usuallv expressed, as above, as 
B.T.U. or British Thermal Units. One B.T.U. is the 
amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 
pound of water hy 1°F. 

Another, and better way of arriving at the heat value 
of a coal, is by means of a bomb calorimeter. .The 
laboratory of any plant which uses coal in quantities, 
should be ('(pupped with a good calorimeter. For. al- 
though fairly good results can be obtained by use of the 
curve and formula given, still, the only really depend- 
able test is the calorimeter. In this the coal is actually 
burned, and the heat given off is accurately measured. 
This is the final test of the coal, as far as boiler purposes 
are concerned. 

Now if you know the calorific values of your coals, 
and their prices, it is a simple trick to find the price of 
each heat unit: and this is the real measure of the 
cheapness of the coal, since it is heat that you are 


bu\ing. ami not sinijily matter. Having found the lieiit 
value of the sample, you shinild in^el■t this in ymw coal 
contract, making it call for coal of a heat value eipial 
to that of the sam])le. with a |)enaUy of a definite reduc- 
tion of price. ])roportioiiate to any deficiency. Then 
test the coal when it comes. It is only in this way that 
the buyer can protect himself. 

Having got the most eeiuiomieal coal, if is up to tiie 
buyer to use it to the best etficiency. The matter is in 
the hands of the tireman. A good fireman is a jewel of 
great price. He is ultimately the arbiter of the coal 
(|uesiiou. A ])oor fireman can send double his wages 
up the stack every day ;ind never know it. And at that 
he will work harder than the good one. Coal may either 
burn to produce Carbon Jlonoxide or Carbon Dioxide. 
If it is Inirned to Carbon Jlouoxide it produces less 
than one-third the heat that it would if burned to Di- 
oxide. Now Carbon ]\Ionoxide is <piite colorless and 
the tireman can't see it going (Uit the stack, so he keeps 
.11 shovelling coal, instead of giving his fire more air. 
On the other h.ind. coal uses .ibout 11 or ll> pounds of 
air per ]>ound of coal. All this air has to be heated 
to the lem|)erature of the tlue gas and the heat so used 
goes uii the stack. So a little more or less air is going 
to make a big difference. Now. either loo much air. or 
too little, is going to reduce the amount of Cai-biui 
Dioxide or CC\ in the flue gas: the former l)y diluting 



Frlu-iunv 15. 1913 

thf CO. prodiici'd and tlir latter by |)ai-tially |)ivvcllt- 
ing its formation, hy forcing tiic foi-iiialion of .Mon- 
oxide instead. Now to aid the fii-miaii in controlling 
this. (H). recordei's have been put on the market. 'J'hese 
record the percentage of <'().^ in the flue gas every five 
niiniite.s. and furnish a guide and a clieck to the fireman, 
from which there is no getting away. 

It can he shown that, with most coals, the percentage 
of C'0_. in the flue gas is aliout lo undei' nearly ideal 
conditions. This is assuming that all tln' coal is Imi-ned 
to CO^ without any excess of aii'. Owing to the tem- 
perature of the flue gas. there is a good deal of waste, 
even under these conditions. But if. with the same coal, 
enough extra air is admitted to cause the jiercentage to 
be lO'v. then much more hot air is going up the stack, 
and the dearly bought B.T.U. 's are getting away with- 
out doing any work. The losses are about as follows: 

Ilea t loss in stack Money loss ])er ton 

'/!('(>.. Flue gas at ^OO^F. of coal at ^4. 

15.' 10.5% .$0.42 

18 12.1 '/o 0.48 

10 15.87c 0.68 

7 22.5% O.!)0 

5 82.0'/; 1.28 

And most i)laids a\-erage ])rett\' idose to 7'', . in bliss- 
ful ignorance of what might have been and might still 
be if they would install a reliable CO., recordei-. 

Much more might be said about coal, were this ai-ticle 
intended for chemists oi' engineers, when technical de- 
tails would he in order. Hut the foi'egoing remarks are 
only meant as a hint for those who ,-ire intei'ested in 
cutting costs. To most of these a word is sufficient. 


In a review of the year, the Wall Street Journal 
says tiiat 1912. in the inaiii. has l)een a year of small 
profits to paper manufacturers. Of course, individual 
papei' coi'poi-ations have reported satisfactory business. 
The International Paper Co. had a good year and will 
show the largest gross and net earnings in any year 
.since 1905. On the other hand. Union Bag & Paper Co. 
experienced unpi'ofitable business and in the course of 
the year had to pass the dividend on its preferred 
stock. This action was caused by the extremely low 
price prevailing for paper bags. The American Writ- 
ing Paper Co. had a fail- yeai' and the outlook for its 
product regarded as favoi-alile. The United Boxboard 
& Paper Co. did not have a pi-ofitable year, being in- 
volved in considerable litigation. 

Many of the paper manufactuiang corpurat inns. ])ro- 
ducers of high grade bond and liook paper will show 
good results. There has been no boom at any time in 
1912. business continuing at a steady I'atc. Demands 
have been large and as a I'ule thi're has been no trouble 
about supply. 

It is the concensus of manufacturers that prices have 
been unsatisfactory, which is especially true of the 
news printing industry. While prices have been main- 
tained by some manufacturers, there is no disposition 
towards an upward tendency. It is the statement of 
the industry that in all standard grades of paper early 
steps should be taken for read.justment of prices. Man- 
ufacturers assei't that the pi'ices have been practically 
stationary for the ]iast ten years, while cost of nui- 
terials and labor have incrc*(tscd considera])ly. — The 
Paper Dealer. 


This ecnnjiany now contiols all limits whicli can be 
\\orked from JSathurst Harbor. It was organized a 
few years ago of Buffalo capital, a.ssoeiated with Sen- 
ator Edwards and other Canadians, taking over the 
limits of the Sumner Co.. Limited. A little later, the 
Springfield. Mass.. interests of Fred S, Morse, associat- 
ed with the O. Shci'man Lumber Comi)any. bought out 
till' plant and limits of Adams Burns. Limited, and 
erected ;t large new mill. By mismanagement and a 
legal error in attaching a very large mortgage on some 
property they bought to their entire holduigs. ihey 
were forced into liquidation and their property sold, 
uiuler mortgage. These purchasers sold to the Bath- 
urst Lumber Co., who now hold 1.000 s(piare miles im- 
mediately tributai-y to Bathui-st Ilai-bor. as well as 
1 (iOO miles in the Gaspe Peninsula. 80 miles distant, 
which can be brought to a mill in Bathurst as well. 

All New Brunswick limits leases run out in 1918 and 
just now the company are making representations to 
the local Government to have their licenses extended 
for a period of years. If this is successful they will 
immediately erect large paper and pulp mills in Bath- 
ui'st. To this end they have secured from the Nepisi- 
guit Real Estate and Fishing Co. for ;i large sum all 
watej- power rights on the Ne])isiguit River, including 
P>ig Falls. 5.000 to 10.000 horse-power, and two smaller 
I iiwers of 1.000 horse-power e;ich. just below the first. 
These will be developed and brought into the mine, on 
tidewater at Bathurst. ^Mr. Angus McLean is the gen- 
er;il manag^'r and Mr. Geoi'gc' Gilbert. Bathurst, the 

The site is a most excellent one. with deep sea ship- 
j>ing facilities, alongside tiu' mill and the Government 
ra]^i<ll,v improving Bathurst Harbor. With this and 
the pi'ospect of Drummond's shii)ping ore from the 
same jKirt, it is proposed to have (uie of the finest har- 
bors on the coast. 

The I, C. R. and C. G. S. A. also afford excellent rail 


There arc no^\■ about thirty states that have prohib- 
iteil the jtublic cup and others v.dio have l)ills pending 
that will either abolish or regulate its use. To meet 
this condition there has come the small paper cup. but 
so new is the business that patents have not yet been 
awarded on the machines that are rei'uired in their 

The process is mechanical, the machines are driven 
by electrical motors, and from the iime the sheet of 
papei- enters at one side luitil it is delivered to the 
user through one of the vending cases, it is n>ver 
touched by hand. 

In this transition from plain to drinking rec(-placle 
the cup goes tlu'ough a cutter, a stampntg iua<-hine 
which shapes it. a paraffin bath which makes it sterile 
and at the same time fixes its shapes, and finally passes 
tlirough a wrapping machine which counts off quanti- 
ties of from 10 to 100 and packs them in cartons for 
delivery to the consumer. 

Hundreds of jieople have been given employment iiy 
this new ind\istry. and at the present time to supply the 
gre.itly increased sununer demand factories are i-iin- 
ning from 7 in the morning until nearly midnight. Th 
cup-nuiking nuichines are- tended by young women, ai'e 
driviMi by elect i-ic motors of two-horse power each, and 
in some cases the paraffin is melted by ebn'tric heaters 
and spraxed by ;in electric blower. 

J''rll|-Iliirv 1.' 




Coiitiiiriiliil \',;ig Co.. Ii((l.. ol' Ottawa, hii.s opened a 
lartrr wan Ikiiisc and sales ofifiee in Toi-onto at 20 front 
street i ;ist, witli .Mi\ Edward ('rip[iiii in eharge as sales 
iiiaiiafrer for Onlai'ici. 

.Mr. Crippin joins the Continrntal after twenty years' 
expiM-iiiicr ill ('aii;i(la and the I'liiled States, and has a 


wide (■(iniieetion with the traih t'roiii Winniiu't;' to 
.>' Hitreal. 

They will handle foreign as well as Canadian goods 
;ind i)n])ei' as well as bags. The new Kraft liags, now 
heiiig turned out are attracting marked attention in the 
trade and proving a very tine selling line. For a 
.Noiing firm, their jirogress has lii'eii striking and snli- 


In certain United States trade circles it is the hel-ef 
that hoard prices will be advanced the first of the 

"i (1(1 not see how it can he axoided if we ai'e to 
make a fair living."" said a board inanufaetnrer. ""Our 
supplies (if raw material are not sufHeieiit to meet mill 
deiiiaiids. and the price has advanced from -+3 to $.5. 
The paper stock people are reai)ing a harvest at onr 
expense. They ehiim a shortage in their usual supplies, 
and they may be right. Certain it is that the fanner is 
leeding his straw in ])reference to selling to the board 
mills at pi-e\ailing [U-iees. and we cannot make straw- 
hoard at a prolit when we ha\c to pa\- +S to ■+!• pel' 
ton for the straw." 

liOcally board |n-(iduet is selling ai'ouiid !^29. 

Xew \(iyk manufacturers have advanced prices gen- 
eially, Xew I'.oard beinir (|noted at $33 to •-|!34 a ton: 
Straw Chii). .+32 to +33; Manila. +3r).r,0 to +42.50; and 
Coated, +47.r)0 to .+r)r,.0(). 


Three Rivers. P.Q.. Feb 1, 11)13 
Editor Pulp and Paper .Magazine— 

In your issue of December. 1912. page 377. you have 
an article comparing ba.salt-lava beater rolls "and cast 
iron beater rolls of Helin's and Sodervall's patent— said 
article referring to some data publi.shed in vour Sep- 
tember issue. 

The purpose of this letter is not to depreciate the 
value of the lava rolls, which I have been using for 
several years, but to explain what the east iron roll 
of my patent is. and why it is superior to rolls of other 

The special feature of Helin beater rolls are that 
the beating devices, or bars, are made of cast iron 
which by a patented process are made porous and very 
hard on such i)art of the bar that is sul).iect to wearing 
—the Side of the bar next to the l)ody of the roll being 
ordinary cast iron. 

The beating bars can be made to any pattern and 
may. in consequence. !)e fixed to any beater roll or 
Jordan engine. The etifieiency of a Helin roll is the 
same as that of a stone roll; but surpasses it in strength, 
as the beating bars are made of a tougher material. 
The resistance to wearing is very great, owing to the 
■special i)roperties of the material, and no di.seoloration 
of pulp takes place. The figures for power consump- 
tion given in your September issue refer to Kraft Paper, 
and are maxiiiuim power consumed during the beating 
process (not avei-age figures from start to finish.) 
iron rolls are now used for the making of news, grease- 
proof, kraft and machine glazed papers, and have been 
on the market for about two years. More than one 
hundred are at present in use. ilany paper makers have 
changed their entire beater equipment, putting in cast 
iron rolls in preference to rolls previously in use. there- 
by almo,st doubling the capacity of beaters before 
fitted with steel knives. 

When, as mentioned before, the cast ii-on bars may be 
fitted to existing rolls, instead of the knives before in 
use. such a change mav be made at merelv a nominal 

^'ou^s tnih. 



It has been pointed nut liy the SweiLson Evaporator 
Co. that the c]U(^stion of lining incinerators for pulp 
mills is one of .some little complexity because of the 
various features which have to lie taken account of. 
The lining has to withstand not only the high tem- 
perature aiul the wear and abrasion due to the re- 
volving kiln, but also must bi> of exceptional density 
so that it will not be atVeet 
through the kiln. 

In a recent inaehine fnrnis 
v.-hich a special lire ela\- lihiel 
est grade of (days wei'e used 
lilock uinisnally rel'raehiry. 

of cla.v could withstand the 

without imdting on the surface, it has been 
the life of the lining is very much increa 

by the li(|U()r going 



er lo 


(1 Ihe high- 
reriilel- the 
.Mthoiiyii a hiwer erade 
heat (d" the incinerator 
found that 
sed bv the 

use of the higiiest grade clays obtainable. These have 
to be carefully selected, and ground and hiiined witli 
the gi'catcst cai-e. 

Howjird Smith, president (if the Howard Smiih Paper 
.Alills. Ltd.. .Montreal. Canada, spent the last week in 
New York. 



[•'rhni,-irv IT), irn: 


( S|)cci;il ( 'i]rn's|i(iii(lciicc nf I'lilp and I':i|)it M .■lyaziiic.) 

Ottawa, Krlnuai'.v lotli. HU:'.. 

The Bislli)])i-ir \Vallli(iai-(l Co.. tlir mw linn whn-li 
has been buildini;- a plant In'i-c. has imw lii-oim ii]H'i'a- 
tions and ai'c turniiiy' nut thcii- widlhoai'd at a rate 
of about 50.000 square feet per day. Tlie factory is 
located at Hillerest. about a mile from Billings' Hridge 
and is served by Itoth the C.P.R. and C.X.R. It is of 
fii-eprnof const i'ucti(ni ami consti'ueti'il alinit;' moili'rn 

The waillioard which the roni|iany will turn out is a 
material used instead of lath ami plaster, ami is put 
up in crates containing sixteen sheets each, each sheet 
being four feet scjuare and three-eights of an inch thick 
and selling for +6.40. 

The company is composed of the Following: Tresi- 
dent, George L. Barrett; genei'al managei-. Geoi-ge F. 
Bishopric; seeretary-treasuier. F. -1. Balch. Orders 
have already been received for a large jiroporlion of 
the company's output. 

That the value of Canadian p.uljiwood hinds would 
largely increase as a result is the view taken 1)\' local 
men interested in the industry of the proposal of tlie 
Democrats to reduce the wood pulp and print pajier 
scliedule of tin- Tnited States tariff. "'It will make a 
big difference to the Canadian trade." said Mr. C. -T. 
Booth, of the luHd>er firm of that name, when seen, and 
this statement was endorsed by others. Jf the present 
embargoes on the export of pulpwood cut from Crown 
lauds were raised, say the local men. Ontario. Queb-c 
and New Brunswick coidd compete with United States 
mills as regards stipplying the American market. The 
Canadian provinces have the advantage of lietter w.iter 

Shippers of jmlpwood. pulp .-ind paper are vitall,\- in- 
terested in an ai)i)lication to be considered by the Rail- 
way Commission at its session iu Ottawa on April ir)th. 
when the application of Canadian shippers through the 
boards of trade of Toronto. I\Iontreal and \Vinnii)eg 
for a system of reciprocal demurrage, is dealt with. 
By reciprocal demui'rage is meant a system by which 
the railway as well as the shipper will lie fined for de- 
lay in delivery and unloading of ears. Last year, it will 
be remembered, the Railway ('ommissiou authorized 
an increase in demurrage rates on freight cars from a 
flat rate of $1 to $2 and $3 per day for each day beyond 
the free time allowed. This was done largely as an 
experiment and ceases to take effect in ilarch. The 
shippers are determined to fight any such permanent 
increase unless the proviso is made tlmt the railways, 
whose inadequate terminal facilities are blamed for 
delay, be liable to fine as well. 

The returns from a numlier of consular districts of 
exports to the T'nited States are available. The figures 
for the Ottawa district show an increase in exi>orts of 
news print pai)er and a decrease iu that of ground 
wood pulp. The total ex]iort of news print papei- was 
i|i865.533.08, as eompai'ed with !f?6r)3,l 62.67 the previous 
year. The total export of ground wood pulp in 1912 
"was $417,320.02. as compared with 51^542,836.52 in 1911. 
The exi)ort of spruce last year was gi'eater than in 
1911, the figures being $427!5.50.K6 and >1<236.715.90 re- 

The export of pulp wood from the Frederieton. X.lx. 
consular district in 1912 was $114.50. as compared with 
practically none shipped the {)revious year. 

()!' great interest to pulpwood and paper men was 
the annual meeting of the ('anadian Lumbermen's As- 
sociation, which was held in Ottawa on February 4th. 
Auiong the pulpwood men who are members of the as- 
sociation are the Campbell-McLaurin Co.. of Montreal : 
the Laurentide Co.. (iraiid ]\Iere; J. R. Booth ; the Span- 
ish River Co.; E. B. Eddy Co. ; Price Brothers, and the 
Riordan Paper Co. Transportation and tariff questions 
took up most of the time of the convention during its 
business sessions, while on Tuesday evening a big han- 
ipiet was held in the Chateau Laurier. 

A slight conception of the loss the eoinitiw suffers by 
fire w;is conveyed in the figures gix'ing the total value 
of the losses for United States and Canada at $207.- 
nOO.OOO during 1912. The executive report contained a 
K'ference to the settlement of claims which was of gen- 
eral intei-est. "'So far as the railways are concerned 
it IS abundantly iiro\en that they settle no claims unless 
they absolutely must." said the report. "They take 
mil easonable time to conduct theii' alleged investiga- 
tions and positively i-efuse to add interest on the 
amount of the claim for any period of time wliatever." 

In the report of the transportation committee some 
furthir criticism of the railways and the railway com- 
missiiui was made over the recent demurrage order 
which went into effect on December 15tli. The commit- 
tee claimed that if it was fair for the Commission to 
penalize shippers and consignees the logical thing for 
the Commission to do was also to penalize the railways. 
The committee also referred warmly to the matter of 
claims against the railways. "It is no exaggeration to 
sa.v that the railways undoubtedly have upwards of a 
million dollai's of public numey belonging to the ship- 
jiing ])ublic which they have the use of continuously 
without paying one cent of interest for it." said the 
repoi't. "So far as nu^mbers of this association are con- 
cerned we should take steps to put a stop to this feature 
for the future." 

A complaint from Mr. \V. G. Hughson. vice-president, 
on the delay in delivery of cars on the railroads evoked 
a lively discussion and many striking eases of such de- 
lay were given. 

A discussion in regard to the best method of measur- 
ing pulpwood was one of the features of the annual 
business meeting of the Canadian Forestry Association, 
held in Ottawa, last week, of principal interest to pulp 
and paper men. About forty memliers. representatives 
of the timber industry, the pulp and paper trade and 
conservation interests, attended tlie meeting, reports 
being presented, reeonuneiulations being passed and of- 
ficers being elected. 

Mr. Ellwood Wilson, during the course of a discus- 
sion on the best method of measuring timber, stated 
tlmt in his opinion the only practical way to estinmte 
pulpwood was by cubic measure. 

;\Ir. J. B. Wliite agreed with this statenuuit. while 
Dr. U. E. Feruow. dean of the faculty of forestry in 
Toionto ITniver.sity, was of opinion that no definite rule 
should be laid down, but that the dift'erent provincial 
governuuuits be asked to adopt a uniform standard. 

A lively discussion arose over the continuance of 
publication of the Canadian Forestry Journal, the organ 
of the association, but. ultimately, on motion of Sena- 
tor Hostoek. seconded by Hon. Sydne.v Fislier. ex-iliu- 
isier of Agriculture, it was decided to maintain the 





piiprr. I*'i,unrrs i;i\rii ill rcir;n-(l lo lil-c ]>l-n1c<'tiiill ill 
CiiiindM showed lliat vjirious govcrnnu'iit ;iiul private 
eoiicei'iis ill 1l:c Doniiiiinii last vpar sjx'iit from $1.{)()().- 
000 to ^l.r)0(M)(l(l t.. this cihI, and that Ontario had over 
1,000 rangers on hand during? the danger season. lii 
British Colinnhia a mw and vigorous forest service was 
organized on -July 1st; in Quebec the St. Maurice Val- 
ley Forest Protective Association successfully inaugur- 
ated the woi'k of co-operative fire protection. Tlie 
Canadian Pacific Kailway. among other woi-k. has in- 
stalled oil-bui'ning api>aratus on all its locomotives fi-oin 
Field. B.C., to ivam'loops. in order to prevent fires 
from sparks. 

The directors again urged the need of a federal lab- 
oratory for the testing of the different varieties of 
Canadian woods which, it was hoped, would be secured 
in the present year. Jluch interest has been taken by 
local pulp anil paper men in the discovery as i result 
of United States experiments in this line, that jack pine 
could be .successfully utilized for pulp, and it is felt 
that Canaila should not be behind in experimental work 
of this kind. 

The reports as to niembei'shi]) and finances showed 
that both were in a healthy condition, the number of 
members being 2.865. The following officers were elect- 
ed: President, Hon. W. A. Charlton; vice-pi'esideut, W. 
A. Power: .secretary, Mr. James Lawler. re-elected. On 
the lioard of directors iMessrs. J. B. White (who took 
the place vacated by Carl Kiordon). E. J. Zavitz, R. 
I). Prettie. H. R. ]\Ic]\Iillan and G. Cahoon were added 
to the list, which otherwise remained as before. The 
territorial vice-presidents elected were as follows: On- 
tario. Hon. W. 11. Hearst: Quebec. Plon. Jules Allard: 
New Brunswick, Hon. J. K. Flemmiug: Nova Scotia. 
Hon. 0. L. Daniel: ilanitoba. Hon. R. P. Robliu; Prince 
Edward Island. Hon. J. A. :Matheson; Saskatchewan. 
His Honor G. W. Brown; Alberta. Hon. A. L. Sifton : 
British Columbia. Hon. W. R. Ross; Yukon, Commis 
sioner George Black: Mackenzie, F. D. Wilson; Kee- 
watln, Hon. D. C. Cameron; Ungava. Mgi-. Bruchesi. 

A new use for paper will l)e submitted by a sanitary 
waterproof garbage bag of that material, the invention 
of Jlr. R. K. Milks, of Ottawa. The new device is 
counted on to replace the i)ermanent garbage can and 
to obviate the danger of a prolific breeding i)]ace for 
flies. It has been patented in Canada .md patents have 
been applied for in other countries. It consists of a 
stand, on which a new bag is placed each day. the )-e- 
'eptacle which is filled being carried olif to the ineiner- 
atoi- and l)urned with its contents. Thus me garbage 
can as a breeder of niicrol)es will be replaced i)y a neat 
l-aper bag. easily collected and replaced, and fr-e Irom 
disagreeal)le odor. 

A decrease in Canada's I'xports of nieclianiea! wood 
pnlp to (Ji'eaf iiritain is shown in the report of Cana- 
'M.ii, Trade Commissioner J. E. Ra.v, of Birmingham, 
Knfiland. to tin' Trade and Commerce Department. The 
export of this product foi- the year -jmounted to .•^:175. 
!145, a decrease of .$432,22.') in comprison with the pre- 
vious one. while those fi'om Newfoundland indieale an 
increase of 4<22(i.O(l(). doubtless due to the increasuig 
outpnf of the Hai'iiisworth mills, l-^'om T>07 increases 
"•' imports of mill l.oai'd and wood pnlp iVom Canada 

"<'<• I- irdi'd. i>ast year I hey aiiionnfed to .+40<).02(). in 

comi)arison with .+22.605 five years ago. im|)or1s from 
the Cnited States during the same period exhiliit a 
slight decline. 

The efi'ecfive dale of the increased rates on pnlpwood 
iVom Ontario. Qnebi'c ,111(1 New P.ninswick to New York 

points recently issued by the railways has been post- 
poned until .March by the Railway Commission. The 
tariffs were originally postponed until February. ])end- 
ing the issuing of an order by the Commission settling 
the question whether the increase, which was the snb- 
.ject of a hearing, should t)e allow^ed. but the order is 
not ready yet and therefore the further postponement. 

It may be stated in passing, that Ottawa pnlpwood 
men are by no means averse to having the increased 
rates allowed. None of Ottawa firms were represented 
at the hearing of the protest of pulpwood shijjpeis 
against the new rates and it was openly stated by the 
latter that the local men must have had something to 
do with the railwa.vs' proposed advance. While they 
deny this a number of those interview hy your corres- 
pondent admitted that they would not care if the in- 
creased rates were allowed. For one thing if will help 
to eliminate American competition which, since the 
large buying up of extensive tracts of pulpwood in (Que- 
bec by United States' firms, has become felt. 

What Ottawa paper firms are kicking about, how- 
ever, are the rates on paper to American points. The 
rate from Ottawa to Chicago, for instance, is just as 
high as that from points on the other side of the line 
a much greater distance from the Windy City. 

The South American markets are the latest being 
sought by tlu^ Canadian shipper of pulp and pajier. 
Your correspondent was assured by a member of a big 
local exporting firm that it. together with a number of 
other mills, had l)een tui-niug its e.yes tow-ards this new 
.source of demand and that the matter had been repre- 
seuted to Hon. George E. Foster, I\Iinister of Trade and 
Commerce, with a view to obtaining better shipping fa- 
cilities. The trouble at present is not only that the 
rates via steamship lines to South America from New 
York are high, but that it is impo.ssil)le to make con- 
tracts with them for more than a year and. consequent- 
ly, shippers under these conditions do not care to ex- 
pend much effort in developing a trade. Could Canada 
obtain a direct service, however, vahuible new markets 
would be opened up with the Argentine Republic. Vene- 
zuela and Brazil. '"The Americans are alread.v in the 
South American market, but could we get the proper 
facilities we could coni])ete with them," said .vour cor- 
respondent's informant. ''We have represented the 
matter to Hon. 'Sir. Fosfei- and hope for some arrange- 

The Australian markets, .ilread.v well supplied with 
Canadian paper, also promise to furnish an even bettei- 
demand if preference is given to the British Empire. 
The International Paper Company of the United States 
at present does a large liusiness there, but co\ild scarce- 
ly continue it at advantage if pro])osed trade agi-ee- 
ments between Canada and Australia reach fruition. 

The changes which ai'e being made to the plant of the 
K. B. Edd,v Compan,\'. with a \iew to supplying increas- 
ed power facilities, will not be eonqdel'ii till early sum- 
mer, according to a statement made b.\ Manager .Milieu 
last week. 

The markets for all lines in Ottawa at present are 
stead,v and, for the time of year, active, allhough prices 
have not changed to any great degree. News, rolls, is 
lieing quoted at ^2 to .ii45 and in sheets at from .t45 to 
.+50, acein-ding to the size of the order. Ground wood 
at the mill goes at fi-om -+15 to .+16: sulphite, unbleaeii- 
ed. +45 to +47 delivered in Canada, ami +47 to +411 de- 
livered in the Cnited States; sulphite, bleached. +60 in 
Canada, and alxnit +62 for Cnited States ijelivery. 




F.-l.ruarv 1."). l!n: 


'Pile til-Ill of Dduiilas c^ 
known un>\ry tlir new nam. 
LtiL. i)f whicli .Ml', t'n'il 1 
niajoi' stofkliolilcr. His paj 
tweiitv-six years, since he 

;;tcliff will hei-ealh-r l>e 
,r 'I'iie Rateliff Pai)er Co., 

IJatcliH' is president 
r ear.'er has extenih'il 
oiiniiriieed. as ofliei' 


with tayh.r l^.ros.. of Don Valley. 

In 1899 the tinn ^f Dou^la- .V: K:itelilt was oi-an- 





Heaver Paper Co. 
of Douii-las & Ixateliff. 
I in 1910 after dispos- 
wlio now ineoi-jiorates 

ized. whieh. in 190li ali? 

This, in 190:5, became tl 

l.fd. The .senior member ret 

ing of his interest to the la 11 

under his own name. 

A branch was started in Winnipeo. i„ VMH\ "hiel, ,n 

1!H)9 became Doutilas. Hateliti- .^ Hudson, ami m MO 

the Hudson I'apiT Co.. at wliieli time llie lormito 

people disposed of th.'ir interests to the junior i-artner. 
Mv. Hudson. , 

This new hrin witli head office ni h.ronlo .'overs tlu 
Ontario field for a numl>er ..f our b.-st nulls n, News. 
Manila, Wrapping and Kraft. Nearly all their grades 
are handled as jobbers rather than agents, excep in 
news for which thev conitiiie tlinnselves to the Helgo- 
Canadian product. This sheet has grown rapidly ui 
favor, due. mainly to the indefatigable eftor s ol the 
engineer, Mv. Statler. who is getting the old plant on a 
new and efficient productive basis. 

The RatclilT Paper Co. aiv to b,' eongratulated on 
their rapid growth and the prominent i.laee they hol.l 
in tin- Canadian |iaper traih-. 


\s ],.-evi()Uslv announced in our columns, the above 
eompanv has lieen formed with temporary head office 
;it -'17 .ludge Travis Building, Calgary. Alta. ^Ir. Chas. 
F S(-liaub the president and general manager, is a 
man of wide and varied experience in the manufaetiire 
of straw papers, chiefly in the Southern States. Ihe 
him will manufacture building paper, tar paper, cor- 
lu.^'ated paper, box card, folding boxes, egg crate till- 
erTand bags, and hope to supplant the imported pro- 
duei throughout the Western market. Last year Can- 
ad i impoi-ted from the United States straw paper and 
straw pioducts to the value of >f*4-.000,000. at the same 
time destroving our own enormous supply of straw. 
chieflv throughout the Western Provinces. 

The initial plant is to be built at ]\Iediciue Hat. im- 
raediatelv at a cost of i1;250.000. and will use daily 
Hfrv tons of wheat, rye, oat and flax straw, with an mit- 
] ut of forty tons of straw board products per day 1 he 
1 lant will employ about sixty men. 

The corporation of Medicine Hat have granted five 
-leres of land and leased four and a half acres adjoin- 
ing for the nominal fee of H^l.OO per acre with option 
til purchase at >f;2.000 per acre, together with free gas 
for five vears. Added to this, free trackage, free water, 
numerous other advantages, estimated as assets with 
:|-.200.000. Thev propose to obtain at least M per cent. 
of the sui^ply'in the immediate vicinity of Medicine 
Hat bv the use of motor trucks. 

Ori-'niial plans called f.n- similar mills at Red Deer. 
Caluarv and Moose Jaw. but later developments have 
altend' these to a plan of concentration and later ex- 
tension at ]\Iediciue Hat. 

The e-ipital stock is .$:500.000. divided into three hun- 
,1,-ed thousand shares at *1.()0 each, fully paid and non- 
assessable. It is being offered to the public through 
the West by Mr. F. A. liurton. one of the directors of 
the company. 

We ni-edi(-t for this enterprise the tin.-st returns. 


The 1912 edition has just reached our office and is 
as valuable as ever. Numerous paper and pulp men 
are mentioned, together with their biographies. It is 
a book invaluable in the office and counting room as 
a directorv and for all deparlments in conneetion with 
the sales 'or publicitv of manufacturing houses. Ihe 
book is most comprehensive and covers its field iii an 
admirable manner and should be of timely interest to 
paper men. Price. .-f^o.OO.— A. N. Manpus .^ ( o.. 440 
Dearborn Street South. Chicago. 


The death of Col. -loiu-s, presnleut o\- the Lockwood 
Trade Journal Co.. New York, has been felt through- 
out the entire pulp and- paper industry, especially in 
the United States. 

He was a man who guided for many years the poli- 
cies of his publications, and gave to them his personal- 
itv and genius as an oi-ganizer and literary man. .-VI- 
w'ays a forcible writer, a witty and fluent speaker, lie 
made a combination very rare. 

For the past vears his life has been spent in France. 
but even from that distance he has maintained a close 
direction of his luiblications. The work he started will 
eontinue to o-„ on and play an important iiart in the 
sphere whieli lie had d,-veloped for it. 


Tile Po.stonwn Bible palmer is e.nisidered an achieve- 
ment being suited to many It has printing (piali- 
ties finish opacitv and strength equal to many of the 
im|.orted papers. It is being carried ni 2.-)x:^8. •_•_. and 
is obtainable in any desired size. 

Frliruary If), 1913 




The I'ourtcciitli jiiiiiual liusiiirss meeting of the ("aiia- 
(lian Foresiiy Assoeiatioii was held in the Board of 
Trade rooms af Ottawa on Wednesday, the Hth inst. 
While, of eourse. llie attendance was in no way eotn- 
l^arahle witli thai ai the convention of this important 
liody, several men of prominence in the political and 
industrial life of the country were i)resent. and much 
interest was manifested. 

Minutes of the previous annual meeting were read, 
which showed that progress in forest conservation had 
been steady in Canada during the year. The work of 
the Dominion and the large forest pi-ovinces has gone 
on developing t'or the most part without any sudden 

The Dominion Forestry liranch in addition In its pro- 
tective, tree-planting and investigating work, made an 
examination for the pui-jiose of ascertaining whether 
certain areas in the Railway Belt in British Columbia, 
and others south of Lesser Slave Lake in Alherta. in 
northern Saskatchewan and in southeastern ilanitoh.i 
should he pnf into forest reserves. 

In British Colnmhia the new Forest Act. whieli has 
been in preparation (including the work of the forest 
commission) for some years, went into force on July 
1st. and the organization of the forest service under the 
same resulted in the em})loyment of a number of forest 
engineers, and a largely increased force of rangers. 

Ontario had over one thousand rangers in the field 
during the danger season. Altogethw it would appear 
that federal and provincial gavernfnent expenditure on 
forest protet^tion amounted to between one million and 
a million and a half dollars. 

Private efforts in regard to forest protection were on 
a larger scale than ever before. The Canadian Pacific 
Railway transformed all its locomotives between Field 
and Vancouver from coal burners to oil burners, and 
besides a great deal of investigating, nursery and 
rk.uting work toward the close of the year, offered 
prizes aggregatiug ^2.400 to farmeis for the best plan- 
tations in 1914. A number of timber limit holders, par- 
ticularly in Quebec, have erected telephone lines and 
cut trails to protect their holdings. 

In addition to these improvements the season, being 
exceedingly wef. was an excellent one for forest pro- 
tection so that there were few serious fires. 

One of the things for which the Association has press- 
ed, a federal laboratory where the different woods of 
• 'anada might be thoroughly tested and studies made in 
pi'eservation and collection has not yet been secured, 
but it was hoped that this would be the case before the 
laps(> of another year. 

Foresfj-y was beginning to be recognized as a pro- 
fes.sion. and a body of trained foresters, graduates of 
fori'st schools, is now to be foinid in Canada. There is 
^till need for training the rank and file of the forest 
r-roteetive army, the forest rangers, for their duties. 
Ranger schools have proved very useful in other coun- 
tries in increasing the efficiency of the men and in 
showing them bow to work to best advantage. 

'i'he secretary in his repoi't gave a genei'al i-eview of 
the woi'k of the Association dtiring the year. Member- 
ship continues to increase, being now 2.865. 

The eiiief ili^cussiou hinired uiion the (|uestion wlieth- 
iT In (liseonliiiuc pulilication of thi' nrgan of the 
ciation. the Canadian F^iresti-y .lournal. ]\Ti-. Thomas 
Southwoi-th having given notice of a resolution to 
abolish that and to di'vole the money thereby saved to 

the more extensive issue of bulletins, etc.. among the 

Several letters were read from directors and others 
interested, which indicated that the feeling against 
such a step was quite strong, as it would remove a 
strong l)ond of unity among mcmliers. Finally, on the 
motion of Senator liostock. seconded by Hon. Sydney 
Fisher, it was decided to continue both the journal and 
newspaper publicity. During the discussion the future 
of the Association was a subject vigoroiisly handled, as 
well as its relations with the Forest Branch, from which 
it has received valuable help and co-operation. 

Other subjects debated were. "Uniform Log Rule" 
jiiiil -'Kire Protection." ]\Iessrs. G. Y. Chown. Ellwood 
Wilson. Dr. Fernow and Hon. Sydney Fisher being 
among those taking part. 

A resolution was passed authorizing the Association 
to grant .i>25 to each of the two committees having 
charge of the erection of monuments in memory of 
Prof. Guyer. the father of forestry in Gei-many. and 
.M. Rrouillard. the famous French sylviculturist. 

A committee was appointed to extend the membei'- 
shin of the Association and form local associations in 
cities, towns and counties throughout Canada; 

The elections of officers resulted in the election of 
Hon. W. A. Charlton as the new president, and Mr 
W. Power as vice-president. On the board of directors, 
after- some- di>>enssion. Messrs. -T. B. White (who took 
the place vacated by Carl RioFclon). E. J. Zavitz. R. D. 
Pretti". H R. ]\Iac;Millan. and G. Cahoon. Jr.. were add- 
ed to the list, which otherwise remained as before The 
secretary. ]\Ir. James Lawler. was re-elected. H. R. H. 
the Governor-General was elected patron; Rt. Hon. R. 
L. Borden, hnn. president: Rt. Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laur- 
ier. hon. past president. 

At a later meeting the following territorial vice- 
presidents were appointed : Ontario. Hon. W. H. Hearst ; 
Ouebec. Hon. Jules Allard: New Brunswick. Hon. J. K. 
Flemminsr; Nova Scotia, Hon. 0. Tj. Daniel; IManitoba. 
Hon. R. P. Roblin; Prince Edward Isalnd. Hon. J. A. 
Jlatheson ; Saskatchewan. His Honor G. W. Brown ; Al- 
berta. Hon. A. L. Sifton: British Columbia. Hon. W. R. 
Ross: Yukon, George Black. Commissioner; Macken- 
zie. F. D Wilson : Keewatin. His Honor D. C. Cameron ; 
Ungava. His Grace. Mgr. Bruchesi. Archbishop of Mon- 
ti eal. 

The treasurer. ]\Tiss M. Robinson. Ottawa, was re- 
,,ipr.fef| Mild thanked for her services during the i);ist 
year. The assistant secretary Avas alsn thanked and 
aw:irded an hoi'oi-arium of ^^^0. 


A laree attendance is expected at tin' annual conven- 
tions of the American Paper and Pulp Avsoeialion and 
the National Paper Trade Association, which will take 
rlace respectively on Februarv 19th and 20th and Feb- 
ruarv 17th. ISth'and 19th. The banquet of the ;\meri- 
ean Pul]i and Paper Association will be at the Waldorf- 
Astoria. New York, on the evening of tin' 20th. and. 
Judging from all present indications, will b(> a \er\ 
£ri-e:it success. A feature of the baiVinel of the National 
Association will be a fine vaudeville iirngiamnie. The 
Associated Dealers in Pai)er M'lU Suniilies will also have 
a banquet oi' the 19th inst a! the Hotel Me.Mpin. also 
Mceomranied with vaudevilb-. largely lo lake Ihi' place 
of the usual s]ie(>ches. 





Febniary 15. 1913 



(-auada Patent No. 144.04-. Wu,. II. ;\l'lls|Km,h, 
Sandusky. Ohio. In a P^'l>''>'. '"^'k'-'f '"^'^'l"'": 'l' J , 
Fourdrinier type the eonibination with thr .uak.n.. ^^ 
ot a suction roll at the delivery end and drnun.- Ilu 

lal suhi-etiii^;' the inatrrial to uirrhaniraUiTindinK 
•uid wa'shinsi within a mill t-ontaining i)ehl)les and 
water drain'ing the material, classifying and washing 
the material, and finally draining the material as ftnish- 

" Tl" 'material is inirodueed into a circulating system 
,,f r.'l-itivrlv large volume of water and finally drained. 
'PI,,. fil„T is classified according to size of fibre bundles 
,n,l simultaneously washed with, a large volume ot 


wire, the latter being free from pressure appliaiKM.s lor 
squeezing out water from the sheet. Deckel straps , x- 
tendiug toward the suction roll, a dandy roll m advance 
of the suction roll, a single suction box under the rear 
deckel puUevs. and a positive rotary air pump con- 
nected with the suction roll and adapted to maintain 
such heavv uniform vacuum as to create a constant 
high pressure upon and draw large volumes .. air 
nniformlv through the sheet, whereby the wire ,s lod:- 
ed to the roll and the sheet is substantially tr:M.,l rum 
water as it passed from the wire. The patent mclu.les a 
rotarv vacuum pump capable of delivering large vol- 
umes'of air through the sheet of paper. 

(luy ('. How 
just patented. 


aid. Everett. Washington. I'.S 
Canadian patent No. 144.1S-J 

A prore,. 
for ni;d 

> ^ QO.-'-- 

ing paper pull 
ial to aeti(ni ol 


, consisting in treating vegetabU 
a ehemical solution, draiiung th' 



Canadian patent No. 144.:;:,-,. (i.-oi'ge .lanu: 
son. Thorold, Out., patentee. , -, ■ , , 

A new article of manufaetuie. pressed and dried pulp 
stock having the fibres in the centre irregularly arrang- 
od -ind extending in practically all directions, and hav- 
i„„- the fibres on the surface regularly arranged. 

' mater- 

The fibres in the centre irregularly arranged extend- 
ing n practically all directions, and having the fibres 
on the surface regularly arranged and mclmed m the 
same general direction to form a gram on the surface, 
ami having a sand polished and sand papered surface. 
The surface filn-es are all flattened in one direction. 


■n,,. Pulp and Paper Magazine will op;'" ^> ^^^f:^" 
„„,,„ of (Questions and Answers for all interested m 
rulp and paper whether subscribers or not All are 
n V ed to forward their questions which will be pub- 
Sied and answered, either by the "l^^---" «;;^.;';;\J , 
ers will be asked to send ni answers, all ot ^^hleh will 

'^T^hrmanv difficulties which arise are often those 
which others have met and solved before ^^^ are sme 
our readers will be glad to assist one anothei and make 
Hsn..w department a source of information and as- 
sistance to all. It will be opened on the receipt ot the 
first few questions. 

The Memphis Commercial has contracted for 1913 
for six thousand tons of print, which is an mcrease ot 
IL thousand tons. The Star-Chroniele. St. ^^^^^J^ 
tracts for 1913 for four thousand to.i.s ot prmt. ^^hK•h 
i.s an increase of 500 tons. 

February 15. 1913 




Tht' second Waliu-sley paper machine started this 
week at Price Bros. Esenogarai Paper Mills. 

permission to lease lauds on Redonda Island, due south 
of Elizabeth Island, near Prvee's Channel. 

ilr. W. G. Stewart, purchasing agent of the Spanish 
iiiver Pulp and Paper Mills, Ltd., was married recently. 

The Fred W. Hall's Paper Company, of Toronto, has 
just been granted a charter and will carry on a general 

paper bu.siness. 

* * * * 

The St. Maurice Lumber Co.. Gaspe. Que., has pur- 
chased the Gaspe Lumber and Trading Co. A large 
sulphite mill will be built. 

* * * « 

Mr. Allan Brown, foi'iuei-ly of the Victoi-ia Paper 
& Twine Co.. has joined the Continental Bag Company. 
Toronto office, as city salesman. 

The fourth mill of the Lake Superior Paper Company 
has started operations, bringing the total capacity of 
the mills up to fiO.flOO tons per annum. 

« * * * 

^Ir. Ira Hill, sulphite superintendent for Price Bros. 
& Co.. Limited. Kenogami. Que., is seriously ill and, 
according to last reports, his recovery is doubtful. 

» « * * 

The capacity of the plant of the Powell River Pulp 
and Paper Co.. in British Columbia, is to be increased 
from 100 tons of paper per day to' 249 tons, immedi- 

* « * >f 

Frank A. Spear, master millwright and mechanic, 

formerly with Price Bros, at Kenogami. has joined 

the Spanish River Pulp & Paper :\Iills. Ltd.. at Es- 

Jos. G ilayo. traffic manager for the Spanish River 
Pulp and Paper ilills. Ltd., has been appointed man- 
ager of pulp sales and traffic for the Ocean Falls Co., 
Ltd.. Vancouver B.C. He left Espanola on Feb. 1 for 
the West. 

» * * * 

Chas. A. Morrison, master mechanic and millwright 
Price Bros. & Co.. Limited. Kenogami. Que., has recent- 
l.v left that firm and will po.ssibly join the Donaconna 
Paper Co.. Quebec. 

Finch. Pruyn & Co.. Inc.. Glen's Falls. X.Y.. piopose 
l)uil<ling. during the coming .season, a lumber and sul- 
phite mill on the .south shore of the St. Lawn-nce be- 
tween Three Rivers and Quebec. 

* * « * 

It is unofficially reported that the Riordon Pulp and 
Paper Co,, Montreal. Que., are erecting a $3,000,000 
[ilant in Cobalt. Ont. They will also spend one and a 
half millions in a new plant at Merritton. 

* * * * 

Henry J. Eschelman. manager of the Colonial Wood 
I'rodncts. Niagara Falls, N.V., announced recentl.v that 
the company would Iniild a large storehouse in connec- 
tion with its plant at Thorold, Ont. A large addition 
to the plant is also in anticipation. 
» * « « 

The British Columbia Sulphite Fibre Co.. Li 1.. of 
Vancouver. B.C.. pulp manufacturers, have applied foi- 

The new office at Price Bros. & Co.. Limited. ha,s 
given signs of collapse, so the staft' have been forced to 
seek temporary (juarters elsewhere until the damage has 
been repaired. One of the water wheels in the ground 
wood mill is at present being completely overhauled. 

* * * * 

The Sherbrooke .Machinery Co.. Ltd.. has circularizeci 
the trade this week, on their new built up Rock ilaple 
Press Roll. This i.s a new and radical departure from 
the old style and promi-:es to give excellent satisfaction. 

* * * * 

The ilontreal Times, the new daily for that city, will 
appear for the first issue on Dominion Day. The office 
will be in St. Catherine Street, rather than in the down- 
town section. Mr. JlacNab. as previously anuouiu-ed. 
is the editor. 

* « » s 

A serious accident occurred in the machine room of 
the Dryden Timber & Power Co, recently, by which S. 
M. Withrow will be incapacitated for an indefinite 
period. Th.' unfortunate man was assisting bracing 
heavy timber. 

« * * * 

The -svell-knowu firm of felt manufacturers, the Ham- 
ilton and Ayers Co.. Lachute Mills. Que., have alteretl 
their name to Ayers. Limited. The management and 
ownership remain as before and all the grades of felts 
are luj changed. 

President George Carruthers. of the Interlake Tissue 
Mills Co.. Ltd.. of Toronto, and Fred Duncan, secretary 
and treasurer of the St. Lawrence Paper Co., returned 
recently from Kalamazoo. Mich., after conferring with 
stockholders of the two companies living there. 
9 s » * 

The Partington Pulp and Paper Co. is reported to 
have decided to erect a pulp mill at ilarysville. N.B.. 
early in 1913. Mr. George McKeen. of St. John. X.B.. 
and others, have purchased for $60,000 the lumber mill 
and timber areas of Isaac C. Prescott. in Albert County, 
New Brunswick. 

* * * « 

Wayagamack Pulp & Paper Co.. Ltd.. Three Rivers, 
Que., will immediately add eighty tons to their capa- 
city. Negotiations are already being carried on for 
the new e(|ui]>ment. It is rumored that the Recovery 
System will be sujiplied ;)y Canadian Boving Co., 164 
Bay street, Toronto. 

* * * * 

The Dominion Commission of Conservation is plan- 
ning to introduce a system of forest guards along th;- 
right of way of the railways in New Brunswick. Such 
a system has been introduced in the west and a pro- 
nounced improvement in the protection of the forests 
from tires has r> suited. 

ilr. Dan J. Albertson. the well-known paper mill en- 
gineer of Kalamazoo. ]\rich.. sjx'nt this week with Mr. 
Billingham. his engineer in this district. They are 
erecting the enlargements of tlu- St. Lawrence Pajx-r 


February 15. 1913 


^1-11 ,t Thorol.l and Montros.. Tissue Mill at Merrit- 
tin He 11" i'eenlly opened u Canadian office .n Con- 
federation Life Building. Joronto. 

The Federal Depart, n.nt of Foresiry has announced 
its intention of opening' a la,',-, forest tract for nnn - 
Lr-iSn n the area is included a large percentage o 
pulp woo Coincident to this plan is the reclamat.on 

try has not one-half tlie m^nih^i it iminediatel> n.. ds. 

Th proposed All,..rtl Peac Riv.r and Eastern Rnil- 
wiv which is to V,e built by a .■oun-any of E glish hn 
r'cie^HfVhich Lord Far.vr ,s .h. head, will open up 
We areas of pulp wood in ihr northern parts ot A - 
beifa and Saskatchewan, and immediately west ot Hud- 
son's Bay. The head office of the company behind this 
scheme is to be in Ottawa^. ^^ ^^ 

The British tramp steamer McElwain. of l^^^^^^- 
^eotland is at the d..elc of the Thames River Specia. > 
Co a Mont vilie. Con., with a cargo of wood pulp 
from Port Clvde, N.S.. consigned to that company. 
M curiosity has heen manifested among the in kH - 
tants at the sight of a British steamer so th 

Thames River above New Loiulon.and it is HL.ught to 
be the first to come so far up Jh(^ river. 

It is rumored that the interests -^ J^^^' ^'^''l^''' 
Islands Pulp Co.. Lt.l.. Port Arthur and Wnidsor, On .. 
S^tlot^aling with the council of ^1- ^™- -^>;, t" 
establish a pulp and l-n>.-jmll at cost ot *<o().(X.( .Tr. 
firm assigned on ^larch ir,th. 1012. I^Ir. E. R. (^^^1}- 
son beini the receiver. Chief creditors -ere the De^ 
troit Sulphite Pulp and Paper Co Imperial Bank of 
Canada, and others. Port Arthur interests hold a ma- 
jority of the stock. ^ ^ _^ 

The Lincoln Paper ^lills Cmipany. of Merritton. re- 
eentlv granted the annual bonus to the employees of 
he two mills, the Lincoln and Lybster Mills. The bonus 
was six per cent, on the wn-es for the year ^^d amount- 
ed to a tidy sum. Fm- the past twe ve years the co - 
panv has made this grant and in so doing has strength- 
ened the feeling of good will between employers and 
employees. Nearly one hundred employees received 
th bonus. ^ ., ^ 

An increase of ten million dollars in the yf^'' f 
wood manufaetun.s exported from the "'t,. States 
durins 1912 is shown bv olhcial reports. Although 
heVe was a deereas,. for th. ye.r of IS.000.000 eet in 
timber exportations. the total ot lumber and timbei 
exported shows an increase of 6.10 per cent Exporta- 
tion of wood pulp increased 9.000.000 pounds over the 
previous year. A slight increase was f^o^n in tj^ *^^- 
portation of ties, which totalled nearly 4.o00.000, 

The eontrart whi.-h has U.-u to H E. Talbot 
for constructing the dam :.nd installing a hvdro-electne 
svstem on the property of Hh- Laurentide ( ompany at 
(Irand Mere. Que., involvs an ot over one 
and a half million dollars, and 1.000 men will be em- 
ployed on the work. The n.w plant is to be completed 
in a little over a year, and the station will be one o 
the largest in North America, having a can.Mcity ot 
fiO.OOO to 75.000 horse power. 

Experience.l hushMu-n are applying to the Ontario 
(iovennent \n bnge nundiers for the positions of fii-e 
•aneer and as a conse-iuen.-e very few students will 
be fmplo ei this summer. A new rule just put in o 
force orbids the carrying of firearms by a ranger. This 
■ s made necessary by the fre.,uent abuse of the pnvi- 
:." and several near accidents due to careless hand- 
li,"o' The five rangers are vigorously protesting that 
the" danger from wild animals is considerable and pro- 
tection is .absolutely necessary. 

The publishers of snwdl city daily '"'^f ^P^'^^ 
Ontario and Quebec hav,. takm up n, earnest the hgnt 
a"a4st the s^-called -.lollar-daily.- They have pre^ 
;:;red a petition to the Postmaster:(ieneral sett^g tor h 
he anomalous situation whic-h now exists m this^ «'"; 
iiection and .suggesting an equitabl. ineM.od oi lemov- 
ng this anomaly. Thrir petition .^ based upon the 
principle euunciated by the post office department it- 
self that publications circulated at a nominal late art 
not entitled to the second-class rate ot postage 
* « * * 
\-,..otiations have been concluded for the sale of 116 
squall miles of spruce forest on the \o"thwest coast of 
Labrador to a British syndicate by A. Lamont Mont- 
n'a The price paid is reported to have been between 
wo and three hundred thousand dollars, and the pvir- 
• asers are expected to engage in the development of 
,.w V acquired tract. Much good pulp wood is 
vnilal,!.- in Labrador, but the extremely co d chmate 
h!,s ,lis,.onraged all but one previous effort at exploita- 
ti<in. ^ ,^ .^ ^ 

A steadily increasing percentage of the Miramichi 
Uiinber cut is shipped by rail, a great <iea being en n 
portable mills and loaded directly on cars for t e Lnited 
St tes market. At F. D. Swim will saw at 
h''st V i on. Edward Deming. of Woodstock who 
op.iatin. back at Doaktown, is cutting t-^ ™1^k- 
Tinglev. of Chatham .lunction. is sawing wi h a po t- 
H^mill. back of Ludlow, one and a ^alf >mmon^ The 
Andersons of Burnt Church are -awing at Portei Biook 
o^e and a half million. The company that operate, te 
Gibson mill at Blackville will saw seven millions this 
year all for the United States. 

* * * # 
A series of the largest photographs in the world 
wHch include a number of 12-foot views of Ottawa s 
Phlp and paper industries, will be exhibited by the e.ty 
i he Travel and Vacation Exhibition which will he 
tld in the Grand Central Palace. Ne-" ^ °'?^- ,^^7n 
ooth to -9th. The object of this particular feature of 
;ii,. exhibit is to impress American pulp and paper men 
Idth Ottawa -s gnat advantages as a centre of the indus- 
^rv The vii'ws comprise representations of the J. K. 
B M.'.th E B Pnd other big pulp and paper firms 
:„ul of the Chaudier.. Falls and other sources of local 
water pow.'r. ^ ^ ^ * 

[„ fh,. w..od roo,n of the Dryden Timber & Power 
C. ' ,1,.. live barkers, all direct motor driven, are in posi- 
tion and thr erection of the convevor is nearly com- 
',Vi Tin. chipper is in place and. millwrights are 
\L :.n.eti..g the convevors- shoots. -^^^ ^n tlie sci-een 
,,„;„, tl.ive beaters and screens are m place. The equip 

» * * * 
,„,„, i„ „„, rec-overv room is all in place and the erec- 
tion of the smellers will be hurried on as soon_ as the 
It . 1 N . k -nrives One of the turWnes being ni posi- 
m . le arrival of one of the 750 kilowatt genei- 

FelnMiiirv 1o. im:'. 



ntcD's soon will ciialili' tliriu to \>v reiul.v to slarl uji 
with one unit at an early date. There seems littl(! doubl 
that the whole null will be running at full blast eai'ly 
ill the s])i-iiit;'. 

* « « * 

,Mi-. .lames licvcM'idge. ))resident of the New Hruiis- 
wiek Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd.. on the 2Lst uli., delivered 
a very iiitei'esting leetui'e on the pulp industry of Can- 
ada at Clialliani. N. 15. The lecture was illustrated by 
tifty-si.\ lantm-n sli<les, showing the i):ii)ynis jilant. Jap- 
ani'se and ('hincsr pMp.T. llie origin of wood pulp maiiu- 
faetiirc, the diftVrnit processes employed in paprr iii.d<- 
ing. etc. A nuiiilicr of interesting jilares showed wood 
camps, with their reading rooms and other modern eou- 
veuienees. The large audience who iieard Mr. Hcvei-- 
idge thoroughly en.ioyed his present al ion of the sub- 

The Pelgo (_'anadiaii Pulp and i^lper Co.. Ltd.. Sliaw- 
inigaii Falls, have placed an order at the recommenda- 
tion of their engineer, Mr. Statler. for a double lieati'r. 
with -J. Marx & Co., Ltd.. of London, England. This 
is their well renowned type of basalt, lava stone, roll, 
on one side and steel on the other. Both rolls have 
separate centre drive and give tine residts on all grades 
of stock. It is the plan, if this beater gives the results 
expected, to entirely r(»place the single beaters. With 
the new sizing ])r()cess which they are also installing, 
ue predict that tlu-ir news sheet will be very jiopular 
with the trade. 

There seems to be likelihood of Mackenzie & ilann 
tiiking over the Quebec & Saguenay. Railwa.v, and pos- 
sibly the Quebec Railway, Light, Heal & Power Co. 
Engineers of the Canadian Northern have gone thor- 
oughly into the possibilities of the street railway sys- 
tem and of the Quebec & Saguenay Railway, including 
the branch line running from Quebec to St. Joachim, 
and have for weeks been engaged in in active iuspec- 
tioi' of the physical qualificatifms of the properties. One 
of the important factors in the deal is that the charter 
of the Quebec & Saguenay covers possible constrnelion 
in the Saguenay district, now traversed by the Quebec 
& Lake St. John Railway, one of the properties of the 
^laekenzie-Mann intei'csts. These are Forget interests 
and are tied up with the Eastern Canada at JVIuirav 

* * * * 

At the annual meeting of the Victoria Paper and 
I wine Cimipauy a most successful year was reported, 
there being a very gi-atifving increase in volume and 
earnings. Charles P. Ilubbs, of New York, was re- 
elected president; William H, Howe, of Buffalo, first 
vice-president; R, W. Gallagher, of Buffalo, second 
vice-president; H. J. Severance, of Buffalo, treasurer, 
and Charles V. Syrett, of Toronto, secretary and man- 
aging director. Other directors elected were K. E. 
<'harles and C. S. Nieholls. of Toronto. The business 
proceedings were followed by a very jolly bampiet. at 
which Mr. Iliilibs and .Mr. Syrett presided. 

"Grand Forks, B.C.. oft'ers .splendid inducements for 
the establishment of a pulp mill at this i)oint," said Mi-. 
Alexander Robinson, formerly senior member of the 
Iiobinsoii & Le'^uinne Lumber ( om|)any. "The iiajx-r 
mill al Spokane, which at |)reseiif draws its sui)i)ly of 
pulp wood IVoiii UdiiiiiTs Fei-ry. will readily jmrchase 
all of the piiip wliieh ean Im' prodiieeil ill ihis city in 
II"' next lii'lieii or twentv vears. Cotlmiwood is the 

best wood from which ])aper pulp is made, and this 
section has a jiractical supply to keep a mill running 
for many years. It would cost in the neighborhood of 
a half million dollars to erect a 50-ton-a-day pulp mill 
in this ei!y. ;iiid I am intere.sting outside capital in the 

The outlook for lum])ering is worse than ever. Dur- 
ing the past month les snow has fallen in eastern see- 
tmns than has been the case in January for fiftv years, 
and what little has fallen has nearly all melted." in the 
woods the ground is covered fairly well with a thin 
layer, but not enough to fill up holes and cover brush- 
wood. In the open the roads and tields are bare. It 
now seems inevitable that much of the lumber cut this 
season will have to remain until another winter before 
it can be hauled out. Of course it is possible that we 
may get some good snowfalls yet, but the sun is getting 
stronger every day, and good snow roads for this win- 
ter are practically indespaired. 

* * # * 

The new mill of the Donaconna Paper Co.. which will 
be erected at Cap Saute, near Quebec city, will be an 
entirely fireproof structure and built of brick and ce- 
ment. The buildings will be 550 feet long and 125 feet 
wide. The contract for the Foui'drinier paper machine 
has just been awarded to the Bagley & Sewall Co., of 
Watertown, N.Y. The machine will be 160 inches wide 
and capable of travelling 700 feet per minute. It will 
have three sets of presses, thirty-four 48-inch dryers 
and one ten-roll stack of calenders. The grinders will 
be supplied by the Jencks Machine Co.. of Sherbrooke. 
Que. There will be a concrete dam 1,250 feet long. 
The output of the plant will be about 60 tons jier day 
of news print paper. 

J. C. Mackintosh & Co. says of Price Bros.' outlook: 
■"While the designed capacity of the pulp and paper 
making units of Price Bros.' new mill contemplatean 
output of 50.000 tons a year, provision for expansion 
has been made, and it is expected that this plant will 
exceed that figure. The new plant is expected to in- 
crease the annual earnings by at least $500,000 when in 
full operation, but this figure will not, of course, be 
realized in 1918, as it was well on into Januaiy before 
any paper was made. However, the company itself ex- 
pected to be able to make a profit of $10 per ton on the 
paper from the new mill, and accepting the estimate of 
50,000 tons per .vear, this gives the figure mentioned 
above, as soon as the plant get.s into full working order, 
which will be during the early half of the present 

« # » * 

Judge F. A. (ieigei'. of the Federal Coui-t for Eastern 
Wisconsin, pi-esided in the ease recently of E. A. Ed- 
monds against the Spanish River Pulp and Paper Co,, 
of Espanalo. in which the former is suing for the recov- 
ery of $100,000 jiaid to the company in LI09 as part 
payment on a deal involving moi'e than $2,000,000 ami 
which looked to the ultimate purchase of the Canadian 
property by the Ai)i>leton man. Mr. Edmonds' conten- 
tion is that the Canadian company could not give him 
a clear and permanent title to much of the lands in- 
volved in the deal, and for that reason refused to con- 
tinue negotiations. Judge Geiger has heard the argu- 
ments on both sides and has taken the case under ad- 
visement. He will give his decision in the near future. 
If it is satisfactory to both pai-ties no further litigation 
will follow, but there is a possibility of an appeal. 




1.'.. 1913 


Gaskell-Odliim Stationers, Ltd.: Yaiicouvn-. 11. C. 'I'd 
change its name to "Gaskell Book & St:iti(inciy Ciuu- 
pany. Limited.'" 

Ratcliffe Papei- Co.. Ltd.. Toronto: incorporated with 
capital -l^lOO.OOd, with :\Ir. Fred L. RatclifT president, 
is taking over tlie hnsiness nf Dougla.s & Ratdiff. Lid., 
to deal in all grades of paper. 

McLaren l.iuiiliei' Co.. Lttl. To aecpiire timber leases, 
manufactnre limliei-. pulp wood, pulp and paper: to 
•sell light, heat and power, (.'apital stock !|;1.2r)0.000. 
divided into T_'..')IH) shai'es of W)0 each. Head office. 
Toronto, Ont. 

Consolidated Agency. Ltd.. Toronto; capital. +;JI>().- 
000. To acquire, print and publish newspapers, jour- 
nals, books, do business as printers, stationers, engr.iv- 
ers, bookbinders, etc. C. H. C. Leggott and B. Webster, 
Toronto. Ont. 

The Fred W. Halls Paper Company. Limitetl. has 
been incorporated with a capital of $40,000. to cairy 
on the business as paper manufacturers in all its 
branches, with head office at Toronto. The provisional 
directors are H. H. Halls, contractor: F. W. Halls, 
traveler, and A. A. Bond, solicitor, all of Toronto. 

The Home Pattern Company: incorporated under 
Pennsylvania laws, is authorized liy Ontario Govern- 
ment "to Pi'int and publish books, magazines, charts, 
patterns for the manufacture and ornament of garments 
from paper or other materials, using a capital in that 
province of not larger than .^40.000. Robt. C. Donald. 

Toronto, attorney. 

* * * * 

The Silverhi-ook Timber and Developiiient Co. I^ttl.. 
incorporated as a limited company, with a capital of 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, divided into 
two thousand five hundred shares. The head office of 
the company is Fernie. To deal in timber lauds, lic- 
enses, etc ; to carry on timber and pulp business, as 
well as acipiire and operate power developments. 

St. Lawrence Pulp and Lund)er ('oriioration. New- 
York City : capital. $200,000. Incorporators : Sidney 
V. JMorris, 471 West Twentv-second' Street, New York 
City, fifty shares ; T. N. Pfeiflfer. 52 West Thirty-ninth 
Streetf, New York City, twenty-five shares: Charles H. 
Stanton, 105 Berkeley Place. Brooklyn, N.Y,. twenty- 
five .shares; directors: Ralph P. Buell. Bayside. 1^.1., 
N.Y. ; Solomon F. Glenn. 322 Cooper Strci't. Canidi-n. 
N.J. ; John Davidson. Rutledge, Pa. 


William Whyte. the ncwly-apiiointed manager of the 
Al)itibi I'nlp & Pai)er ^Mills. I^td.. says that the town- 
ship of Teefy. in which the company lias the right to 
cut wood, is I'emarkable for pulp wood, being filled 
with large sound trees, running 60 to 70 feet high, and 
in many places yielding 30 cords to the acre, while the 
average amount of pulp wood is not less than 13 to 15 
cords to the acre. He adds in his report to the direc- 
tors: "i\Iy candid opinion is that with all the judp wood 
and water power available the Abitil)i |)roposition 
should prove a wonderful success.'' 

The company is now busy with the arrangements for 
establishing a mechanical pulp mill. at L-oquois Falls, 
on the Abitibi River, about sis miles of Iro- 
quois Falls Junction, on the Temiskaming and North- 
ern Ontario Railway. A branch of the railway will be 
running to the site of the mills by June next. The first 
unit of the plant is to be followed l)y a paper and chemi- 
cal pulp mill. 

The company has secuied a lease nf the water powers 
of the Iroquois and Conchicing Falls, and has the right 
to hold and control the waters of the Abitibi Lakes for 
power purposes. These lakes, though shallow, are of 
enormous size, and will give the company an unfailing 
supply of water all the year round. The company has 
three waterfalls, all clos" together, the total power 
available being 57.195 shaft horse power. 

The company's agreement with the Ontario Govern- 
ment, dated August 20th. 1912. gi-ants the right to cut 
pulp wood, consisting of spruce, balsam, jackpine, pop- 
lar and whitewood trees, 7 inches and upward in diam- 
eter, at two feet from the ground, sufficient to supply 
the mills to be erected, from an area approximating 
1,560 square miles. The agreement covers a period of 
twenty-one years, and is renewable. The agreement 
also .stipulates that a pulp mill be erected at or near 
Iroquois Falls, having a capacity of not less than 100 
tons of pulp per day, and employing at least 250 hands 
on an average of at least ten months of each year, and 
that the total expenditure for the plant will be at least 
$500,000, Of this $100,000 must be expended within 
one year from date of agreement, and not less than 
$200,000 within two years, the entire h.df million to lie 
expended within three years. 

The capital of the company is $1,500,000 bonds auth- 
orized, $1,000,000 paid up, $1,500,000 preferred author- 
ized, $1,000,000 paid up. and $3,500,000 connnon, all of 
which is paid up. The whole of this capital has been 
underwritten, but will not be oft'ered to the public until 
the late summer, when the construction of the plant 
will be well under way. The machinery is under con- 
struction, and about 200 men are at work on the pro- 
perty. It is expected that the plant will be on a pro- 
ducing basis I'arly next year. 

Ritchie & Ramsay, Limited, Toronto, have just sent 
o\it handsome folders demonstrating the coated papers 
that they are making. Among the papers are "Luxa- 
coted" porcelain, "Red Seal" and suede finish gray, 
India and white, all of which are beautifully juanted 
in black and colors. 


■The Coiinii li.indbiuik of ('aniida" ninth year, 
1913, ()!■ as it IS more familiai-ly known, IIeato_n"s An- 
nual, price $1,00, published by Heaton's Agency, To- 
ronto, Canada, is a valuable publication, containing in 
its official directory the names of the Dominion and 
Provincial Cabinets, ilerabers of Parliament, ^lembers 
of the Senate, departmental officials, etc. and under 
other heads much valuable matter pertaining to rates 
of postage, parcel post, etc., financial information, com- 
mercial regulations, registration offices, credit reports 
and collections, transportation matters, customs infor- 
mation, and a mass of gemn-al information aliout Cana- 
da and its resources. 




(CorrespoudciU'e of P\ilp .iml Paprr Magazine.) 

iloiitreal, Febniary 13th, 1913. 

The latest decision of President Taft in regard to the 
paper controversy, has excited fresh interest among pulp 
and paper men in this Province. In fact, little or noth- 
ing is being discussed among the trade except the various 
phases of this question. It must be admitted that Presi- 
dent Taft's decision eaiiie somewhat as a surprise. It 
was felt that while the matter was hekl up jiending an 
investigation, the logical outcome of the investment would 
be a decison on President Taft's part admitting it free 
of duty. He is criticized as having taken an extreme 
view of the situation. 

It is pointed out that Section 2 governs such matters 
absolutely. This section says : ' " Tliere shall be no duty 
on paper made from wood which is free from restric- 
tions." The order-in-council of the Quebec Government 
covers that in the case of these four companies, but 
President Taft holds to the view that the order-in-eouncil 
simply refers to paper and not to pulp wood and wood 
pulp. In brief, the Americans want to have access to 
our pulp wood, and President Taft's action is regarded 
as an effort to coerce this Province into yielding. 

In an interview, Mr. J. N. Greenshields, of the Way- 
agamack Pulp and Paper Co., said : 

"We are not worrying about the matter at all. We 
confidently expect that the Democrats when they come 
into power, will put paper on the free list, and as they 
take office in less than a month "s time, we are not worry- 
ing at all." 

Another prominent jiaper manufacturer discussing 
this matter said : 

''Notwithstanding the decision of President Taft. 1 
feel that this whole question should be brought before 
the Tariff Hoard of General Ap(iraisers of New York." 

Concluding, the manufacturer said: "The whole sit- 
uation is governed by the fact that Quebec possesses the 
pulp wood of this continent, and this act on the part of 
the United States Government is simply an effort to ob- 
tain access to that wood. The United States Government 
have frankly said that Section 2 was ]iut there for the 
purpose of obtaining our wood. All that we have to do is 
to "sit tight" and not give way an inch, and in a short 
time the United States will have to give us free entry for 
our jnilp and paper. It seems to me unfortunate that the 
four companies in question had not waited a little while. 
If we had let matters stand a short time, the United States 
would be compelled to oi)en their doors and admit our 
pulp and paper. The action of these four companies 
complicated matters, before their interference, every- 
thing was in a satisfactory condition, and things of a 
favorable nature to us were developing. However, all that 
we liave to do is to 'sit tight' and refuse to surrender our 
wood. In this ease, we hold the whip hand, and the 
United States must recognize this sooner or later." — R. 


A bill li;is bcrn iut I'odui-rd into the House of Uejircsen- 
tatives of Australia to provide for the payment of boun- 
ties on wood pulp. It provides that a sum of £75,000 may 
be ap|)i-opriated out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund 
for the i)ayment of bounties during a iieriod of five years 
from 1st January. 1913. 

Tl)(> bounties proposed to be ])ai<l. uiidei- <'i'rtain spe- 
cified conditons, on the manufacture or production in 
Australia of wood pulp is 15 per cent, of the market value 
and not to exieed a total of £5,000 to any one year. 


(S]ie(i;ti to I'ulp aii.l I'aper Magazine.) 

London, Feb. 8, 1913. 
Hritish wood pulp traders, as a rule, keep a very keen eye on 
the French markets, particulars of which are not often available 
irom ;t right-hand source. In a conversation j'our correspondent 
had a week ago, with a large French importer, he learnt that 
sulphite in France is rising in prices, so much so that paper 
makers do not like the i)resent outlook. The market is, there- 
fore, one that Canadians might well give a little attention to 
just for the present, as the French supplies are very limited 
and the demand is enormous. Sulphite unbleached (1st quality^ 
is going from Fes. 24 to Fc-s. 27, bleached (superior) Fes. 30.50 
to Fes. 33 per 100 kilos, c.i.f. Rouen. Then for mechanical the 
market is firm, but no business worth speaking of is being ex- 
clianged as the sellers and buyers will not give awaj' to each 
other. The latter body are waiting to see how fluctuations will 
go. Pine (dry) is at present Fes. 13 to Fes. 14.50, and pine 50 
per cent, moisture, Fes. 12 to Fes. 13.50. British importers of 
wood pulp do a fair amount of business with the French buyers 
and the state of the markets in France should be watched witfi 

The balance sheet of one of the Lancashire paper mills, viz., 
the Ramsbottom Paper Mill Co., Ltd., has been issued, and it 
gives a fair idea of the progress made in the industry in 1912 
for a small concern. It shows that the gross trading profits, 
after payment of directors' fees, were £9,519. The company 
holds 45,000 ordinary shares, valued in the balance sheet at cost, 
in the Kellner-Partington Paper Pulp Co., and dividends were 
received from this source amounting to £9,000, and £9,055 being 
brought forwaril the total reaches £27,574. The directors have 
placed £2,000 toward the depreciation fund and recommend a 
final dividend of 25 per cent, per annum on the ordinary shares, 
making 20 per cent, for the year. The sum of £12,231 is now 
carried forward. In 1911 the trading profit was £8,454, and the 
total available £25,398; for 1910, £6,519, and £20,587. For 1911 
20 per cent, was paid, and 1910, 15 per cent. It must be also 
mentioned that the company have other investments to the 
.Tuiount of over £24,000. For he past half-year the Guard Bridge 
Paper Mill Co., Ltd., have declared an interim dividend at the 
rate of 12 per cent, per annum on the ordinary shares. This is 
one of the Scottish mills and the balance sheets show the success 
that has attended tliese mills. 

The removal of the $5.75 per ton on paper leaving Quebec for 
the United States, has caused a good deal of discussion in the 
I'nited Kingdom amongst Free Traders and the Tariff Reform- 
ers. From what your correspondent can gather in conversation 
with a uumber of paper men, the general opinion prevails that 
this .should not be made a party subject — that is that politics 
should be buried where there is a chance of extending the Cana- 
dian market. Tariff Reformers are out and out men for the 
protection of home industries and they do not believe in cases, 
like the present one in Quebec, in hampering an industry with 
an export tax, particularly as there is a chance of increasing the 
output of the mills. On the other hand Free Traders are against 
taxation — they require free trade all round and naturally they 
agree with the Gouin Government's orderin-couneil. Therefore, 
the two parties in England are in favor of the removal of the 
embargo; but one or two manufacturers expressed a lurking sus- 
picion of the course the United States Government will take in 
the matter and they are consequently awaiting the result with 
great interest. One Tariff Reformer remarkeil that Canada's 
finest sources and pulp wood supply must be carefully guarded 
against foreign invasion and the spirit of protection must be 
rigidly enforced. "The whole American nation is against 
Canada's pulp and i)aper Reciprocity Act," he added, "and in 



February 15. 1913 

all prohirliility tl 
Jury. I'orsonally, 

mv oriU»r-iu-couiic-il will add 
t]i a";aiiist tlie e.xjjort eniliarj; 

come dearer in tlie near future. Prices, reported in The Pul|) and 
Paper Magazine of Fel)ruary 1 are unchanged. 

Talking of Tariff Keforniers, here is an interesting letter for 
C'anadiaus, which ifessrs. A. M. Peebles & Son, Ltd., of 151 
Queen Victoria Street, London, owners of paper mills in Lanca- 
shire, write: ''.Sjieaking from our own experience we recognize 
that many of the large British publishing firms of repute will 
only use for their publications — large as well as small — British- 
made paper, which of course is greatly to their credit; but there 
are unfortunately, notal)le e.xceptions to this salutary rule, who 
in their desire to capture the whole of the trade entirely forget 
to practice the principles which they are ready enough to preach 
namely the support of home industries and the adoption of some 

sort of Tariff Reform We have at the present time in this 

country the finest paper mills in the world capable of supplying 
the needs of all publishers in the Kingdom with papers .suitable 
for the wear and tear incidental to the use of cheap libraries. 
Foreign paper, as a rule, for this class of work is very unsuit 
able, being of inferior quality and liable to perish quickly. We. 
ourselves, have recently on several occasions, been cut out by the 
foreigner who is able to send his pajier into this country with- 
out contributing one farthing to heavy tax which the home piro- 
dueer has to paj". '" Jlost of the cheap papers are importeil into 
the United Kingdom from Sweden, Germany, and Norway: but 
it must be stated that people of Messrs. Peebles' stamp will c- 
courage Caiia<liau paper before any foreign j>roduct, and in that 
feeling they are shared with nearly every mill-owner in Englaml. 

Apropos of Chin:i clay notes in The Pulp anil Paper Magazine 
of .January 15, it should be stated that about half a dozen new 
companies are being formed to turn out this paper-making ma- 
terial in England. The Royal Cornwall Gazette makes a .state- 
ment to the effect that there is no likelihood for some time to 
come of the production catching up to the demand. The clay 
works in Cornwall were all working at full capacity, day and 
night, and all the firms had booked orders so far ahead tliat the; 
couM not undertake fresh orders for early delivery. Is it ;niy 
wonder, therefore, that complaints should be received from the 
United States about the shortage of China clay? Cornwall is 
expected to turu out 1,000,000 tons this year and 3'et it will not 
be enough. As alrea<ly stated this is a product that Canada will 
have to give some little attention to in the near future. There 
is money in China cd.'iy and if jiroperly treateil for the paper 
makers the- demand will far exceed the supply. 

The railway i-onipanies of England and Wales, like those in 
Canada, are enforcing a new list of charges for demurrage in 
order to get greater use out of their wagons by making it costly 
to detain them longer than the companies consider necessary. 
Wagons have been allowed to remain so long at some places that 
even the birds of the air have built their nests in them. The 
new rule, as a consequence, has placed a very plentiful supply of 
wagons in the hands of the railway companies to deal with and 
the scheme will ultimatelv work out successful. 


(Sjiecial to I'ulp and I'ajier Magazine.) 

London, Feb. S, 191:!. 

The chemical wood pulp market in England and Scotland is 
not very brisk just now. Paper makers are well-stocked, and it 
will take a couple of weeks or so before the market presents an}- 
.■■■ign of life. Sulphite, bleached and unbleached, is likely to be- 

In mechanical a fair amount of business is passing, and if 
Canadian supplies were received more frecpiently, not only in 
the English markets, but in the European markets, imyers re- 
lieve there would be a reduction in prices. At present me- 
chanical pulp is firm and ]irices unchanged. 

Since the beginning of .lanuary the following were the im- 
ports of wood Jiulp from Canada and America: Canada, me 
chanical wooil pulp, 2,450 tons; America, unbk-ache I chemica'- 
dry, 20 tons; bleached chemical ilry o-'iT tons. Xo shipments, of 
course, are now received from Newfoundbird. .-Vbcnit 2,000 tons 
of mechanical from Canada was distriiirted in L.jncashire mills 
in one week. 

China clay is going from .$:j..S2 to about $0.50 per ton f.o.b. 
Cornwall, according to arrangements. Owing to the high 
freights and shortage in shipping prices are inclined to rule 
high and consequently the demand at times becomes excessive. 
Stocks are very low. 

Changes in prices of chemicals are fairly numerous. Bleach- 
ing powder is in great demand and stocks are small at all works. 
During the past twelve monihs chemicals have increased very 
materially in prices, except ammonia alkali, and it is greatly to 
be feared that 1913 will bring more advances owing to the cost 
of raw materials and cost of labor. Bleaching powder is now 
quoted at $27 f.o.b. Liverpool. Owing to the fall in copper, 
makers are not very desirous to ilo much business in sulphate. 
Rosin is quiet; but American rosin ij in fair demanil. 

Enquiries for early spring shipments of Esparto are being 
received, but for distant periods sellers are inclined to quote 
modified prices. Esparto pulpi is scarce, prices ruling from $90 
to $96. aci'ording to arrangement. 

Roughly 220 tons of rags and paper stock were imported into 
Canada from the United Kingdom during .Januarv. 


One of the gi-t.itcst [uililic nwnership enterprises in 
the world is tliat found iu the United States in the na- 
tional forest reserves. Tliese reserves, under the con- 
trol of the national government, cover no less than 
187.000,000 acres. The area so covered is primarily 
adapted to the production of timber and the protection 
of .sources of water supply by maintaining a timber 
covering on the land. Most of the reserves are in rug- 
ged moiuitainous areas in the Rocky [Mountains and 
Sierra Nevada ranges, as well as portions of the coast 
ranges. These national foi-est reserves include the head 
waters of every inijiortaut stream in the western two- 
thirds of the United States. Their standing timber 
aggregates 600.000.000.000 feet— one-fifth of the coun- 
try's total supply, while the undeveloped water powers 
approximate 12.000.000 horse-power. The tangible a.s- 
sets in this property are said to be worth not less than 
$2,000,000,000. All the territory is not covered with 
merchantable timber, but nuieh of it is covered by 
brush or scattered trees put in by the forest recama- 
tion service to check the wa.shing away of the land by 

i:.. 191:3 

P r L r A X I) PAP ]■] K M A G A Z I N E 



Tuiouto. Febrn;(ry loth, I'.ii::. 

I'liiit (Mitinit has increased slightly but the market is firmer 
mill priifs .in- strouger. Prospects point to a continued sta- 
liility. Exports to Uniteil States and Australia aro rapidly in- 
creasing ai'd show every sign of continued growMi. Inquiries 
I'runi these countries are more numerous. Large orders h.i\e 
been booked from England and the Western States. 

Book and writing are in heavy demand ;ind prices rapidly 
stiffening. The dem:tiid c.xchh'.Is flic su]iiply, so that onlers .-irc 
going across the line. 

Groundwoiid is firmer and some is moviug. Stocks are be 
ing held anil the market maintained. At present 7,500 tons 
are on hand, which is very heavy. Present weather c:;nditiiins 
are helping the demand somewhat. 

Sulphite still holds firm, and most mills arc c-ontr,;cteil up to 
full capacity. Prices are at the same figures. 

Manila is down slightly and will feel a lit per cent, cut 
made by the mills in Ontario business this week. This is 
taken as :i measure against the jobbers. The situation in all 
heavy wrajipings promises to soon be the subjec't of |irice cut- 

China clay is very scarce ami iiupiiries brisk. Many firms 
are substituting Canadian talc and clny at nuudi better prices. 

Blue o\erall cuttings, $3.oll to .$3.62i/i. 
Black overall cuttings, $1.65 to $1.7.5. 
Black linings, $1.65 to $1.75. 
New light flannelettes, $4.75. 
Ordinary satinets, $19.75. 
Floe, satinets, $1.00 to $1.10. 

Quotations (f.i 
are as follows: — 

Toronto), for jiapcr, pulp and jiaper stock 


News (rolls) $42 to $45, according to r|uantity. 

Xews (sheet) $45 to $50, according to qua.ntity. 

Book papers (carload) No. 3, 414c. to ^%e. 

Book paper (broken lots) No. ."?, 4Vie. to 4%c. 

Book papers (carload) No. 2, 4%e. 

Book papers (broken lots) No.' 2, .5c. to 5%c. 

Book papers (carload) Xo. 1, 5c. to 6i/4c. 

Book papers (broken lots) No. 1, 6%c. 

Writings 4VjC. to 7\-2C. 

Bonds, 10c. to 18c. 

Sulphite Bond, 6^.c. to S'^c. 

Fibre, 314 c. to 4c. 

Manilla B., 2%e. to 3c. 

Manilla No. 2, 3e. to 3i,{.c. 

Manilla No. 1, 3%e. to 414c. 

Kraft, 4e. to 4%c. 


Ground wood (at mill), $15 to $16. 

Sulphite (unbleached), $45 to $47, delivered in Canada. 

Sulphite (unbleached), $48 to $49, delivered in United States 

Sulphite (bleached), $60, delivered in Cauada. 

Sulphite (bleached), $62. delivered in United States. 

Paper Stock. 
No. 1 hard shavings, $1.85. 
No. 1 soft white shaving. $1.70. 
Mixed shavings, 60c. 
White blanks, 90c. 
Ledger, $1.15 to $1.20. 
No. 1 book stock, 85c. to 90c. 
No. 2 book stock, 55c. 

No. 1 nianilla envelojie cuttings, $1,111 to $1.15. 
No. 1 print manillas, COc. 
Polded news, 50c. 
Over issues, 55c. 

No. 1 clean mixed paper, 42 'i.e. to 4T,-<e. 
Old white cotton, $2.50 to $2.75. 
Thirds ami blues, $1.40 to $1.,50. 
Xo. 1 white shirt cuttings, ftiS.-yO. 
Fancy sliirt .-uttings, $4.20. 


Montreal, February 14, 1913. 

Despite the increase iu the output of paper mills, prices 
still hold remarkably well. Paper men state that advices from 
the United States all confirm their view that the outlook over 
there is encouraging. Stocks are said to be considerably lower 
in the United States than was generally believed, and there is 
not likely to be any further cutting in prices. American deal- 
ers are highly please* with the way Canadians have maintained 
prices, as it has tended to hold up values south of the border. 

The market for ground wood continues to be unsatisfactorj-, 
but if the present cold w-eather continues, stocks will become 
depleted, and there should be an improvement in prices. At 
present, stocks on hand are heavy, but dealers are holding rather 
than sacrificing. In regard to sulphite, there is only one s^tory, 
viz., scarcity of stock and continually advancing prices. Ad- 
vices from England state that less than 10 per cent, of ths next 
three years' output in that country remains unsoid. This is 
bound to effect the local market, and maintain prices at a high 
level. Sulphite delivered in the United States runs from $46 to 
$48, and in Canada from $44 to $45. Wrapijiugs are said to be 
due for an advance in price, owing to the fact that sulphite is 
high and generally speaking, makers of wrapping paper vr?. pay 
ing more for their raw stocks than heretofore. 

The following are the prices for jiaper, pulp and paper stock: 
P.O.B. Montreal: 


News, $41 to $43, delivered iu United States. 

N^ews, $41 to $42 for large orders, $44 to .$45 for small ordcs. 
(Delivered in Eastern Canada.) 

Newsprint, sheets, $45 to $50 at mill. 

Book papers, carload lots. No. .'!, 4V4c. to 4'}4c. 

Book papers, broken lots. No. 3, 4'4e- to 4%c. 

Carload lots, No. 2, 4%c. 

Manilla B., 3c to Sy^c. 

Broken lots, No. 2, 5%c. to 5i/4c. 

Carload lots, No. 1, 5Vie. to 6%c. 

Broken lots, No. 1, 6c. to 6%ic. 

Manilla B., 314c. to 3:<4c. 

Fibre, 3%c. to 4c. 
No 2 manilla, 3Voc. 
Xo. 1 manilla, 3%c. to 4c. 
Kraft. 4c. to 4''',c. 

Paper Stock. 
No. 1 hard shavings, $1.70 to $1.80. 
No. 1 soft white shavings, $1.60. 
Xo. 2 soft white shavings, $1.15. 
Mixed shavings, 50c. to 55c. 
White blanks, 80c. 
Ledger, $1.15 to $1.20. 
Xo. I book stock. 90c. 
Xo. 2 book stock, 45c. 
Manila envelope cuttings, $1.05. 
White envelope cuttings, $1.75. 
Xo. 1 ]>rint manilas, 55i'. to 60c. 
Folded news, 50c. 
Crushed news, 45c. 



February 15. 191:1 

-Idc. to +2I2C. 

GdDil niixcil |..-ip( 

OUl white coltcHi, +l!.r.l). 

Mixed cottons, $1.<i(t t(i $1.75. 

Liglit i-ottoas, 4*1.7."".. 

Xo 1 whiti. shirt .-uttiuys, $5.5U to *.'-..i;.. 

Ught print .-uttings, .$4.00 to $4.50. 

Fancy shirt cuttings, $4.20. 

Blue" overall cuttings, $3.40 to $:i.."iO. 

Brown overall cuttings, $2.2.5 to $2.50. 

Black overall cuttings, $1.50 to $1.70. 

Linings, $1.50 to $1.75. 

New unblcnrhc.l .Mitton, $4.50 to $5.00. 

Bleached ami unl.lcached cotton, $4.50 to $5.00. 

Bleached and unbleached shoe clips, $4.00 to $4.2;j. 

New light flannelettes, $3.75 to $4.00. 

Flock satinets roofing stock, $1.10 to $1.20. 

Ordinary satinets, 75c. to S5c. 

Tailors' sweepings, ti5c. to 70c. 

ary, $34.67 to $36; sulphate, strong bleached, ordinary, $34.07 

to $36. 

The production of sulphite cellulose in Norway and Sweden 
for export and home consumption, including bleached pulp, was 
000,000 tons in 1912, as compared with 764,000 tons in liUl. The 
lOl.'j production is estimated at 930,000 tons. The production of 
sulphate cellulose in the two countries, which was about 171,000 
tons in 1911, was about 185,000 tons in 1912, and is estiniated 
at 193,000 tons tor 1913. 



Ground wood (at mill), $14-50 t( 
Sulphite, N". 1 unldc:^,■I..Ml, $46 t 

Sulphite, $43 to .$45, delivered in Canada. 
Sulphite (bleached), $51 to $53. 

$4S, delivered in Fnit. 

London, Feb. 6. 

The Board of Trade .luurnal on the trade of Xewfoundland, 
states that the total amount of stationery, printed '""^^'^l^''^ '■^„ 
tising and other printed matter imported was m^ff> 
which $35,772 was from the United Kingdom; $70,082 from 
Canada, and $41,854 from the United States. During the same 
period the books, annuals and magazines imported were from 
the United Kingdon> to the value of $68,382, from Canada 
^4 170 from the United States $339,250. In the matter of 
printing materials, presses, type, etc., the imports from the 
United Kingdom were $4,217, from Canada $14,239, and from 
■the United^States $23,241. The fact that United Ivmgdom 
trade with Newfoundland has made relatively slow l-og>-- >" 
recent vears as compared with that of Canada and the United 
States must be ascribed largely to the advantage of geogra- 
phical situation enjoyed by the latter countries, and the result- 
in- better facilities for the transport of their products to the 
Newfoundland market. There would, however, appear to be 
Considerable scope for the increase of the United Kingdom 
' share of the trade in several important articles. 

Barbados, Feb. 10. 

The importation in paper of all kinds is large, the United 
Kiiif^dom supidying the greater i^art, Germany coming next. 
The'ciiite.l States supplies most of the Leeward Islands' re- 
ciuirements, but their contribution to the other colonies is unim- 
portant. Canada's trade with the West Indies has increased 
in wrapping papers, but in jirintings there has been a falling 
oil". The total imports from Canada at present amount to 
about £2,000. In no line uf manufactures is there a better 
opening for Canadian manufacturers than in papers of various 
kinds, ^chiefly in the lower grades. Cheap freight and the 
preference should do much to further the efforts of firms in 
the paper trade seeking business in these markets. 

The following list shows the value of the import into each 
of the colonies concerned: 

Trinidad ^l^^^^ 

Barbados .'........ 7,198 

British Guiana 18>530 

St. Lucia ^'''l^ 

St. Vincent ^^^ 

Leeward Islands ^^^IS 



Ottawa, Ont„ February 4, 1913, 

That the United States import of wood pulp is steadily m 
creasing is the statement of C. E. Sontum, Canadian trade agent 
in Norway, in a report to the Trade and Commerce I)e|.art- 
ment respecting the Norwegian market. 

"The wood pulp market is continually lirm with :i rising 
tendency," the statement runs. "Any important changes in the 
prices, however, have not taken place since the last report, but 
are not excluded in the near future. In Germany very much 
is heard about the rise in the price of pulp wooil in all countries, 
which again necessarily must influence the lo-ice of wood ]]uli>. 
The United States import is also steadily increasing, whbdi goes 
to prove that the large consumption necessitates a forced im 
port from other pulp producing countries." The Swedish quo 
tations per ton, f. o. b. Swedish ports, are given as follows: 
Mechanical, wet white, $9.07 to $9.87: mechanical, dry white. 
$20 to $21.33; sulphite, light bleached, $40 to $41.87; sulphite, 
strong bleached, $38 to $39.47; sulphate, light bleached, or.lin- 

(Spec-ial to I'lilp and Paper Magazine). 
Ott;iwa, Feb. 10.— With regard to the Swedish market for 
wood pulp C. 10. Sontum, commercial agent for Canada at 
Cliristi:niia, Norway, in a recent report to the Government, 
writes as follows: 

"The wood pulp market is continuing firm with a rising 
tendency. Any important changes in the prices, however, have 
not taken place since our last report, but some are expected 
in the near future. lu Germany very much is heard about the 
rise in the price of pulp wood, from all countries, which must 
have an influence on the price of wood pulp. The United States 
import is also steadily increasing, which goes to show that the 
large consumption necessitates a forced import from other 
])ulp producing countries."' 

Also the following with regard to the Norwegian trade: 
• ^ At the beginning of the year almost everybody connected 
with the trade was of the opinion that mechanical wood pulp 
wcuild command very high or even exorbitant prices before 
the winter was over. Buyers held back, however, delaying 
purchases as much as possible, and as a consequence the market 
stagnated during January and February. Some five year con- 
tracts were reported in January at unnecessarily low prices; 
buyers were triumphant and hammered the price until prompt 
pulp for deliverv during the year came down to $8.88 ami 
occasionally even less. This slump lasted to the. end of May 
since which time the market has slowly recovered. 

"At the beginning of June, Norwegian mills would not take 
less than $9.06 for prompt, and many of them would not con- 
sider anything below $9.33, at which figures a good deal of 
business was done both for prompt and for delivery over 1913. 
Onrinc August the price hardened to $9.60, and in November 
it came nearer $9.87 net f.o.b. In December the Norwegian 












6 Siemens Vertical Water Wheel Generators, each 8200 H. P. Necaxa Power House Supplied in 1905. 

Wf havi- supplied or i.n urder-for-Canada amongst many others the followin-; Generators ; 

1-4000 K. 
1-2500 K. 
1-2000 K. 
3-2000 K. 
2-1500 K. 
1-1500 K. 

'"t!..', i„i|l 

W. Edmonton 1-800 K. W. Canadian Collieries 

W. Dominion Coal Co. 1-800 K- W. Dominion Coal Co. 

W. Edmonton 2-750 K. W. Medicine Hat 

W. Dawson City 1-750 K. W. Edmonton 

W. Regina 1-750 K. W. N. S. Steel & Coal Co. 

W. Lethbridge 1-700 K. W. Canadian Collieries 

2-500 K. W. Winnipeg 

2-500 K. W. Port Arthur 

2-500 K. W. N. S. Steel & Coal Co. 

2-400 K. W. Regina 

1-400 K- W. Lethbridge 

1-400 K. W. Yorkton 

iii'lirtaki- the i-oni|iIcte cli-ctrical iM|iiipiiH-iil 'it pulp and paper mills, r. 

. wiimIIiji mill- ;ii]il i-liTtiicil plains ol evt-rv .|.srri].ti..ii, uploaii'l in lii.lin: 

-tcci «..rks, n'lliri'.' mills. 

Siemens Company of Canada Limited 















1.-). 191:5 

iirKi't l)cc:nrir iii:i.ti\e jiartly lii'c-;iusi' tlie Baltic shipping 
asoii (■(iiitiniii'.l l(Mij;ci- than cxpectcil, anil at the moment 
; i.nihalily the Ix'st wliii-h may be obtainei.1. 
lii'a\y rains in August a few mills reported 
1 Octulier, hut on the whole water conditions 
ilile tliis year at the Norwegian mills except 
[>ait of the <-oiuitry where there was a pro 
nriiig the early part of the summer. The Nor- 
il pul]i mills have been i-ompelled to pay much 
car for their winter su]iply of logs. 

I|diitc cellulose in Norway ami 
e I'onsumption, including bleached 

$il.(i(l to .tll.S' 
la spite of tl 
water scarcity 
have been fa\ 
in the northi'i 
h.nj:c,l dnnigiit 
wegi.-tn uicrliai 
more tliaa last 

"Tlic production u 
Sweden for expiu-t and 

pulp, has been: Umk;, -Iihi,(iiii) tons; 1907, 588,000; 1908, 623,000; 
1909, .5.58,000; 1910, 7:i4,(lO(); 1911, 764,000; 1912, 900,000. For 
19].'! the jiroduction is estimated at 9.S0,000 tons. 

''The production of sulphate cellulose in the two countries, 
u'hicdi was 171,000 tons in 1911, is estimated at about 185,000 
tons in 1912, and 19:!, 000 for the present year." 


Atercator, of H. 

^fors, descrilics the puli> market 



one-fourth of tl 
well for the in. 

"The pul]] market has little of interest to offer. The United 
States are keei)ing rather reserved, and the volume of orders 
c:ililed has been extremely moderate. The European Continent has 
been more active, and the reports from most countries are tell- 
ing of activity prevailing everywhere. Especially the German 
paper makers are very busy, and have onlers on hand for many 
months to comr. In incc-lianical pulp no change is ipbscr\ablc. 
The buyeis continue to take off their contract (|uantities in a 
very satisfactory manner, and as a consecpience the stocks at 
the ]uil]i mills arc \ cry moderate, being scarcely one-third or 

.■i-e of th. 

a twelvemonth ago. This 
coiisumi)tion of this article 



A decrease of :!,65() tons in stocks of newsprint paper in 
December is shown by the report of the American Paper and 
Pulp Association to the Commissioner of Corporations. Stocks 
at the end of the month were reduced to 39,852 tons, com- 
[lared with 27,640 tons iji HHI. Stocks have steadily declined 
since September. Production for December was 102,118 tons, 
a decrease of 4,597 tons for November. Shipments, 105,728 tons, 
a decrease of 4,073 tons. 

.fohannes Andersen, of J. Andersen & Co., Temple Court 
Building, who recently returned from Europe, says that sul- 
[iliite conditions in Europe were unparalleled. 

" All good grades of sulphites are sold out for this j'ear and 
part of next," said Mr. Andersen. "I found that mills had 
very little pulp to dispose of and for that they were asking 
higher prices than are now being paid. 

"There are no new mills going up but practically all old 
mills are being kejit in oiier.ation. Improvements are being 
made in order to keep pace with ileijreciation and the fact that 
the present output is effective iu keeping down surplus pro- 
duction has acted as a bar to new plants. 

"While traveling through Sweden I passed the Storra 
Kopparbergs mill and later stopped at Falund, where it is. A-s 
you recall, they had a fire there which did quite some damage, 
but reconstian-tion harl jnoceeded so rapidly that I could not 
see much tr.icc of the tire. Work is being pushed on the plant 
and it should be in operation soon." 





Beating and Washing 

Paper Mill Machinery 




Lawrence Centrifugal Pumps 


Pulp and Paper Magazine 


A Semi-Monthly Magazine Devoted to the Science and Practice of the Pulp and Paper Manufacturing 
Industry with an Up-to-date Review of Conditions in the Allied Trades. 

Published by The Industrial and Educational Press, Limited 

•243-4-0. Conti'dcnition Life Building. (Queen St. Entrance), Toronto, Ont., Telephone Main 6377. 
34B, Board of Trade Bldg., Montreal, Que., Telephone Main 2662. 

Editoh. a. C. .McIntvre. b.a.. Assoc. F. Page Wilson 

Published on the 1st and 15th o( each month. Changes in advertisements should be in publishers' hands ten days before date of 
ssue. The editor cordially invites readers to submit articles of practical interest, which, on publication, will be paid for. 

SUBSCRIPTION to any address in Canada, $2.00. — Elsewhere $2.50 (10 Shillings.) Single copies, 20c. 

VOL. XI. TORONTO, MARCH I, 1913 No. 5 

go OB BB go go OB OQ oa QQ go go QQ go go OQ OQ BD BQ gc go go g^ 

Notice of General Meeting 


A number of prominent pulp and paper men will meet for luncheon at 
Room F, King Edward Hotel, Toronto, at 1 P.M. on Saturday, March 8th next, 
for the purpose of discussing the organization of a Pulp and Paper Association 
for the Dominion of Canada, at which your presence is requested. It is 
specially hoped that all branches of the industry will be represented, so that the 
proposed Association shall be as wide in its scope as possible. 

148 PULP AND PAPKR MAGAZINE Marcli 1. 1913 


NEW YORK, FEB. 18, 19, 20 

Last, week was mnrkcil llii'diighout tlic iiiilustry hs 
the convention week ol' the ahovi' Association. 'IMie 
usual keen interest l)y all nianufaetui-ers in these meet- 
ings was even more marked this year, due chiefly to the 
discussion and fears over Canada's inci'casiiii)- shaiv' 
of American business. 

Mr. Arthur C. Hastings, of the Cliff I'apei- Cn., was 
re-elected pi'esideut, and Chas, F, ]\Io(>i-e, editor of 
"Paper,"' secretary. The former gentleman, who has 
often represented the ]iapei- intei'csts liefore eommil- 
tees of Congress, lead the discussion of Canada's 
encroachment iu their ti-adc, and laid oii the table of the 
convention an exhaustive r<'i)ort on tiial li'ade. 'fhis 
report dealt entirely with the cfl'eets of Section 2 of 
the Reeii)roei1y Act, which reads as follows: 

Pulj) of wood meehaiiically ground; l>ulp of 
wood, chemical. Iilcachcd, or uid>leached: news 
print paper, and olhci' papci-, and ]iai)ei' hoard. 
manufactured from mechanical wood pulp or fi'om 
chemical wood pul]>, or of wiiich such ]iul]) is the 
component material of chief value, coloi'ed in the 
pulp, or not coloi'ed, and \alued a1 not nnire than 
four cents per pouinl, not including [)i-in1ed oi- dec- 
orated wall paper, being the products of Canada, 
when imported therefrom directly into the United 
States, shall be admitted free of duty, on the con- 
dition precedent that no export duty, exi>oi't li- 
cense fee, Ol' other expoi't chai'ge of any kind what- 
soever (whether in the form of additional charge 
or license fee or othei'wise), oi- atiy ])i-ohibition or 
restriction in any way of the exportation (whethei- 
by law, ordei-, regulation, contractual i-elation, or 
otherwise, directly o)- indirectly), shall have been 
imposed upon such paper, boai-d, or -wood pul]), oi' 
the wood used ill the niaiuifnctiire of such paper. 
board, or wood |)iilp, or the wood pulp used in the 
manufaetui'c of such papi'r or board, 

III the discussion of this, the author said, in part : 

"So extraordinary and coiii|)licated are many of the 
features of thi' law under which piilpwood, pulp and 
]ia])er are now being brought into the I'nited Slates 
from Canadian territory, that many well-informi^il 
people — among them soim' manufacturers of pulp and 
paper — appear to have more or les-s misapprehension 
in regard to the situation, 

"It will be remembered, the people of Canada — at 
the polls — refused to ratify the international agree- 
ment. We were tlien left in the position of that portion 
of the law wliicli was favorable to Canada being effec- 
tive, while the portion which reipiired Canadian con- 
cession's was li'ft. and is yet, inoperative. The only 
pulpwood which could be purchased and brought into 
the United States by our domestic paper manufactur- 

eis \\as that which might be procured fi'om what is 
known as ' I'reehohl lands." or such lauds as the title 
to \\iiich had liecoiiie vested in individual olders. Cer- 
tainly not niori' than 10 per cent, of the available tim- 
ber is grown on the latter class of lands. 

"It was ne\er ccnitemplated. of course, even by the 
most ardent a(l\-ocates of the liill. that any release of 
ex))ort restrictions would be limited to particular tracts 
of woodland, hut it was naturally presumed that i-elease 
^^•hell made .it mII. would certainly extend to all the 
Crown lands, included at least in oin- of the Canadian 

"To the amazement of ;dl Americans, announcement 
A\as sometime ago made that the exi)ort restrictions had 
heeii renioveil from that ])articulai- timber, the rights 
to which had lieeii granted to the Powell River Com- 
])any, tlii.s being located in IJritish Columbia, 

" Ijater. in the early ji.-irt of January of this year, the 
l'ro\incial Council of :^iiebec announced that it had 
liki'wise removed the ex]>ort restrictions upon the pulp- 
wood grown upon Crown lands in that Province, for- 
merly ceded to four companies manufacturing paper, 
whose mills were located in Quebec, viz.. Laurentide, 
P>elgo-Canadian, Wayagamack and Price Bros., with 
an aggregate producing capacity of about 500 tons 

"The inanifesf and ;ivowed pur])osc of these releases 
is to enable the Canadian manufacturer to send his 
product into the United States free from payment of 
any duty, coiitendiug that the provision of Section 2 
entitles them to such free access, inasmuch as the export 
nstrii-lion no longer exists on the wood used in the 
manufacture of that paper. 

"If the ('aiiadian coiit(>iitioii were to prevail, the 
effect would be to allow all C.-madiaii paper, not ex- 
i-eeding 4c. jiei- lb. valualion, at point of manufacture, 
to come into the United States free of duty: while, at 
the s.ime time, the Amencan manufacturer would not 
lie |»erniited to purchase any pulpwood grown on Crown 
lands: nor is he, under the jireseiit biw, permitted to 
send a jioiuid of i>:i]ier into the Dominion without pay- 
ing a tariff' thereon. 

"Fortunately, the Treasury Department at Washing- 
ton (lid not acquiesce in the Canadian construction of 
our \;i\v. excepting so far as the operations of the 
Powell River Company are concerned. Instructions 
were given to the collectors of customs to continue the 
assessment of duties on pulp and paper made iu Canada 
from Crown lands, released in the manner described 
abo\e. and within the last few days that ruling has 
been ajiproved by tlie President. 

"It is hai'dlj' conceivable that our American authori- 
ties could stand for any such construction of Section 2, 
as is being put upon it by <_'anadian ofticials. But such. 

March 1. 1013 



indeed, is tlic invitiilioii to coiistiiiit iiiternatioiia! mis- 
iinderstaiidiiitr and confusion, tlicro appears to he hut 
one reasonahle and praefieahle way to avoid it, viz., to 
get rid of Sect'oii 2. which. a1 hest, lias not an element 
of reciprocity in it. Inil is altogether favorahle to the 
Canadian manufacturer and greatly to the disadvan- 
tage of the American jjaper industi-y."' 

There is among the American manufacturers, as this 
indicates, a wide-spread feeling of dissatisfaction at the 
results of this Act. Clamours at the doors of Congress 
seem, however, to be of little avail. A member of Con- 
gress addressing the Convention at the Banquet, said. 
■'Set your houses in order." hinting that I'ndcrwood's 
committee have some radical changes in mind. He sug- 
gested that rather shoxild the Amei'icau paper maker 
seek assistance by agitating foi- lower tariffs in the ma- 
chinery, wires, felts, and chemicals used in paper mak- 
ing. Thus we see the manufacturer is in the face of 
keener competition from our modern mills, which he 
must meet liy iiiori' scientific methods in his mill. As 
yet many of our mills although model of equipment 
are gross examples of waste and s((uanderiug of natural 
resources. In this phase, the man to the south of us 
has a decided advantage, for it is much easier to put a 
well established mill on a good basis than one only in 
its infancy. It i.s in this direction that the American 
[)aper maker must .seek his relief. 

There is of course in any civilized country in general 
a sense of fair play which can be relied on to resist 
any extreme, and we cannot think the mills to the 
South will .suffer to the extent they fear. 

Another aspect must be weighed against this. If an 
industry .such as we are discussing extends beyond the 
limits of the raw material or other resources available 
under the incentive of their higher tariffs, develop- 
ment based on such ephemeral conditions, or extended 
l)eyond the warrants of the resources, suffers, and the 
sense of fair play does not always bring relief to such. 

Our Canadian mills in this have an admirable ex- 
ample which yet is not hci'ded, in our beginnings of 
proper development, but which will become more and 
more worthy of consideration as we progress. 

We most sincerely regret the tendency among many 
in the United States to accuse the Quebec Government 
of double dealing in its recent actions. The claim that 
M secret contract was entered into is absolutely false. 
Time, those lands in which restrictions Avere re- 
moved do not export wood, and have no plans to. and it 
is also true this was a consideration with the Goveni- 
ment. No secrecy, however, was made of this. Sir 
Lomcr Gouin only a few days after lifting these restric- 
tions stated in a public address that it was his policy 
to make the Province of Quebec the world's greatest 
news print centre. 

It is not trickery to take advaiitagi- of a chance such 
as wp see in the above Section 2. The clause respecting 
restrictions should never have been in the reeiproi'ity 
agri'cnicitt. It was a joker and an attempt to exploit 
Canada by the interests now* so hard pressed. If the 

framers of that clause made a slip in neglecting to 
state specific areas, such as one province, over which 
the restrictions .should be raised, they cannot blame 
us in taking advantage and jirofiting by their own 
attempt to exploit us. 

The same men, who attempted to meet out .such 
treatment to our resources, relying on the ability to 
bring pressure on our local governments now cry out 
and dub Canada as a trickster, in putting herself in a 
position, by open and fair means, to profit by the 
American statue. True we are keen on selling our print 
across the line, but the price of squandering our raw 
material in .such a lavish way. to build up the indus- 
tries of othere. is too high. 

One upshot of the convention seems to have had a 
marked effect, that is the realization of the need in 
Canada of a similar jiulp and paper convention. Haste 
the day when we shall have such an organization. 


Conservation of forest resources is all-iuiportaiit. 
whether it be in the form of regiilations against wa.ste- 
ful cutting, or restrictions against the exportation of 
Canadian raw material for builduig up of foreign in- 
dustries. But the form of conservation which is most 
important of all is a proper and sufficient degree of 
protection against fire, which may easily do more dam- 
age in a day or two than other kinds of waste in a year. 
The average value of the first products of Canadian 
forests probably approaches -$100,000,000 annual l.v. but 
one or two l)ad fires in a dry season can run this r 'cord 
fairly close. And the direct pecuniary loss involvd 
in the loss of a few square miles of tin.ber i> iiol the 
only injury to the community. Soil is burned up and 
rainfall is aft'ected, meaning future agricultural im- 
poverishment; water powers are rendered irregular in 
flow, meaning serious loss to manufacturers. 

It is not to be wondered at. therefore, that in prac- 
tically every part of Canada and of the Ignited States, 
public and Government interest is being taken in the 
(luestion of better protection of the forests against fire. 
This interest is not yet so absorbing as it should be in 
view of the enormous sta^Jces involved — ultimately per- 
haps the future of the country — but it is gratifying to 
see how yearly stronger it becomes. 

As an illustration, the Ontario (ii)\ciiiment is intro- 
ducing more stringent regulations in the form of an 
"Act to Preserve the Forests from Destruction by 
Fire."' I'lider this, any part of Ontario may. by procla- 
mation of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council be pro- 
claimed as a "fire district" between the confines of 
which fires must not be started during certain periods, 
except for certain cleai-ly specified purposes. In case 
ol' making land clearings, or in cooking, etc.. rules are 
laid down of a precautionary charactei-. The responsi- 
bility of the railroads is recognized and spark-preven- 
tive appliances ordered. Penalties are of course i)ro- 



March 1. 1913 

vided agaiust the neglect of the rules laid down. 
Where Crown lands are under license, the Government 
map appoint such number of fire rangers as may be 
deemed necessary, the expense to be apportioned be- 
tween public money and the holders of such timber 

T'nder all forms of protfction agninst tire the chief 
difficulty unfortunately consists not in making tlie 
regulations, but in seeing that they arc carried out. It 
is easier to impose a penalty than to enforce its ]iay- 
ment. For this, public ignorance and thoughtlessness 
are largely to l)lame. P^ducation of the masses of the 
people, and particularly of the people Avho live in or 
pass through wooded districts is the only hope. It is 
gratifying to note that slowly, but surely, this desir- 
able end is being attained. 

To illustrate this point, the experience may be given 
of Massachusetts, one of the States most active in the 
protection of its woodlands against fire by rangers. A 
good system of rangers and of lookout .stations is em- 
ployed, but a large part of the benefit accruing from 
the sj'stem has come through the co-operation of the 
general public as explained by ^Iiv 8. N. Spring, the 
State Warden, as follows : 

"The etficieney of the service has depended largely- 
upon the public spirit of the town fire wardens who 
have been appointed for this work, and faithfulness in 
carrying out their duties. In some towns lack of in- 
terest and supiiort by the ]iublic have seriously im- 
paired results. 

"No one can to-day (juestion the value of systematic 
fire protection work as carried out during the seven 
years following its inauguration in this State. With 
an expenditure of less than a cent an acre per year an 
immense amount of valuable woodland has been saved 
from destruction. Greater co-operation by the public 
is. however, necessary to secure better results in each 
town, both in fighting fires and in getting at the causes 
to prevent their occurrence. 

The public is responsible for over two-thinls ot' (iiir 
fires, chiefly through carelessness and negligence. 
livery citizen should know the laws and should use his 
influence with others to bring about their enforcement. 
Cai-efulness and obedience to law on the part of each 
individual citizen, especially in dry seasons, will re- 
duce the number of fires to a minimum. Promjjt co- 
operation and a.ssistance by the public when fires occur 
will prevent any great areas being burned over with 
large accompanying losses." 


It is evident that more attention must be given in 
the future to maintaining sufficient supplies of ma- 
terials to meet the legitimate demands of the paper- 
making industry. This is an agricultural and economic 
problem which may be met in several different ways, 
the essential consideration being that it be solved to 
the greatest advantage of the country at large. It is 

customary to suggest that other materials than those 
now generally employed must be iised. and particularly 
that some new material or process must be di.scovered 
or that a crop must be especially grown for the pur- 
pose. There are. however, a number of ways in which 
the materials now best known may be made to satisfy 
still greater demands, some of the more important of 
which may properly be discussed here. i 

Thus, five ton.s of waste textiles would make four tons 
of the strongest, most durable paper. There is a suf- 
ficient quantity of waste textiles to supply all demands 
for fine paper for years to come, and probably such 
papers will continue to be made from these matej'ials, 
as no others which can ct>mpete with rags in cost are 
now known. 

Fully 80 pel- i-ent. of the paper now niade annually 
in this counti\- becomes waste material in three or four 
years. Of this, about 25 per cent is again used in the 
form of new paper cuttings and trimmings and old 
paper for making new. 

A more general appreciation, particularly among the 
country people, of the market value of rags, old rope, 
and waste paper of all kinds would increase largely 
the supply of paper stocK and add considerably to the 
income of the people. 

One of the most striking jioiuts brought out is that 
the ([uality of any class is seldom as good as the ma- 
terials and the technical skill of the maker can produce. 
The several processes of paper making frequently are 
not conducted in such a way as to produce the strong- 
est, most durable, and best appearing papers of a given 
kind. This is particularly true of papers which should 
have strength or durability, many of which are over- 
loaded with clay, which weakens them, or are not pro- 
perly beaten and run to give them good formation and 
the maximum strength of the material. This is found 
especially in wrapping papers and boards whose value 
for practical purposes depends on their strength and 

All classes of paper now made are almost invariably 
needlessly heavy and thick. The purpose for which 
paper is employed, whether it be for printing, writing 
or wrapping, can be as well accomplished in nearly all 
cases, both from the utilitarian and the aesthetic point 
of view, by lighter and thinner paper. The strength 
and quality are improved at the same time, and the con- 
sumption of paper reduced thereby from 15 to 50 per 
cent. Thus the employment of 60 and 80 pound book 
papers, or even of 50-pound paper, is a totally unjusti- 
fied waste in most cases, as every purpose can be accom- 
plished by 30 and 40 pound papers. Much lighter and 
thinner writing and wrapping papers can be empio.ved 
in the vast majority of cases with quite as satisfactory 
results as are obtained from papers that weigh SO. 100 
and 120 pounds per ream. 

It has frequently been suggested that materials be 
produced for paper making just as any other farm crop 
is grown, and it is worth while to inquire into the 
necessitv for doing this. 

March 1, 1913 



No eonsidcratiou is given here to the large quanti- 
ties of marsh and other wild grasses, of bagasse, and 
eorn and cotton stalks, which are also available, but 
iii)f :is desirable technically as those mentioned, nor to 
the bast fibre of Malbon and other bast fibres which 
occur in large quantities. While it is true that not all 
of the above-mentioned materials could be acqiiired for 
pajier making, owing, for example, to their greater 
value to those who produce them for other purposes, 
it is evident that there is no danger of the immediate 
exhaustion of such raw materials even on the pri'sent 
basis of production of paper. 

The industrial conditions that have made wood the 
chief raw material will undoubtedly continue to en- 
courage its extensive use for many years, so that the 
price of wood will largely fix the price of any compet- 
ing material. 


The utilization of mill and forest waste, \\\{h the 
present methods of removing bark, rotten wood, and 
knots, for making any but low-grade colored papers oi- 
lioards seems inpraeticable. If all suitable material 
is used, as it should be, for nmking laths and other 
small articles, the waste from a inill would be too small 
both in size and quantity to be profitably handled as a 
paper material. There are, however, large quantities 
of wood left in the forest which is of sufficient size to 
be used advantageously by the methods now in vogue. 
While it is impossible to give an accurate estimate of 
the material thus available, it is probably safe to say 
that fully 25 per cent, of the tree which has been cut 
for lumber is still available for paper making and, 
when properly graded, ofi'ers no particular difficulty 
in treatment at the mill. 

Straws and other grasses too, contain compound cel- 
luloses which exist both in the form of fibre and of 
nontibrous cellular material, and yield from 30 to 50 
per cent, of white paper. These substances are likely 
to contain much dirt, collected from the ground, which 
is difficult to remove ; if any remains, it inei-eases the 
cost of treatment and mars the quality of the paper. 
Cereal straws were generally employed for the cheaper 
pai)ers before wood was used, and even now are used 
extensively for making papers and board. As has been 
said, the cost of making a good quality of paper from 
these materials, under ordinary conditions in this coun- 
try, is greater than from wood, but they are suitable 
tor iiuiking cheap wrapping papers and boards when 
the proximity of the mills to the raw inaterial and in- 
creased yield compensate for somewhat greater origi- 
nal cost of raw material or greater cost of treatment. 

In Canada many acres of flax are grown annually, 
practically all for the seed, while the straw is allowed 
to rot or is burned in the fields. One ton of this straw 
will yield about 400 pounds of fibre. Small quantities 
of straw are now being delivered to the tow mills at 
''rom $2.50 to $3.00 j)er ton. and doubtless practically 

all of it can be secured at $5.00 or $6.00 per ton. As the 
fibre is one of the best paper-making materials, it is, 
even at the highest mentioned price, a cheaper raw ma- 
terial for strong wrapping paper than old manila and 
hemp rope, and if it can be obtained free of the seed, 
which when present produce grease spots in the paper, 
the fibre will command even a higher price for fine 
white paper. Commercially, the presence of seed has 
been a difficulty in the utilization of the fibre for fine 

The cheapest known raw matei'ial for medium-grade 
paper which can be obtained in large quantities is wood. 
It is highly important to practise conservative methods 
in its use. Therefore, the great quantity of waste from 
the lumber industry should be utilized for paper mak- 
ing wherever possible. It is probable that such "new" 
materials are the cheapest available. 

There are large quantities of cultivated and wild 
straws and grasses and of flax fibre available which can 
be u.sed for paper making. Economic agricultural con- 
siderations indicate that the cultivated straws should 
only be thus employed when the woods and textile and 
paper wastes can no longer supply the demand or are 
too costly. Flax fibre, when it can not be put to more 
important uses, should be employed in paper making. 

Finally, when all of these supplies are no longer ade- 
quate and when economic conditions are such as to jus- 
tify such innovations, there are suitable quick-growing 
matei'ials which may be produced primarily foi- paper 


The latest contribution to cellulose eiiemistry by 
-Messrs. Cross & Uevan, the well-known chemists and 
writers of London, has just come out undei' the above 

It deals with their work in cellulose 1905-1910 as 
their two former volumes, 1895-1900 and 1900-1905. 
undei' the names of Researches in Cellulose I. and II. 

Not only does it give the results of their investiga- 
tions, but also a pei'soual and inipi-essionistie view of 
the progress in the research field of cellulose for that 
period. The progress made in this field has been very 
marked, due to the application of physical methods to 
the investigation of cellulose, its derivatives, and its 
analogues of the colloidal carbohydrates. 

The following contents give an idea of the value of 
the work : 

General Review — Cellulose in Relation 1o Biological 

Cellulose — Normal ( 'ellulose — Constitution. 

Cellulose Estei's — Acetate and ('om])arative Studies 
of Acetylation — Formyl Derivatives — Xanthogenic Es- 

Ligno — Celluloses — Reactions with Halogens — Con- 
stitution — Study of Autoxidation. 

Technical Developments — Textile huhistries: Bleach- 
ing — Paper making — • Commercial Jute and "Heart 
Damage" — Special Industries — Artificial Fibres — Film 
Products — Applications of Cellulose Acetates. 

Longmans, Green & Co.. 39 Paternostei- Row. Lon- 
ilon, 1912. Price 7s. 6d. net. 


i'I'IjP and paper magazine 

March 1. 1913 


Hy (;,M,i-jiv F. llanly. 
!S|pcciiil til I'lilji iinil Pa]HT ifasazii 

The compl.'tc new pull) ''"'^ paper i)huit of the Lake 
Superior Paper Company. J^iiiiited. situated at Sault 
Ste Marie, Out., Canada, is said to be one of the most 
inodei'n and thoroughly equipped plant.s of its kind in 
operation to-diy. The plant is loeated on the north 
side of the Falls of the SL Mary"s Kivrr. just noi-th nf 
the Canadian loi-k. 'i'he liuildins' walls are of nativr 
red sand stiine, excepting n fevi" walls iiu'isihh' from 
the main thoi'oughfares of tiie lown. wliirh are of 
lii-iek. The flours ai'e praetieall\ all of ennei-i'te ex- 

eleetrie motors. The cui-rent is of two kinds, alter- 
nating current, three phase, 2,200 volts for the larger 
motors and direct current, 500 volts for the smaller 
motors. The steam power plant consists of eight 500 
h. p. Habcock & Wilcox boilers, imported fi'om Eng- 
land, with automatic stokers. 

Machine Room. 

in tin 

fiiur high-speed Four- 

diiider news machines. No. 1 and No. 2 machines are 


Paper Co. 

cepting the finishing room, and the roofs throughout 
are of plank on steel trusses, excepting the boiler house 
and train shed roofs. Miiich are of concrete. 


Thi' water piiwer for pulp grinding is sui)i)lied liy 
the li;ike Su|)erinr Power Comiiany througb a canal 
aliout 2.400 feet linig. whieh carries the water right 
up to the w.itei- wheels. It amounts to about 12.000 
h. p. under PS foot liead. Electi'ic power is also sup- 
l>lied by the Ijake Superior Power Company amounting 
to 4,000 h. ]). All of the machinery in the mill, ex- 
cepting the gi-indei-s and papei- machines, is driven l)y 

156 in. wide, made and in-stalled by the Black-Clawson 
Company of Hamilton. Ohio. No. 3 and No 4 ma- 
chines. 198 in. a!id 186 in., respectively, were made 
and installed !iy the ]*\isey & Jones Company of Wil- 
mington. Del. Each machine is driven by a Hamilton- 
Corliss twin engine. Large hand-operated ei-iines. 
made by the Dominion Bridge Company of Montreal. 
Canada, are over the machines for making repairs 
(juickly. Tlie diaphragm screens were furnished by 
the Sandy Hill Iron & Brass Works; the triplex stock 
and suction pumps for wires and felts l)y the Coulds 
Mainifacturing Company: the roll grinder and paper 
machine calendei-s bv the Farrel F'oundrv and ^lachiue 

.Ahii-eh 1. 1913 



Company, and ini.scpUaneoii.s eeiitrifugal stock and 
water piinips hy the Lawrence Pump & Engine Com- 

The finishing room i.s a building 270 feet by 126 feet, 
which gives an ample floor space for finishing and 
storing the ]>ai)er. This room is well lighted by win- 
dows and skylights. 

hi the beater room the Jordan engines are made — 
two by the Blaek-Clawson Company and two I)y E. D. 
Jones & Sons Company. They are all driven by direct 
connected motors. The beaters, as w-ell as all stuff 
chest agitators, were furnished by E. D. Jones & Sons 
Co.. of Pittsfield. ;\Iass. In this room also are the 
gi-ouud wood centrifugal sciecns. sup]>lied by Wat- 
erons Engine Works Co.. of Pirantfoi'd. Out.: also the 

The sulphite mill was built some ten or twelve years 
ago by the Sault Ste ilarie Pulp & Paper Company, 
but in connection with the new paper mill it has been 
entirely overhauled and the wet machine and screen 
rooms practically rebuilt, as the walls are the only 
remaining parts of the original buildings. The pulp 
is rough, screened by Baker & Shevlin Co.. knotters. 
and properly screened by vertical centrifugal screens 
built by the Baker & Shevlin Company. 

Arrangements are made for handling logs directly 
from ears to a seven-saw slasliei- in the wood room, or 
from the lake to the seven-saw slasher located nearly 
half a mile west of the plant. Between the plant and 
the slashei- Iniilding is an ample space for storing pulp 
wood blocks. Blocks are conveyed from the slasher 

DRY-END P.\PER .M.ACHI.NES. Lake Superior Paper Co. 

ten ground wood deckers, with cylindei- molds -40 in. x 
!'6 in., four pneumatic save-alls. and four pneumatic 
sulphite thickeners, which thicken pulp for the Iteaters. 
doing away with taking same off from the wet ma- 
ehines in Uipn; all in battery form, having one common 
supply and drive for each machine, built by the Sher- 
(•rooke ^Machinery Co.. Sherbrooke. Que. 

Grinding Room. 

'I'hi' gi-inder room has twenty-four grinders with 
stone 54 in x 27 in., manufactured by the Jeiicks 
^lachine Company. These are arranged in pairs, each 
pair direct connected to a five-wheel turbine unit. 
Kaeh of these units is rated at 1.000 h. p.. and they 
were all furnished and installed by the Dayton Globe 
(.V: Iron Works Co.. of Davton. Ohio. 

building to the wood room in a water trough and 
eciuipment has been installed for piling barked blocks 
by an inclined steel stinicture sui>poi-ting a eonve.vor. 
The block jiilei- and slashers were l)uilt by the Water- 
ous Engine Works Company, of Brantford. Ont.. and 
in the barker room half of th? barkers were furnished 
by the Green Bay Barker Co.. of Green Bay. Wisconsin, 
and the rest by the Witham Company, of Iloosick 
Falls. X.V. The chippers and ei'ushei's were nuide by 
the Carthage Jlachine Com])any. of Carthage. X.V. 
Th;' shaking chip screen by Kyther & Pringle Co.. of 
Carthage. N.Y. 

The 108 in. paper machine is tiu- widest in the world 
now i-unning and the F'ourdrinier wii'e for it was made 
by the Lindsay Wire Weaving Comi)any. of Colling- 
wood Station, Ohio. 



March 1. ]!ii:5 

The ground MOod mill Iims a <lail\- capacitx' of IfiO 
tons; the sulpliik' l>ul|i mill a daily capacity ol' TH tons 
and the papei- iTiill, which will hii'gely consume tin 
products of the pulji niills, has a ca]iacity of "Jdd icnis 
or ncwsjiaper jicr day. 

The 11. E. Talhott Company, of Dayton, Ohio, was 
the general eontracfoi-, .ind in addition to Imilding the 
plant, it also erected all ot the piping and clcctiic wir- 
ing for lights and juiwcr ihronghout Ih.' milU. Achial 

plant was reniarkalil\- short. The huildings were all 
completed whi-n the first two machines were started. 
The remaining two machines were started, one just 
liefore anrl the othej- immediately after the first of 
• lannai'y. 11)1^!. 

.Ml-, (ieorge F. Hardy, of :M)'.\ Hroa<lway. New York 
(ity, was the designing engineer and Mr. Howard H. 
Taylor, his i-epresentative. was the resident engineer 
in clinrge of thi' eoiistruetion ami eiiuijinu-nt of the 

FINISHING ROOM. Lake Superior Paper Co. 

construction was comnu'uccd aliout August 1. lUll. 
and the first two machines were started up in the last 
week of -Tune. 1912. 

Taking into consideration the size of the mills and 
the gerat anmunl of work done in i-emod.'lling the 
grinder room, the time (Mnisumed in (he ei'ection of this 

mill. The {'resident (d' the Cumpany is Mr. H. E. Tal- 
bot and the Vice-l'i-esidi-nt and (.ieneral Manager is 
,Mr. (ieorge H. Mead. 

it is estimated that the net protit on the ycai-"s out- 
put will amount to over $700,000, \vhich is sufficient 
to meet the interest on the 6 i>er cent, bonds of the 
company two ami a half tinu's. 


Creases are made in paper dniiiiu' mannfaetui-e if it 

is stretched insufficiently or u pially o\-ei' the \\idth 

of web, betweeji two machine pails, oi- when it itself is 
not of uniform thickness. All <'reases begin, as regards 
the direction in which the web ti-.ivels. inwardly, and 
run towards the edge's. Hence ei-eases caused by the 
calender must cross those made in the Foui-drinier. pro- 
vided that the paper is not rolled np Itetween the 
Fourdrinier and the calender. Ci-eases fi-om the couch- 
roll appear in the look-through as dark. obli(jue stripes. 
The felt may cause creases by pressing more at the 
middle than at the edges. The remedies are obviously 
the removal of the causes. One cause of ci-eases has 
yet to be mentioned. A new wet press felt, or an old 
one which has been I'emoved and replaced inside out. 
often encloses air betwei-n itself ami the web. whereby 
a blister is formed, and c!'e.ises are the n;ilural i-esult. 
If the felt is thoroughlv soakeii ami pi-cssed before use. 

this difficulty will disap|iear, whether it is a new one 
about to be i)nt on. or an old one which has been 
turned. Folds parallel to the I'un of the web. whether 
at the edges or in the ituddle. ai'e generally due to ex- 
cessive or deficient tension, or by the accunnil.ition of 
diit on the middle of the guiding rollers. They can 
Usually be i-emedied by running strips of paper laid on 
the etlges of the web, so that they accompany the web 
through the dry-end cylinders. Drying creases pro- 
ceed mostly fi-om differences in the amount of moisture 
in different parts of the web. It is necessary to see that 
the web touches the cylinders throughout before it is 
covered with the dr\ing felt. In calendering, if the 
roller.s are as they should be, and the puH on the paper 
is steady and free from jei'ks, any ci'eases formed must 
be referi'cd to unlevid di\ving. In drying pai)er. tin- 
edges lieing lU'arest the outer air tend to dry more 
(piicKly than tlie middle of the wei). and this tendency 
must be |)rovided for — "Verciu der Zellstoff-u Papier- 
Cheniiker." ' 

M:in-li 1. 10i:i 





Hel'oi'i' I coiilimii' luy ni'tifle of the l.'jih of 
.hiiuuiiy. I lieg to coiTect the followiug errors oe- 
eui'i'd in pi'inting. Read: Ecouoinizers. The flue leave the hoih'r with 230 to 300 degrees 
('. and 200 degrees of this heat can be recover- 
ed, etc., then later on !)0° — 30°=60° also as regards to 
example on the calculation of "efficiency of boiler 
plants," C^calories of the eoal^TlOO in our case; and 
the saturated steam re(iuires 624.6 calories, the super- 
heated 688 ealoi'ies. It can be easily noted how little 
iieat will be us,(l. to ireiirraN- liiirb giMile steam and 
how much jirotit can lie olitaiih'i] by i;s use. 

Softening and Filtration of Boiler Feed Water. 

Though many manufacturing plants have no little 
difficulty in sizing the paper and with scale in the boiler 
only very little attention is paid to this important 
arrangement. plants are fed with water. .<imply cleaned by 
means of a sieving device, plane oi- i-otary. only the 
floating impurities being screened out. 

Where the river water is clean, and only a small 
ratio of organic mafcter is suspended in it. it may not be 
absolutely necessary to clean and pi-epaiv the water, 
depending on the needs. 

I have been connected with' a pajter mill where 45 
tons of writing paper were produced i)er 24 hours, 
and if precautions had not been taken to lietter the 
water, the mill would have been forced to shut down 
on account of the impossibility of equal sizing. The 
only trouble were the organic nuitters, contained in the 
water, not reckoned as iron and hardness. 

The river water, in washing out banks centuries old 
of decayed sut)stances. etc.. absorbs considerable quan- 
tities of them. Water is not fitted for raising steam 
when it contains more than five parts per 100,000 of 
free nitric or sulphuric acid, causing corrosions in the 
whole steamline. and corrections. There should not be 
m<u-e than 75 to 85 parts of total solid residue per 100.- 
000. The water should also be tested for iron, chlorine 
and lime. 

The adding of substances directly to the feed water 
to prevent .scale should be avoided, because there is 
absolutely no control of the quantity of chemicals cm- 
I)loyed. or the proportions. There are a lot of "secret'" 
additions to the feedwater largely in use, where there 
is no need of a systenuitic chemical control. The chem- 
ist is to the paper mill material what the engineer is 
to the machinery — a surgeon, and in order to save a 
couple of thousand dollars, employing no chemist, the 
plant runs loss, or is ruined in a few years. 

Many firemen are proud of their ".secret" of adding 
<-hildishly all kinds of substances to the feed water or 
dii-ectly into the boiler. Of course the scale disappears 
liut the shells get coi'roded whei-e the watei- is cir- 
culating i-apidly and many lei-riblc ex]ilosions have 
occuri-ed through this "scientitic " method of water 

The wi-itei- recently found as engineer in charge of a 
10.000 horse power steam plant, corrosions in a com- 
liined boiler system. The watei- was cai'efully analyzed 
twice daily, k'ei'iiing only a very thin film of scale, in 
order not to do too nnu'h. All impurities were blown 
off and the water before entering the boilers was filter 
ed and softened in saiul Alters. This boiler type had 

other faults, causing the corrosions, but the writer 
found that events may happen in every mill, and if 
there is no careful inspection serious accidents and 
inspected, inside and outside, before and after clean- 
ing. Of course there is no clean .job. Let us return 
to the pui-ification of the water, and study the methods. 

If water is to be used for the manufacture of ground 
wood pidp a simple sieving device may be sufficient, 
loss of money may occur. Boilers should be regularly 
I say may be. very often it is not. and the l)uyers of 
ground wood pulp complain that the pulp gets a green 
and blue, smelling coating. Here the water has to be 
chemically cleaned. Water used in the manufacture of 
writing and medium printing papei's. requiring a suit- 
able tub .sizing which doesn't contain large quantities 
of magnesia, lime, iron, chlorine, it has to be cleaned 
chemically also. 

The writer will deal later in a special article with 
the sizing of paper, when he will consider the minimum 
quantities of sulphate of alumina, the minimum quau- 


Lime or soda te b, 
I \bo'ileJ here. 

titles of rosin in connection with casein, with hard and 
soft water. The most modei-u way of purifying water 
containing large ((uantities of organic matters, iron 
and magnesia, for feed water as well manufacturing 
water is^the following, for 20 years in operation in a 
paper mill. 

Pnqiare in a lead lined wooden tank (similar in con- 
struction to till' causticisiug tanks in s\ilphate mills'! a 
solution of warm water and sulphate of alumina, adding 
eventually if the organic matters ai-e too many, hydi-o- 
chloric acid (in a ratio of 50 lbs. per 10 tons ordinary 
paper). Pump this solution to the gale where the 
water flows in a long excavated l)asin (without any lin- 
ing, allowing the water to flow with a velocity as sm ill 
as (lossible. 

Most of the organic matters in here settle down 
and this settling down can be noticed on a very sunny 



.March 1. 1013 

(lay. Till' hasiii may l)P 15 to 25 fi'et deep. 70 
to 100 yards lonji-. hy l'5 yards wide — sufficient 
for 50 tons daily output of paper. It has to 
be cleaned every year and pumped out before the 
cleaning with a pulsonieter. The water then passes 
through a wooden gate and is filtered by means of 
I'otary cyliuiler filters. They are provided with chamb- 
ers, foi'med by sieves, tilled with gravel, coarse and 
fine sand respectively. The water, after passing this 
filter is allowed to flow to a basin, the reseiwoir of the 
mill. This water, if properly cleaned, and if its clean- 
ing is controlled by a chemist or a workman trained by 
a chemist, is absolutely fitted for the manufacture of 
writing paper and secures the smallest waste of load- 
ing material and consum])tion of rosin, starch, etc. But 
this water is not lifted right away to scrvr foi' boiler 
purposes. It has lost iron and its organic matters. 
l)ut it may contain enough magnesia and linu' to cause 
scale and corrosion, the latter on account of the acids 
with which it has been purified. 

Every modern steam plant uses the condensed water 
of the paper and pulp dryers, as well as tubular feed 
water heaters (about which we will speak later on). 
The quantities of hot watei' reclaimed in this way are 
considerable. Let this Avater p;iss with a temperature 
of 90°C.. through a suitable oil separator, then the 
economizer, and mix the hot water having about 
a temperature of r25°(". with the additional cold water, 
and clean this mixture hy means of soda or soda and 
lime. Soda or soda and lime have to be boiled with 
steam and added in continuously flawing quantities tn 
he determined by Clark's soap test. The cleaning of 
the water is olitained by means of a vertii'al cylindei- 
with a cone shape bottom, and provided with a saud 
filter. The mixture of linu^ and soda or soda respec- 
tively has to be boiled about every two days, taking one- 
half hour, and the small sand filter has to be shut 
down and washed twice or three times a week by mean< 
of steam. 

The illusti-ation ex])lains this system. Water is al- 
lowed to flow fi-om the cleaner into the reservoir of the 
boiler plant, note that hot water has to flow under 
pressure into the pumps. Feed Avater piping for boiler 
plants ought to l)e designed as endless ring system and 
is to be made From copper pipes. If the water cleaner 
is controlled twice a day the scale is not only eliminated. 


but every ecid, etc.. is neutralized, and 
secured to the boiler plant. 

The ratio of heat ti'nnsmission of a seah= covered i)late 
to a clean one is 

T' K 1 


1 + d X K 


T'^amount of heat transmitted thriuigh a sealed plate. 
T^^amount of heat transmitted through a clean ]ilate. 
d^thickness of scale in meters, say 0.00:!. 
L=heat conduction co-efficient of scale. 
K:^co-effieii'nt of heiif convection say 20. 
rpi -| 

— = = 94';^ . 

T 1 + 0.003 X 20 

That means, a ])late covered with only a .scale of 15 
mm. thickness transmits 94'/! of the heat of a clean 
plate. The other 6'^; is swallowed by the coat and lost. 
If coal consumption is say 50 tons daily, three tons. 

ecpial to 6' ( are ahsorbeil by the scale. The coal costs, 
say .1;3.00 per ton f.o.b. mill", then you 3X3X300= 
+'2.700.00 a year on account of scale. 

The co-efficient K in our example is extremely low, 
and depentls on the velocity of the circulating water in 
the boilers. K is higher in water tub boilers than in 
the common type, 
for K=50 

T' 1 

— = = 87%. 

T 1 + 0.003 X 50 


loss 13 ]ier cent. 

The above mentioned water purification for manu- 
facturing water as well as for feed water is of highest 
value and most profitable, where all the white water and 
save all water isused again and again in the manu- 
facture, and where all the condensed water, etc.. is re- 

Considering the fact that only a small amount of heat 
contained in the coal is converted into power, we will 
study further the ways more waste heat may be re- 
claimed in 

Tubular Feed Water Heaters. 

These tubular feedwater heaters are to be supplied 
with steam from the steam pumps in the boiler house, 
and are also to be used in a successful way in placing 
them in the steandine between condenser and low pres.s- 
ure cylinder. 

They are also successfully used in utilizing the ex- 
haust steam heat of steam turbines and are placed be- 
tween turbines and condensers. The feed water of the 
boilers, entering the feed water heaters w-itli 30 degrees 
(". is raised to 85 to 90 degrees C. Example: 

Exhaust steam pressure, say 3kg absolute, equal to 
about 30 lbs. gauge pressure, according to 132.8 degrees 
( '. temperature. 

Drop of temperatui'e 10'/; . Steam enters the heater 
with T^119.5 degree C., Temperature of water enter- 
ing the heater T.,=say 15 degrees C, and has to be raised 
to 80 degrees C' Ta—te— 85— 15=70 degrees C. 

The steam leaves the heater with say T^.^90 degrees 
('. : co-efficient of conversion is say 800. 

The steam pressure of the boiler plant is saj^ 12 at- 
mospheres equal to about 180 lbs. gauge pressure. 

To develop 1 kg of steam of 180 lbs. gauge pressure 
from 1 kg of feedAvater of 15 degrees C.=649.6 calories 
are required and the sa\-ing of the feedwater heater 
amounts to 

E = 70 N 100 = 13.9'/r of coal. 


(To l)e Concluded) 


"The Chicago newspapers in their annual trade re- 
view issues helped along the News Print mills consider- 
ably. " remarked a mill man. "The Tribune and the 
Record-Herald ran 60 pages — that is. 20' extra carloads 
— and I believe the Examiner and the Inter-Ocean (all 
morning issues) did the same, making a total of 40 
extra carloads. Add to this the morning issues of the 
German and other foreign language publications an<l 
those of the afternoon papers, and 1 figure the total will 
i-eaeh 90 extra carloads of News Print." 

Mnivh 1. 1013 




Tiy Raleigh Raines. 

Spofial to I'iil|p iiiiil Pa|ior Magazii: 

The papers ciiiplnx cil hy Ihc (■(immoii people ot'-Fapati 
are iinmeasuralily iiini'e varied thau with us. They 
form one of the iiiiiioiiant eeonomies in the life of the 
peasant, and it is sueh iugenit)iis uses of plant material 
as this employment of papers made from the bark of a 
shrub that renders it possible foi- 4'.2. 000.000 .Japanese 
to exist on liie pi-oiUietion of a eiUtivated area about 
one-third the size of the. State of Illinois. We ai'e in- 
debted to the Japanese for many innovations, such as 
paper napkins, umbrellas, and lanterns, whieh has 
taught us new uses for paper, though the elssou has not 
yet been fully learned. There are many uses to which 
pai>er is made to serve the daily life of the Japanese, 
but perhaps the most remarkable of all the ]>apers which 
tind a eonun<ui use in the Japanese household are the 
leather papers of which tobacco pouches and pipe ease^s 
are made, though there are many other uses to whieh 
this unicjue paper is made to ser\-e. The leather papers 
Mi'e almost as tough as French kid. so ti'.inslucent that 
one can nearly see through them, and as pliable and 
soft as calfskin. These tobacco pouches quite change 
one's notions of the characteristics of paper, for the 
material of which they are made is as thick as card- 
board, but at the same time as flexible as kid. Even 
woven fabrics, of whieh the warp is paper and the woof 
cotton, are manufactured, and these find a place in the 
Japenese household, while the use of paper napkins, 
and handkerchiefs, umbrellas, and lanterns, is as much 
a part of the home life in Japan as the use of tin ar- 
ticles is in other counti-ies. The country is rich in the 
possession of tliese conveniences, any one of which 
would be an addition to the comfort of a European 
peasant or an American farmer. But the reason for 
•■he remarkable use of paper articles does not lie wholly 
in the absence of cheap skins, though it is true that few 
doeieslieated leather producing animals exist in Japan. 
It IS the (juality of the papers themselves which makes 
them suitable to tliese various purposes, wherein they 
ditfei' fron. the papers made of wood fibres instead of 
bast. In strong contrast with the papers of the Occi- 
dent, are these bast papers, which are made from the 
inner bark of shrubs or small trees, while the pajters of 
iMii-ope and America are either from wood pulp, the 
macerated stems of wild grasses, or the cotton and linen 
r;:gs of the refuse heap. After we have learned the 
source from which the linen and cotton rags are ob- 
tained it may not be a very pleasant thought to know 
that the brilliant white writing paper which your hand 
rests upon may have been contaminated with all the 
germs fi-om some person whose garment it was before 
it pa.ssed through all of the stages of decay until it 
was saved by a ragpickei' i;ei-li,i]is fnnn the gutter of 
some Egyptian town, for it is a fact that large quan- 
tities of rags are impoi-ted every year from Egypt and 
other foreign countries. Oui- best papers are made 
from these rags, and the cheaper papers from wood 
pulp. The best papers are therefore a creation of the 
Orient and are more nearly i-elated to the Sotith Sea 
Island tapa than to any i<\' dwv products. To the fact 
that they arc nnulc from hark they owe their peculiar 
eliaraefer, and ,irr as a rule softer, silkier, tougher, and 
lighter than oui' p.ipei's. If wet they lose their sti'cngth. 
like tissue ])api'r. but on drying regain it. They are 
usually absorbent, and for Ibis reason were considei'ed 
as very vahiable in suigeiy. As writing papei's they 

are usually designed for brush work, and as a rule are 
not suited for penwork unless treated with a dressing 
of alum, as otherwise the fibres are continually being 
caught in the pen. Of the nine plants from which Ja- 
panese papers are made, there are two whieh furnish 
the majority of the fibres from which the remarkable 
leather papers are manufactured. One is the broussone- 
tia or paper mulberry, and the other, edgeworthia 
papyrifera, the latter furnishing the pulp for the mit- 
sumata paper, of which large quantities are exported 
to America and European countries every year, de- 
signed primarily for use as legal documents, diplomas, 
deeds, bonds, etc. Leather paper or "Tsube.ya" is a 
most peculiar looking substance. It resembles oilcloth, 
but has a texture more resembling that of fine leather, 
except that it is more or less translucent, something 
like oiled pigskin. In the Province of Ise, Japan, are 
noted manufacturers of tobacco pouches who use only 
this leather paper in their maufacture, and the variet.v 
of st.vles in which the.v make their papers is remark- 
able. Yamada, where the most noted maker Ikeba has 
his shop, is a favorite place for pilgrims, and for many 
generations Ikeba and others have sold their paper to- 
bacco pouches until it has become a fashion for every 
pilgrim to bring back from his pilgrimage to Yamada 
a paper pouch as a souvenir. Some of these leather 
papers are smooth and almost transparent ; others are 
rough and stamped with pretty patterns, a host of dif- 
ferent colors being used in their printing. They are 
in character a kind of wrinkled oiled cardboard, and 
the process of their manufacture is a tedious though 
comparativel.y simple one. A thick, weak cardboard 
called "Ouaga.shi". paper, which is mauvifactured of 
bark fibre of the two shrubs mentioned in one of the 
interior towns near Gifu, is imported into Yamada in 
large quantities. Before processing it is soft and tough, 
but will break like any thin cardboard. To transform 
it the sheets are moistened and then wrapped jiround 
a small round stick about the size of an ordinar.v liroom 
handle. Several sheets are wrapped at a time, sepai-at 
ed from each other by special dry papers which have 
been painted with persimmon .juice to tan them, and 
the roll of these papers is finally wrapped with a cloth 
and then tied. This roll, out of both ends of which the 
stick protrudes, is placed luider a long lever, one end 
of the stick being stuck through a hole in the lever ana 
the other lodged in a hole in the floor. The workman 
then sits on the long end of the lever and teeters until 
the roll of j)apers. which was originally about 18 inches 
long, is reduced to not nuin' than 12 inches 'n Irngth. 
He then removes the roll, lui winds it, spreads out the 
l)ai)ers, again ai'i'anges the dry sheets and i>repares an- 
other I'oll for the lever, inserting the same papers in 
another ])osition. Eight times he sub.jects the palmers 
lo this wi'inkling pi'ocess. and each time they bec(nne 
smaller, thicker, and nu)re pliable until, after the last 
wrinkling, the cardboard is as soft and limp as a bit of 
muslin. Once through the wrinkler, the paper is given 
a coating of oil made fi-om the seed of a labiate (]ier- 
illa oc.vmoides. a mint-like plant) and tluni hung out to 
di-.\'. For over a hundi-ed da.vs it is hung in [ho o))en 
air to allow the oil to harden, and even two hundred 
days are somelimes i'e(|uired in order to finish this i)art 
of the process. Aftei' being once dried out the piece 
of wrinkled oil jiaper can be ti'cated in almost any way 


1' r 1. 1- A x I) I' A I' K i; .M A (; a z i x k 


1. lOl: 

— slinvt'd oi- scrjipi.'d witli a sliarp kiiife, .stamped ur 
hi'ateii willi dies (II- patlci'iis, oi' given a coat of laquer 
vainisli a.s is ddiic \\lieii ccrtaiu kinds of xises are to be 
made of llie paper. If colored papers are required, tlie 
pigments are applied before the oiling process. Al- 
though these papers are largely used for tobacco and 
other iJouciies. there are other uses to which they may 
anil are nuide to serve, such as book covers, portfolios, 
table covers, etc.. and should they ever become avail- 
able to the common people of this or other countries 
there are many other new and important applications 
for them which could and would be found. A similar 
form of these leather papers is the Japanese handmade 
wall paj^er, which has a large and increasing export 
trade. There are large factories near Tokj-o which turn 
out the most beautiful designs for wall and ceiling 
decoration. These wall papers are wrinkled in the way 
described, though probal)ly not so finely, and then 
stamped and modelled by lumd into the most artistic 
and pleasing designs. The extent of the leather paper 
industry is not very great, though it is iucreasing annu- 
ally, but small as it is over 200,000 paper pouches are 
made annually by one firm alone in Yamada, and about 
•iilS.OOO worth of business is claimed to be done by this 
same firm in leather paper pouches annually. Any 
plant from which a set of papers can be produced wide- 
l.y different from those already used, is in America and 
Europe, worthy of eonsidciMlion for cultivation, and 
if the processes of maniifaeture can make from it bet- 
ter, stronger envelopes, finer and lighti'r wrapping 
paper, more suitable toilet papers, or a cheap ami use- 
ful .substitute for leather, the cultivation of the plant 
may prove decidedly profitable to those interested in 
the production of paper materials. Their oiled papers 
are another important element in the everyday life of 
the Jajianeses, and are astonishingly cheap and dur- 
able. It is tough and pliable, as impervious as a tar- 
paulin, and as light as gossamer. The '"rikisha" 
coolies in the large cities wear rain mantles of this oiled 
paper, which costs less than .18 cents and last for a 
year or more with constant use. An oiled tissue paper, 
which is as tough as writing paper, can be had at the 
stationer's for wrapping delicate articles. Every far- 
mer has a stock of wrapping paper which has been in 
use for several years and seems as strong and flexible 
as ever. It has been tanned with fermented .iuice of 
green i>ersimmons and made into '■shiimgami." which 
is more impervious to moistuie than ordinary pa])ei- 
and much tougher. These papers are all nuule from 
bast, the inner bark of the mitsumata and paper nnil- 
berry furni.shing the largest propoition of the ma- 
terial. The mitsumata plant is cultivated on Ww hill- 
sides, and when about three years old is cut down, the 
bark stripped, and made into pulp largely by hand, 
and later the sheets are converted into the leather 
papers, oiled papers, and other kinds of papers for the 
export trade, forming what are commonly known as 
Japanese pai)ers of commerce and trade. As the de- 
mands for the various Japanese papers are increasing 
yearly as their qualities are becoming more and more to 
be appreciated, the problem of furnishing an additicmal 
supply of the p\il]) is ot' course concerning the Jajjanese 
paper niauufacturi'r, deah'r. and exj)oi1er alike. 

Ottawa Notes. 

Special to i'lilp anil I'apci' .Magazine. 

Ottawa. February -JG. l:)l;5. 

Among the buildings burned in the disastrous fire 
which visited Elk Lake last week and caused the loss 
of four lives was an office building owned bv .Mr. J. R. 

Mr. J. R. Hooth has lost his ease against the Crown 
concerning the renewal of his license to cut timber and 
puljnvooil on India-n Reserve No. 10 in the District of 
Xipissing. The original license Avas obtained by ]\Ir. 
P>oi)th in 18S9 and was renewed from time to time till 
lllOit. when it was refused, the claim being made that 
the land was wanted for settlement |:)Ui-i)oses. The 
land has since been advertised foi- sale. Mr. Booth 
took the case to the Court of the Excheipier. but judg- 
ment was last week delivered against his contention. 
Tliere are 108 square nnles in the i-e,serve in ((uestion. 

The two feet of snow which fidl last week, followed 
by cold weather, ha \-e jiiit the pulpwood industrv on 
a much better basis. Thei'e is plenty of snow now in 
the woods to allow of the making of roads and to 
furnish a head of water in the spring. Tin; I'ulp "-ood 
cut this year, however, will in all probabilit.v, accord- 
ing to lumbermen, be some 25 per cent. S'nalh'r than 
last year iniless winter is much extended. The cut of 
other timber is estimated at aliout 30 per cent, less for 
ISd:]. but on account of the splendid demand for pul)) 
wood efforts will be made to cut as much as possible. 

Mr. M. J. O'Brien, the Renfrew millionaire who 
proposes to build a pulp mill at Haileybury. Ont.. is 
now having plans prepared for the structure, which 
will be of reinfoi-ced concrete construction and will 
have foundations of concrete. — '"^[ac."" 

Quebec Forestry School. 

The Quebec Foi'estr.v School is to have a new home. 
I'll to the present time it has been housed in Laval, 
but the number attending the school has grown to such 
proportions that the Government has decided to build 
a school for themselves at a cost of some $50,000. The 
school has only been established for a very few years, 
but the demand for its graduates from pulp, paper and 
lumber companies and from the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
wa.v Company is so great, that the graduates have no 
difficulty in securing employment. Mr. Menier. the 
Chocolate King, has applied for a number of students 
to go to the Island of Anticosti next summer. 

Construction will couiiiience at once on the new mill 
of the Finch. Bruyii tV; Co. ]il,iii; at Deloi hiniere Sta- 
tion on the l.C.R. on Henri River. (^)ueliec. Machinery 
is now being ]iuichn-ed li\' the head office at (Men's 
Falls. X.Y. 

Frank il. Williams, a well-known consulting chemist 
of this city, who in the past has done mucii chemical 
work for \)u\]) aiul paper companies all over the coun- 
try. delivei-e<l :!n address befoi'e the Society of Chemi- 
cal Industries of Queen's University. Kingston. Ont.. 
Friday. Feb. 2S. in connection with the Engineering 
Society of the same university. Many large pidj) and 
paper companies of Canada hold membership in the 
two societies and were present at the nu'eting ad- 
dressed by Mr. Williams. The subject was "The Manu- 
facture of Sulphite Pul])." 'Sir. Williams presented his 
siilijeet i'l-oiii a pi-actieal as well as a scientific point of 
\i .w and ;oid of iiian.\- methods whereby the manufae- 
liirei's of sulphite fiulp can iiiereasc the effieienc.v of 
fliiMr plants. 

Miirch 1, IlIKi 

P 1" I- I' A \ l> I' A I' K i; M A (; AZ I X K 



8invi;illy Ti 

sl:it,'.| fiM- I'lih 

r:i]icr Magazine. 

AllliiMi^li cjisciii ill ihc fiinii ol' chccsi' li;is liceii Used 
as a t'lioil froiii time iiiiiin'riini-iMl its ii: iii/atiou fur in- 
dustrial pui'poscs is a (|ui1c rcci'ut di'vidopment. A 
short account of this new industry may. therefore. 
prove interesting, as little has i)een written upon the 
subject, and casein products of the gi'catest industrial 
\-alue have within the last few years lieen placed ujion 
the market. 

The firm In manufacture technical casein in 
Kurope, and wlio [lerforined most of the pioneering 
work in connection with this new industry, was a limit- 
ed liability company known as "Casein Limited "' 
founded by Mr. E. P. Carpenter. Owing to their pat- 
ents, the large scale on which they work, and the highly 
skilled chemical control of the processes, this firm still 
leads the British market, and also exports large (lU.iii- 
tities of casein alji' 'I'lie firm ('(insnTnes aoour ::!0.00') 
gallons of skim milk (lail\- in the sutnii-er n:onflis. le- 
j)reseiiting about four tons of casein dat!> . Their fac- 
tories are situated at Tipperary. in Ireland 

The export of casein from the United Kingdom was 
£21.000 in 1910, and the import — principally from 
South America — was £50.000. The United States im- 
ported in 1910 abowt 1.700 tons of total value ;|<304.000. 
in every case the main market is the home market. 

The starting point of the imlustry is skim milk — 
fiu'inerly used for feeding i)igs — which is milk from 
which the cream and fat has been machir,e-separated 
and used for butter-making. An ayerage skim milk 
c(mtains 8 per cent, casein, 0.4 per cent, milk albumin. 
0.15 per cent. fat. 4.7 per cent, milk sugar, and 0.7 per 
cent, mineral matter. The casein is precipitated by 
various acids such as sulphuric, hydi'ochhn-ic. acetic, 
lactic, and suliihurous (casein for different purposes 
is precipitated with different acids), washed, freed from 
traces of fat. and dried. The mother liquors and wash 
waters are worked for the milk sugar and milk albu- 
min by partial neutralization, followed by low tempera- 
ture concentration in vacuo and crystallization. The 
albumin may be separated by steaming, when it coagu- 
lates and separates on the surface of the sugar syrup. 
It is pressed to cakes and sold as a constituent of cattle 
foods. It is now more usually separated in a .soluble 
form by a complicated and costly process and sold as a 
component for invalid foods, luider the names "Lactal- 
bumin." •\AIilk Albumin." etc. The refined milk sugar 
fetches a very good price, being used for children's 
foods, and for adding to various beers and stouts. The 
sugar, not being fernu'ntable by ordinary yeast, nuiy 
l)e added to the wort and remains in the finished st(uil 
to increase its "extract value." 

Ca.sein is largely used for sizing paper. It is dis- 
solved in alkaline solutions, and mixed into the paper 
I'Ulp, when it forms an excellent binding agent for fill- 
ing matter and pigments. The process is especially 
useful when the |)aper jiulp has to be moulded or pres.s- 
ed into relief forms, as the ca.sein size is very resistant to 
heat or moisture. When employed in certain special .sur- 
facing processes it iiroduces extremely beautiful art pn])- 
I'rs. Some of the very best pi olographic pai)ers arc 
casein sized, the papers being extremely resistant to 
heat and moi.sture, and thus will keej) in the tropics. 
.More usually the casein solution merely sujiplements 
oiillnai'y engine sizing. The leather and ti'xtile indus- 
iries also' employ casein fnr ■•" and •Minish- 
iiig" purposes. 

Next in imjjoi'tance to its use as a "sizing agent" 
comes its use as a cold glue. Excellent glues are made 
merely by sitirring up casein with distilled water and a 
little sodium bicarbonate, sometimes with the addition 
of shellac. In the woodworking trade casein glues 
threaten to displace ordinary gelatin glues because 
casein glues can be applied cold (so that all the trouble 
of melting the glue is avoided), can be made water- 
proof, and by their use certain delicate effects are at- 
tainable in veneering work which are impossible with 
gelatin glue, since the latter must be applied hot. and 
is not waterproof. Several American firms are now 
producing these glues in large quantities. 

A great impetus to the casein industry has been given 
within the last few years by the remarkable discovery 
that when treated v>-ith certain chemicals casein is con- 
verted inito extremely tough, hard substances like bone 
or ivory, which can be kneaded and moulded when hot, 
and when cold can be polished and worked. The best 
known of these products is galalith. which is made by 
treating casein with formaldehyde. It forms a tough 
white product, which can be colored or marbled when 
hot by stirring in dyes, soot, etc. It is now used for 
making piano keys, backs of brushes, imitation ivory 
articles, and especially as an insulating medium for 
electrical fittings. 

Being non-inflammable, it is used as a total or partial 
substitute for celluloid, but has the disadvantage that 
it cannot be produced in very thin transparent sheets. 

Similar substances are produced by adding to a caus- 
tic soda .solution of casein various chemicals, such as 
sulphur, water glass, lime. sand, zinc and lead hydrox- 
ides, wood meal, cork dust, and so on. Such composi- 
tions are used for producing mouldings for picture 
frames, friezes, fancy articles, and toys. It will be re- 
membered that plumbers have for years used a cement 
of red or white lead and cheese. 

Attempts have even been made to produce artificial 
silk fibres from casein, either alone or mixed with other 
products, and much secret research is going on with 
this object. . . 

Another develoi)ment of the casein industry is its 
use in the manufacture of paints. It has long been 
known that the addition of casein to limewashes in- 
creases their durability, owing to the casein combining 
with the lime to form agglutinant compounds, which 
harden in the air to an insoluble cement. Many of the 
"Washable Distempers" now on the market have case- 
in glue as a base. In the United States an extensive 
sale of "Casein Paints" takes place—these paints con- 
sisting of casein powder mixed with lime and coloring 
matters, and are sold in closed tins. They are very 
cheap and stable, but the lids of the tins must be kept 
on. otherwise the paint spoils. These paints have now 
a considerable sale in this country. 

Casein is now being used for fining wines, since it has 
the advantage over gehitiiie that it is completely pre- 
cipitated by the natural acidity of the wines, nothing 
■emaining as a contaminating agent. 

A considerable exjiorl trade to wine-growing coun- 
tries is now d(uie. 

It is also used as a consliliieiit of boot polishes, lea- 
ther polishes, etc. 

hast, but not least, a few words must be said on case- 
in foods. Although a much smaller amount is con- 
sumed in their manufacture than in some of the tech- 



:\Iai(-li 1. 1913 

nical applicatiims. .-ibovt' dcsci-ibed. yet the trade is an 
important and growing one. 

The great medicinal value of casein arises from its 
high phosi>liorns and nitrogen content (P= 0.8 X= 
15.7), so that when mixed witli niillc albumin, lecithin 
(a compound of choline, CILOH . CLLN(CH,.)„ OH, 
glycerol, phosphoric and various fatty acids, which is 
made technically from yolk of eggs, and absorbed in 
wheat protein, alkaline salts of glycerol, phosphoric 
acids, C3H3 (0H)„() . PO(OH)„ as well as iron organic 
salts, a variety of nitrogenous phosphoriis-rich and 
mineral rich lirain and nerve foods are produced, which 
act in a most remarkable way in certain nervous dis- 
orders. Very man\' of these foods are now on the mar- 
ket, the most recent, and perhaps the most successful, 
being "Visem." (,)ther well-known brain foods of this 
nature are Sauatogen and Plasmon. 

Technical casein furnishes a striking example of an 
industry generated by the research chemist from a 
practically valueless liy-produet — skim milk — a large 
proportion of which Foniid its way into the "sewers." 

pi'esent not only waste, Init a menace to fai'mers and 
others, liut which might be made profitable l\v means 
of man am gi'ass. — Paper ^Making. 


Marram grass giows wild in many j)arts of Euro]if 
and North Africa, and it has also been introduced into 
Australia, North America, and other countries. It has 
a special value as a sand binder, owing to the tough, 
wide-spreadiug, penetrating character of its creeping 
stems and its rigid weatherproof leaves, which grow 
in tufts from a foot to 'S feet in height. It is practically 
inde.sitructible; burning, cutting, or eating it off make.s 
it grow with greater vigor, and the stems will not 
perish if buried j'ards deep in salt sand. In some pai'ts 
of England the sand-hills or dunes which serve as a 
natural sea wall are only kept together by this 
Cattle and horses eat and thrive on it. The leaves be- 
come tough and full of fibre with age. and it was sug- 
gested they might be turned to useful account by the 
paper-maker. According to a note in the Kew Bulle- 
tin, a sample of the leaves from the sand-hills of Nor- 
folk have lately been tested by Messrs. Clayton. Beadle 
& Stevens, paper manufacturers, who found they pos- 
sessed quite useful qualities as a source of material for 
paper making. The grass was boiled under pressure 
without passing through crushing 2rollers, and then 
bleached. The figures for the yield of unbleached and 
bleached fibres, expressed on the original green weight 
of stem as received and on the dry weight, were as 
follows : 

Green stem. Dry stem. 

Unbleached. . . . 17.7 per cent. 31.-1 per cent. 
Bleached 13.1 per cent. 25.0 per cent. 

The average length of unbeateu fibres contained in 
the pulp, taken on an average of ten measurements, 
was found to be 0.65 mm. 

Marram grass is found to produce a soft pulp with 
a short tear, which more nearly resembles in general 
feel and external appearance the pulp produced from 
E.sparto or chemical aspen wood pulp. 

From this it would appear possible that this grass. 
which grows so freely in sand, where scarcely any other 
plant can exist, might be made to serve the purpose of a 
sand-binder, and at the same time yield a crop of leaves 
that could be used by the paper manufacturer. The 
grass requires no cultivation, and it is easily multiplied 
by transplanting the tufts or from seeds which are pro- 
duced in great abundance. There are nuiny thousands 
of acres of barren sand on our coasts which are at 

Canadian News in Chicago. 

S])ecial to Pulp and Papi'r ^lagaziiie. 

Ottawa, February 24, 1913. 
Local mills are the latest to take part in the invasion 
of the ('liicago news print market. It is understood 
that the lii-m of J. R. Booth have signed up contracts 
in the Windy City for the yeai- which involve large 
deliveries, thus following the lead set by the Spanish 
River Com]>any and I'l'ice Bros, some time ago. who 
forced fheii' way into the Chicago markets. It is be- 
lieved here that it is almost hojjeless for the Wiseon.sin 
mills to attempt to keep the Canadian companies out 
of the market, for if it comes to a fight the Canadian 
companies, with their almost unlimited pulp wood sup- 
l)lies and extremely cheap water power, can compete 
to advantage all the time. That the Americans them- 
selves recognize this was shown by the representations 
made by United States manufacturers at the time the 
Reciprocity Act was being framed, when it was ex- 
plained to the Government authorities that the Cana- 
dian mills possessed great natural advantages over 
the American; that labor and mechanical conditions 
and transportation facilities were at least equal in both 
countries and that the resources of wood and water 
power threw the balance immeasurably in favor of the 
Dominion. Therefore, the American manufacturers 
asked for such protection as would place them on an 
equal competitive footing. The only factor which mili- 
tates against Ottawa export is the freight rate on paper 
which, for the distance, is undulv high. — "'^lae." 

Interswitching Order. 
Special to Pulp ;ind Paper Magazine. 

Ottawa, February 25, 1913. 
Of great interest to shippers of pulp and paper was 
an application heard by the Railway Commission last 
week concerning a new draft interswitching order pro- 
posed. The proposed order provided that when a 
shipper sending a cai- over the line of one railway 
wished delivery at the tei-minals of another the latter 
road, known as the short haul carrier, should perform 
such service for a chai-ge which, unless mutually agreed 
on by the carriers, should lie for private sidings one 
cent per 100 pounds, with a minimum charge of $3 per 
carload ; and for public team tracks, one and a half 
cent per 100 pounds, with a minimum charge of $5 per 
carload. The former interswitching order did not 
.specify team track delivery, and the railways have on 
occasion, when their tei'minals were congested, placed 
embargoes on shipments from other roads, claiming 
that team tracks were not specified in the existuig 
regulation. At the hearing, however, Mr, J. E. Walsh, 
for the Canadian ^Manufacturers' As.-oeiation. claimed 
that the shipper.- had been practically given this ser- 
vice since 1908. and that the old order was framed 
with a view I0 providing joint rates. After con.sider- 
able argument the ease was adjourned indefinitely. 
Mr. Frank Hawkins, secretary of the Canadian Lum- 
bei-men's Association, represented lumber and pu\]i in- 
terasts, — "Mae." 

It is reported from Quebec that the Wayagamaek 
Pulp and Papvr Co. has sold its timber cut ^'or the pres- 
ent season at a ]>rice wliieh will net over >f;90.000. 


in 3 

P I'M' A N D P A P E R M A O A Z I N E 



i|' ami Paper -\r;igazir 

New York, February 20. 19l:J. 

The thirty-sixth annual eonventiou of tlie American 
Paper and Pulp Association was lipid to-day in this 
city at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel. 34th Street and 
Fifth Avenue. The morning session wa.s taken up with 
the reading of reports of the various divisions of the 
Mssoeiations and the election of ofificei-s I'oi- the ensuing 
year, while the aflei'uoon was devoted jiartially in a 
moving picture exhibition under the auspices of the 
National Association of Mainifacturers. showing the 
prevention of accidents in niauufactui-iug plants; and 
the reporting of the eomnuttee appointed by President 
Hastings during the morning on I'esolutions. 

Judge Charles F. ^looie, editor of Paper Inc. and 
legal advisor of the West Virginia Pulp and Paper 
Company, was appointed Secretary-Treasurer of the 
Association. His appointment caused considerable stii- 
in the trade. 

Arthur C. Hastings was again elected President, but 
it is intimated that -ludge Moore is being trained for 
that position. 

The convention was brought to a close by a Inuuiuet 
in the evening in the commodious hall in tlie hotel, at 
which seven hundred anil twenty-four memlK'rs of the 
Association and their guist»( were present. Among the 
speakers were: Charles F. ]\Ioore, toastmaster; Hon. 
Levi Bancroft, ex-Attoi-ney-Geueral of Wisconsin : Hon. 
John A. Dis. ex-Governor of New York ; Hon. Henry 
A. Wise, the Rev. Nehemiah Boynton. D.D.. and Hon. 
Edwin A. Merrit. 

The following vice |)resideiits of the Association 
were elected to conduct the different divisions during 
the ensuing year : 
News — C. A. Babeock. Wisconsin River Pajier & Pulp 

Co.. Stevens Point. Wis. 
Book — A. G. Pavne. Jr.. New York & Pennsvlvania Co.. 

New York. "N.Y. 
Wrapping — F. L. Moore, Newton F.dls Paper Co.. New- 
ton Falls. N.Y. 
Chemical Pulp — Thomas Hunter. Battle Island Paper 

Co., Fulton, N.Y. 
Writing— C. A. Crocker. Ci-oeker P.urbank t*t Co.. Inc.. 

Fitchburg, Mass. 
Tis.sue — E. C. Robertson. Robertson Brotheis. Hins- 
dale, Vt. 
Coated Board— B. C. Hill. Niagara Coated Paper Co.. 

Niagara Falls. N.Y. 
Moard— C. R. White. Congi'ess Hotel. Chicago. 111. 
<'oated Paper — Mai-tin Cantine. Saugerties. N.Y. 

In welconuug the mend)ei-s to the general meeting of 
the convention. President Hastings made the following 

"At this, the thirty-sixth annual meeting of the 
American Pape)' and Pulj) Association, of which I have 
been honoi'ed in holding the position of President con- 
tinuously for over foui- .years, this being my seventh 
annual rejjort, by reason of previously holding the 
office when the Association was more of a social organ- 
ization than at present, therefore it makes it rather 
dit'lieult to include anything in my report to-day that 
may be said to be absolutely biand new. 

"You will be glad to know that the m.'mbiMsliip of 
the Association was nevei' larger than at present; that 
while in.l!)08 we had a mrmbeishi|) of cme hundred, we 
have been growing until at the last annual meeting we 
Imported 260 maniifaci nrers as active members, and to- 

day we have increased our membei-ship to 275. located 
in twenty-four States, and that while last year we were 
having reports sent us from 356 individual plants in 
the country, to-day we have 375 reporting, so it can 
safely be stated that we have reporting to us over 80 
per cent, of the total ;iinount of paper' manufactured in 
the United States. 

It is unfortunate that many of the snrallei' concerns 
do not appreciate the work we are doing to the extent 
of reporting, or assisting financially in the support of 
an institution that is for their benefit, perhaps more so 
even than for the larger concerns. It is a selfish posi- 
tion that they occui)y. and any in.iury that is being 
done them may be said, in a general way. to be partly 
their own fault. A united indu.stry. represeutiirg 100 
per cent, of a trade, must receive more attention at the 
hands of legislators, i-ailroads. labor organizations, etc., 
than a divided industry, therefore every manufacturer 
should use his best endeavor to secure other members, 
and this can easily be done by personal solicitation. 
Report of the News Division. 

The report of the News Division was pr'esented b.v 
Herbert J. Bi'own. Vice-President: 

"To the manufacturers of news paper the most grati- 
fying feature of the .vear 1912. is that during the entire 
.vear, water power conditions throughout the X^uited 
States were unusuall.v good. As a result, the importa- 
tions of ground wood pulp for the year were 82.000 
tons less than in 1911. 

"The news mills reporting to the Associatiorr have 
l)roduced during 1912 about 1,270.000 tons, or 95 per 
cent, of their normal capacity. This is about 65.000 
tons more thair in 1911 ; shipments dur-ing the year 
were about 1,257,000 tons, leaving stock on hand on 
December 31st of approximately 40.000 tons as com- 
pared with 27.640 tons on December 31. 1911. 

"If this were all. the rrews manufacturers might feel 
very well satisfied, but unfortunately, there are other 
conditions whicii may well nrake him apprehensive of 
the future. The year 1912 gave a foretaste of what 
may be expected under the operation of the so-called 
Reciprocity Act. The importations for the year were 
88.000 tons against 5!).000 tons for 1911, ari incr-ease 
of about 50 jjer cent. Of this large importation. 74 per 
cent, came in free of duty. By the end of the year 
1913. the capaeit.v of Canadian mills will be further in- 
creased by some 150.000 tons, most of which will doubt- 
less seek an (uulet in this country. Our own increase 
for 1912 will bi' about 30.000 tons, making ;i new prod- 
uct of about 180.000 Ions, against an estimated increase 
in consiimption of 100.000 tons. 

"When we considei- the pi'obable effect on pi'ice of 
this great inci-ease of |>i-(iduction. and realize that our 
own Government will doubtless continue to encotu'age 
Canadian mills at the e.Npense of the American, it is 
snrall woiuler that matiy nnik-ers of news are easting 
about for- other iini's that will |)roniise belter for the 
future, or are considering the ad\isability of dis- 
mantling tlieil' mills and selling tlii'ii- powci- in the form 
of eleetricit.v. '■ 

Report of the Wrapping Paper Division. 

\'ici'-Presi(lc'il Slokes. of the Wrapping Division, 
as follows : 

The manufactui-ers of wrapping p;ipci' duiang 1912 
en.ioyed a good \-olun:e of business. The demand, while 


P |- I. I> A \ I) I' A 

.M A C A Z I X 

Marcli 1. Hn: 

not ('(|iimI Id 111.' |>r(>(liicti()ii iliii-iii^' llir carlv iiioiillis ol' 
the yi'.-ir, iiii|)Mi\cil willi tlic iiicriMsr in dllici' lir.inclics 
of hiisincss. wliirh lici.'::in in tlir r:[v\y siniinirr .'iiiil coii- 
tiinicd till I he ■■ml uf the y.'ar. 

Aceorciiiii;' to llic statistics of the Associalioii. 71 
companies I'cporting to it itroduccd in 1!)1L' '>.s2iK'2-')2 
tons or 89 pt*i- '.-ent. of normal output. Shipinciits wci'e 
100 per eent. of tlie output, which may lir coiisiilci'cii 
a satisfactory and healthy condition. 

These tigures compare with previous yeai's in jx-r- 
centages as follows: 

1909 production. . .81 per ct. Sliipnnnls. . . 1(1(1 |)cr crnt. 

1910 i)roduction. . .84 per et. Shipments. . . 99 |)cr i-ent. 

1911 pi'oductiou. . .8:5 per ct. Shipments. . . 99 pei- cent. 
Prices during- the year have l)een fairly well main- 

taini^d. Starting at a lower level at the beginning of 
the year they became firmer as the demand increased, 
hut are not yet at a point where they ])i-oduee a fail' 
margin of pi^olit. except perhaps in th;' case of some 
mills, which through the advantage of an rspi-cially 
favorable location have a lower cost of i^aw inali^i^ials 
or conversion. 

Report of the Coated Paper Division. 

]\Iai'tin Cantine. Vice-President of this division, made 
the following report: 

"This is not a swan song, but a few cold facts as 
they have come to my observation, and lia\-c made me 
sit up and take notice. 

"The coating industry in this country is not an old 
one. but for many years was done by a portion of man- 
ufacturers in an easygoing way, with not so much 
thought as to what modern improvements and necessi- 
tates might call forth. A few years back you could 
count the coating mills on one hand and it was not a 
hard task to get adequate returns upon the invcstnumt. 
To-day there are 52 coating plants. 

"The coating division during the past year has had 
a hard struggle to keep their mills going, and very few. 
if any, have been able to work up to their capacity. 

"New mills and additions to the present ones are in- 
creasing the production nearly 20 per cent, per annum. 
The rate of increase cannot continue \indei- existing 
conditions without serious results. 

"The price of nearly all raw materials ai-e advanc- 
ing. The set process of printing has e;iused many 
printers and lithographers to install this type of press 
and substitute plain for coated papei's. This manner 
of pi^inling is still in its infanc.w but rather a healthy 

"The tariff now stares us in the faci'. and slmuld 
reductions on coated papers be made we will li,-ive 
added burdens to carry. 

"At the present time profits in the coating line are 
small, on a large volume of business, and in many cases 
long credits are given. When figuring the percentages 
of gain, as against the total sale, one can plainly see 
this class of goods is sold on a very low margin of 

"It would be well foi' those thinking of entering this 
field of manufacture to do so with their eyes o])en. 
The coming year does not look encouraging, but still 
we hope to be able to greet you at our next annual con- 
vention, even if we are in depleted circumstances. 

Report of the Chemical Pulp Division. 

The report of the Chemical Pulj) Division was pre- 
sented by Vic'.'-President Thomas Hunter as follows: 

"The Chemical Pulp Division is pleased to report 
that the future of this industry looks more jiromising 
than it has in the past ten yeai's. There seems to be 
plenty of I'ulj) to go around, but we ai-e all getting 

better prices on I he a\ei^age than for any length of 
time since 1 lia\c been in the business. The paper mills 
have enlarged and put in new machines or new mills 
have been built about fast enough to fake care of the 
increased foreign importations. As far as I know there 
has been no new sulphite mills built in this country in 
several years. We heai- of enlarged jjlants and new 
ones contemplated in Canada, i)ut we feel very sure 
that no one will build in this country for the prices of 
suli)hite have not yet reached the point where a person 
could not l)uy a sulphite mill cheaper than he could 
liuild one. The question of wood is a very serious one 
foi^ those who have to look tt) the open market for their 
supi)ly. Where it takes from 15.000 to 25.000 cords of 
wood to supply your mill it is almost impossible to buy 
this (piantity of spi^nee at a price that you can make it 
into mibleaehed pulp and make any j)i-otit. 

Report of the Official Chemist. 

Ai'thur D. Little, the official chemist, presented his 
report, as follows : 

The most notable event of the year from the stand- 
point of this re;)ort was the Eighth Intei'national Con- 
gress of Applied Chemistry, which was held during 
September in Washington and New York. Over thirty 
countries were officially represented, and the total mem- 
bei-.ship was about 4,5C)0. The sessions of the congress 
brought togethei' the most eminent workers in applied 
chemistry from all parts of the world, and the papers 
presented required twent.y-six volumes for their publi- 
cation. One volume was devoted to the papers read 
before the section of starch, cellulose and paper, of 
which your chemist had the honor to be president. It 
is greatly to be j'egretfed that tile number of American 
paper-makers who were enrolled as members of the 
congress, or who attended the sessions of this section, 
was very small. Reference will be made later to the 
more important papers of especial interest to members 
of the Association. 

The establishment of an experimental jiajier mill liy 
Arthur D. Little. Ineorporatetl. has. we believe, proved 
to l)e a factor of considerable importance in the de- 
velopment of the industry The mill, which is located 
in the Fenway district in Boston, is erpiipped with a 
MO-inch machine with both cylinder and Fourdriuier 
ends, and may also, with slight modifications, be oper- 
ated as a board machine. The supplementary equip- 
ment includes a rotary digester carrying about 200 
pounds of stock: bleach chests and drainers; two 50 
pound beaters and a small Jordan engine. Experience 
lias proved that the resxUts obtained in this mill are 
directly comparable to those secured in practice. 

Certain new sources of paper stock deserve much 
more careful consideration l)y your members than they 
have yet received. Further researches by Raitt into 
the paper-making (jualities of bamboo ampl.v confirm 
the general opinion of tilire experts to the effect that 
l)aiiiboo is especially well adapted to the requirements 
of the industry, and slnudd become an important source 
of paper stock. Raitt concludes that the sidphate pro- 
cess is best adapted to the reduction of bamboo, and 
that 80 per cent, of the Indian bamboo stand is made 
up of species which are available for paper-making. 
The earlier difficulties of treatment are overcome by 
thorough crushing of the whole culm, including nodes, 
when a ver.v even, satisfactory ]iulp is obtained with 
yields of 46 |)er cent, unlileached and 44 iter cent, 
bleached pulp. Raitt estimates that a mill producing 
10.000 tons of bamboo pulp per year would require for 
a continuous .,ui)pl\' of raw material a bamboo area of 
10 to 22 sqUrire miles. 

M.iicii 1. i:ii;5 

A \ 1 ) 

Al'Ki; .MAdAZlXE 


Alti'iilioii is af^aiii called hy Ri'iiiingtoii and ollirrs 
111 the ali'('a<ly dcnioiistratcd iiiei'its ol' Adaiisoiiia liliii' 
as a stoek I'oi- I he inaiiiiracUire of cspcL-ially sti'diitr 
papers. It yields l)y tlic soda process 47..") ]wv ecu;, of 
uuhleai'hed pulp, and 42 jut cent, bleaehrd. 'I'ln' ulli- 
iiiate tihi'es rcsendilc lliosc of Jlaiida hemp. 

Von Possaunei'. after studying fibres fi'oni the <>ci- 
iiian colonies. :-ei)()rts that Ponzolzia hypoleuca \i''!ds 
.IS per cent, of unhleached til)re. which is lon^v and 
supjiie and respnd)les in some respects l)otli linen anti 
cotton. It is easily hieaclieti and the yield of hleachetl 
Hhre is .■)(! to "■)! pel- c.nt. 

The i-esults olitained liy Headle .it Stevens in the tieat- 
iiient of lledychiuHi ( 'oronai'iuni indicate that thi.s troji- 
ical plant has vei-y promising pos.sibilities for paper- 
making. The iil)re is stated to l)e ecpial in strength to 
the l)est pure nianila. The raw tiln-e. when meehani- 
eally freed from pith cells, yields 50 per cn-nt. of un- 
i)h'ached pulj). When the pith cells are retained in the 
puJp, a parehment-like sheet is formed, although the 
pulp is exceedingly free working. 

The utilization of the pith and tibi'e of waste sugar 
cane, after extraction of tlie sugar, is being develojied 
along altogether new lines by the United Fruit Com- 
I any, and the results thus far obtained point to ulli- 
iiiate developments of the tii'st important to the paper 
and hoard industries. 

The new Winestalk process for the removal of ink 
fioni waste pai)ers and recover.v of the tihi'e in a con- 
dition, as regards strength and color at least equal to 
that of the original stock, has shown itself to be re- 
markabl.y efficient and gives promise of becoming an 
important factor in the con.servation of paper stock. 
In the direction of conservation also a considerable 
interest attach'\s itself to the apparatus recently in- 
stalled b.v the Treasury Department for laundering 
soiled paper money. 

Notable examples of the utilization of waste material 
are to be found in the new mill of the West Virginia 
I'ulp and Paper Compan.v. at Covington. Va.. for the 
manufacture of boaid of exeelL'iit ([uality, from rossing 
waste, and the mill of the Southern Wood Distilla